From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
DF-31 (CSS-9)
Dongfeng-31A after a military parade in 2015
Type Intercontinental ballistic missile
Place of origin People's Republic of China
Service history
In service 2006 (DF-31), 2007 (DF-31A), in development (DF-31B)
Used by Second Artillery Corps
Production history
Manufacturer Academy of Rocket Motors Technology (ARMT)
Weight 42 t (41 long tons; 46 short tons)
Length 13 m (42 ft 8 in)
Diameter 2.25 m (7 ft 5 in)
Warhead 1 Thermonuclear weapon@ 1 Mt with decoys (DF-31 & DF-31A)
3-5 Nuclear @ 20, 90, or 150 kt each with MIRV (DF-31B) [1]

Engine Solid-fuel rocket
7,200–8,000 km (4,500–5,000 mi) (DF-31)[2][3]
11,200 km (7,000 mi) (DF-31A)[3]
Astro-inertial guidance with BeiDou Navigation Satellite System
Silo, 8 axle TEL
File:PLA ballistic missiles range.jpg
Range of various Chinese missiles (2007); DF-31 range in green.

The Dong Feng 31 (Chinese: 东风31; literally: "East Wind 31"; NATO reporting name CSS-9) is a long-range, road-mobile, three stage, Solid-fuel rocket intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) in the Dongfeng missile series developed by the People's Republic of China. It is designed to carry a single 1-megaton thermonuclear weapon. It is a land-based variant of the submarine-launched JL-2. It is operated by the Second Artillery Corps (SAC) which, in 2009, was estimated to have under 15 DF-31 missiles and under 15 DF-31A missiles in inventory.[4] It is not known how many missiles of this type the SAC currently has.

The DF-31A is believed[who?] to have incorporated many advanced technologies similar to current generation Russian ICBMs, including the use of penetration aids such as decoys or chaff and maneuverable reentry vehicles to complicate enemy's missile warning and defense system[citation needed].


The PRC began developing the DF-31 as a second-generation ICBM successor of the DF-4 in January 1985.[5] ARMT (then called the 4th Aerospace Academy) was appointed as the main contractor while the research arm of the Second Artillery Corps provided contributing support. The land-based variant of the JL-2 was originally called the DF-23 but was changed later on to the DF-31 because of a change in operational requirements. In 1999, the missile was first displayed publicly at the National Day Parade.[6] On August 2, 1999, the Chinese state news media reported the successful test of the DF-31.[5] The third test flight of the missile occurred on November 4, 2000; the second test flight had taken place earlier that year.[7] Operational deployment of the missiles reportedly began in 2006.[8] In 2009, US Air Force Intelligence reported that under 15 DF-31 missiles had been deployed.[4]


The DF-31 is a three stage solid-fuel rocket equipped with an inertial navigation system. The missile is mounted on a transporter erector launcher.


The PRC has developed an improved variant of the DF-31 called the DF-31A. This upgraded missile has a reported range of 11,200 km,[3] and was designed with MIRV capability to hold 3 to 5 warheads, each capable of a 20–150 kt yield, but is thought to be armed with only one warhead with penetration and decoy aids to complicate missile defense efforts.[1][1][4] The missile was shown to the public during the parade in Beijing celebrating 70 years since the end of World War II on September 3, 2015.[9] It can carry maneuverable reentry vehicles.[10]


The PRC is developing another improved variant of the DF-31 called the DF-31B with an off-road TEL and MIRVs.[11][12] China has successfully tested it from a mobile launcher.[13] The missile's TEL features an extra pair of elevators near the aft of the missile unlike the TELs of the DF-31 or DF-31A, suggesting a heavier missile second and third stage than earlier variants.[14]


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 http://www.nti.org/media/pdfs/design_characteristics_of_chinas_ballistic_cruise_missile_inventory.pdf?_=1339613656
  2. CSS-9 (DF-31), missilethreat.com
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Annual Report to Congress: Military Power of the People's Republic of China 2008, Office of the Secretary of Defense
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 US Air Force Air and Space Intelligence Center, Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threats 2009 [1]
  5. 5.0 5.1 Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  6. The Federation of American Scientists & The Natural Resources Defense Council (DF-31A) Nov, 2006. 73 (PDF)[2]
  7. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  8. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  9. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wC8jyxbBfRM
  10. http://thediplomat.com/2015/09/heres-what-you-need-to-know-about-chinas-grand-military-parade/
  11. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  12. China tests 10000 km nuclear missile 4. October 2014
  13. "China has successfully test-launch of DF-31B intercontinental ballistic missile from mobile launcher 19. March 2015
  14. http://www.janes.com/article/49693/evidence-emerges-of-possible-df-31-icbm-variant

Further reading

  • Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.

External links

Preceded by DF-31 Succeeded by