Archibald Alexander Hodge

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A A Hodge
File:Archibald Alexander Hodge.jpg
Born (1823-07-18)July 18, 1823
Died November 12, 1886(1886-11-12) (aged 63)
Occupation Pastor
Theological work
Tradition or movement Reformed
Main interests Systematic Theology, Metaphysics

Archibald Alexander Hodge (July 18, 1823 – November 12, 1886), an American Presbyterian leader, was the principal of Princeton Seminary between 1878 and 1886. He was the son of Charles Hodge, named after the first principal of Princeton Seminary, Archibald Alexander.

Education and career

Hodge attended the College of New Jersey (later Princeton University) and Princeton Theological Seminary. He served as a missionary in India for three years (1847–1850). He held pastorates at Lower West Nottingham, Maryland (1851–1855), Fredericksburg, Virginia (1855–1861), and Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania (1861–1864). In 1864 he accepted a call to the chair of systematic theology in Western Theological Seminary (later Pittsburgh Theological Seminary) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. There he remained until in 1877 he was called to Princeton to be the associate of his father, Charles Hodge, in the distinguished chair of systematic theology. He took on the full responsibilities of the chair of systematic theology in 1878.[1] This post he retained till his death in 1886, at which time he was succeeded by B. B. Warfield.


At the time of his death, he was a trustee of the College of New Jersey and a leader in the Presbyterian Church. His interests extended beyond religion. He touched the religious world at many points. During the years immediately preceding his death he did not slacken his work, but continued his work of writing, preaching, lecturing, making addresses, coming into contact with men, influencing them, and by doing so widening the influence of Christianity. Among the most influential was an article titled Inspiration that began a series in the Presbyterian Review which established the discipline of biblical theology as a historical science. This article was coauthored with B. B. Warfield in 1880.[2]


Hodge's distinguishing characteristic as a theologian was his power as a thinker. He had a mind of singular acuteness, and though never a professed student of metaphysics, he was essentially and by nature a metaphysician. His theology was that of the Reformed confessions. He had no peculiar views and no peculiar method of organizing theological dogmas; in this he may be identified with his father, who claimed at the end of his life that he had taught and written nothing new. Though he taught the same theology that his father had taught before him, he was independent as well as reverent. His first book and that by which he is best known was his Outlines of Theology (New York, 1860; enlarged ed., 1878; reprinted 1996, ISBN 0-85151-160-0), which was translated into Welsh, modern Greek, and Hindustani. The Atonement (Philadelphia, 1867; reprinted 1989, ISBN 0-685-26838-1) is still one of the best treatises on the subject. This was followed by his commentary on the Westminster Confession of Faith (1869, ISBN 0-8370-0932-4), a very useful book, full of clear thinking and compact statement. He contributed some important articles to encyclopedias – Johnson's, McClintock and Strong's, and the Schaff-Herzog (the Schaff-Herzog encyclopedia furnished the kernel from which this article developed). He was one of the founders of the Presbyterian Review, to the pages of which he was a frequent contributor.


In the pulpit, Hodge was a man of marked power. As he was not under the necessity of making fresh preparation every week, he had but few sermons, and he preached them frequently. They were never written; nor were they deliberately planned as great efforts. They grew from small beginnings and, as he went through the process of thinking them over as often as he preached them, they gradually became more elaborate and became possessed of greater literary charm.

Works of A. A. Hodge


  • Hodge, Archibald Alexander (1878). "The Ordo Salutis". The Princeton review. 1: 304–321. Retrieved 2013-03-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Hodge, Archibald Alexander (March 1886). "Open Letters: Christian Union". The Century; a popular quarterly. 31 (5): 798–801. Retrieved 2013-03-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Hodge, Archibald Alexander (December 1883). "Morality and Religion". The North American Review. 137 (325). Retrieved 2013-03-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>


  1. Terry, Milton (April 1912). "Biblical Scholars of the United States in 1882". The Biblical World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 39 (4): 225–234 [230]. doi:10.1086/474575. JSTOR 3141861.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Smith, Henry (April 1912). "Thirty Years of Biblical Study". The Biblical World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 39 (4): 235–242 [240]. doi:10.1086/474576. JSTOR 3141862.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
Academic offices
Preceded by
Charles Hodge
Principal of Princeton Theological Seminary
Succeeded by
Benjamin Breckinridge Warfield