J. Reuben Clark

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J. Reuben Clark
J. Reuben Clark4.jpg
December 1956
First Counselor in the First Presidency
June 12, 1959 (1959-06-12) – October 6, 1961 (1961-10-06)
Called by David O. McKay
Second Counselor in the First Presidency
April 9, 1951 (1951-04-09) – June 12, 1959 (1959-06-12)
Called by David O. McKay
End reason Called as First Counselor in the First Presidency
First Counselor in the First Presidency
May 21, 1945 (1945-05-21) – April 4, 1951 (1951-04-04)
Called by George Albert Smith
End reason Death of G. A. Smith
First Counselor in the First Presidency
October 6, 1934 (1934-10-06) – May 14, 1945 (1945-05-14)
Called by Heber J. Grant
End reason Death of Grant
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles[1]
October 11, 1934 (1934-10-11) – October 11, 1934 (1934-10-11)
End reason Was already serving as First Counselor in the First Presidency
LDS Church Apostle
October 11, 1934 (1934-10-11) – October 6, 1961 (1961-10-06)
Called by Heber J. Grant
Reason Heber J. Grant's discretion[2]
at end of term
No additional apostles ordained[3]
Second Counselor in the First Presidency
April 6, 1933 (1933-04-06) – October 6, 1934 (1934-10-06)
Called by Heber J. Grant
End reason Called as First Counselor in the First Presidency
Personal details
Born Joshua Reuben Clark, Jr.
(1871-09-01)September 1, 1871
Grantsville, Utah Territory, United States
Died October 6, 1961(1961-10-06) (aged 90)
Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
Resting place Salt Lake City Cemetery
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Joshua Reuben Clark, Jr. (September 1, 1871 – October 6, 1961) was an American attorney, civil servant, and a prominent leader in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). Born in Grantsville, Utah Territory, Clark was a prominent attorney in the Department of State, and Under Secretary of State for U.S. president Calvin Coolidge. In 1930 Clark was appointed United States Ambassador to Mexico.

He received a bachelor's degree from the University of Utah, where he was valedictorian and student-body president. Clark received a law degree from Columbia University where he also became a member of Phi Delta Phi, a prominent international legal fraternity in which he remained active throughout his life. He later became an associate professor at George Washington University. Both the J. Reuben Clark Law Society and the J. Reuben Clark Law School at Brigham Young University (BYU) are named in his honor.[4]

Childhood and youth

Clark was the first of ten children born to Joshua R. and Mary Louisa Woolley Clark. He was born and raised in Grantsville, Utah, located thirty-three miles southwest of Salt Lake City in Tooele Valley, a four-hour trip by buggy and train from Grantsville to Salt Lake at the time. The Latter-day Saints who settled the area were industrious and community-oriented.[5] As a break from farm work, Clark participated in dramatic productions from his youth. He displayed a talent for public speaking, comedy, and humor at a young age. Clark also participated in the childhood diversions available on the frontier, sledding in the winter and swimming in the summer.

Clark's grandfather had been a minister in the Dunker Faith (Church of the Brethren).[6] Clark's father, Joshua, had worked his way west through Utah as a trapper and freighter and felt drawn to the LDS Church after attending his first Sunday service, being baptized a month afterward. Education and culture were important in the Mormon communities in the Utah Territory (later the State of Utah). Clark's father, although accustomed to hard physical labor, was also reputed to be a knowledgeable, culturally-oriented man. He was hired soon after his baptism to teach school in Grantsville. Shortly after moving there from Salt Lake, he married Mary Louisa Woolley, who was born on the plains as her parents made their way west with the Mormon Pioneers. Joshua was the sort of man who, while doing business in Salt Lake, would sleep in a hay loft in order to afford to see a Shakespearean play, and would make great sacrifices to afford to buy a good book.[7] The small library in the Clark home was made up of history books, classics, an encyclopedia, the Bible, plus other religious works of the LDS Church. Although the younger Clark's education was spotty in his youth, due to the demands of farm life and meager family resources, he was able to take music lessons and to play with various bands. He played the piccolo and then the flute.[8]

Clark's father became the clerk, then superintendent of the Grantsville educational co-operative, was elected the Tooele County Superintendent of Schools in 1878,[9] became president of the Tooele County Education Association, and by 1879 was assessor and tax collector, with his two eldest sons helped with the accounting and record-keeping.[10] When his father later taught at a local private school, Clark was able to be formally educated for the first time. He was ten years old, and in the past had been schooled by his mother. Clark was not at school every term. Sometimes, financial difficulties and farm work kept him at home. His father once related that Clark would “rather miss his meals than to miss a day from school.” After completing the eighth grade, the highest grade offered at the Grantsville school, Clark repeated it two more times.[11]

College education and early career

In 1890, at age 19 and with his father’s consent, Clark was taken to Salt Lake City to enter Latter-day Saints' University.[12] Clark lived at the home of an aunt to save money, and he earned extremely high grades. The principal of the school was James E. Talmage, the foremost scholar and scientist in the LDS Church.[13] Talmage hired Clark to be the assistant curator (and later, curator) for the Deseret Museum.[14] It was a paid position and helped immensely to support Clark during his higher education. The curator position was also considered a mission, and relieved Clark of being called to serve a formal full-time mission for the LDS Church. When Talmage was released as principal and called to create a new college for the LDS Church, he brought Clark with him as his chemistry lab assistant and clerk, while Clark would still curate at the museum. This again helped Clark with his financial support and enabled him to finish six years of advanced schooling in four. Two of those years were intended to finish his unmet high school requirements. It was Talmage who called Clark “the greatest mind ever to leave Utah,”[15] and who encouraged him to attend an eastern university.

In 1894, Clark entered the University of Utah.[16] Clark lived frugally and was even able to partially support his father, who had been called to serve in the church's Northern States Mission, first as a missionary, then as the mission president.

Talmage later became the president of the University of Utah and was also the first recipient of the recently endowed Deseret Professorship of Geology. Clark graduated in 1898 as valedictorian of his graduating class, still serving as clerk to Talmage and on the faculty of the university.[17] He had met Luacine (“Lute”) Annetta Savage, the youngest daughter of Charles Roscoe Savage of Salt Lake City, in 1894, but could not afford to marry her. She taught kindergarten, then worked at her father’s store, while dating Clark for four years. They married on September 14, 1898, in the Salt Lake Temple. Talmage performed the sealing, the first sealing he performed.[18][19] The couple had a modest reception by Lute’s choice, owing to Clark's small means, although she came from a prosperous family.[20] A few days later, Clark left for Heber, Utah, to find a place for them to live and start his first career position as a teacher and principal of the new Heber City High School.

The next year, Clark signed on as a teacher at Latter-day Saints' University, but resigned in February to teach at Salt Lake Business College.[21] Joseph Nelson headed the college and became an important benefactor to Clark. In the fall of 1900, Clark went to Cedar City, Utah, to become the principal of the Branch Normal School.[22] The following year, Clark was an instructor in Commercial Law, Principal of the Shorthand Department, and Secretary of the Faculty at Salt Lake Business College. In 1903 Nelson was named cashier of the Utah National Bank, and Clark assumed most of his duties at the college. That year, Nelson offered to pay for law school for Clark, and Clark applied to Columbia University. He was accepted, and he received his entire education in law at Columbia.


In the beginning of Clark's second year of law school at Columbia he was elected to the editorial board of the Columbia Law Review.[23] (He was the oldest on the board, the only one married, and the only Latter-day Saint in the law school.) In 1905 (at the end of his second year of law school) he was admitted to the New York bar.[24] He was granted a Bachelor of Laws degree in 1906. Clark had worked with James Brown Scott on the 772-page book Cases on Quasi Contracts (1905) during his schooling.[25] Brown recommended him as Assistant Solicitor of the Department of State,[26] and Clark received the appointment on September 5, 1906.[27]

Government service and law career

J. Reuben Clark Mormon Leader
J. Reuben Clark when he was sworn in as Undersecretary of State

Clark began his government service in 1906, when he was appointed Assistant Solicitor to the State Department. During their tenure in Washington, the Clark family (consisting of Clark, his wife and four children) was in the wake of the controversy over the Reed Smoot hearings in the US Senate.

In his position as Assistant Solicitor and then as Solicitor in the State Department, Clark was often confronted with critical issues of international consequence. For example, when the Mexican Revolution erupted in 1911, he was called upon to make crucial decisions and recommend courses of action to the secretary of state and Howard Taft. Of particular concern to Clark was the plight of the Latter-day Saints who lived in Mexican colonies, who were often caught in the middle of the conflict and whose presence in Mexico was resented by the revolutionaries.[28]

After resigning from the State Department in 1913 following the election of Woodrow Wilson, Clark turned his attention to the practice of law. His family returned to Utah, and he opened law offices in Washington, D.C., New York City, and Salt Lake, specializing in international and corporate law. One of his first major clients was the Japanese government, who enlisted his services to combat anti-Japanese discrimination in California. Officials in the Japanese government extended an offer for him to become their permanent counsel in Tokyo and reside in the Imperial Palace. Clark declined the offer, partly on the advice of Joseph F. Smith.[29]

When the United States entered World War I, Clark was commissioned as a major in the Judge Advocate General Officer Reserve Corps (Army) and later asked to become Special Counsel to the Judge Advocate General.[30] Also during World War I, Clark worked in the Attorney General's office. He also participated in creating the regulations for the Selective Service.

In 1926, Clark was called back into government service as tensions with Mexico flared. His past experience in Mexican affairs as Solicitor and his experience in diplomacy were called upon as the U.S. President appointed him to the Mexican and American Mixed Claims Commission.[31] The Commission, established by treaty [32] in 1924 to settle monetary disputes between the two countries, was thought to be the best means of avoiding war with Mexico.[32] Other positions of national prominence followed, such as appointments to Special Counsel for the United States before the American-British Claim Arbitration, and Agent for the United States on the US-Mexico General and Special Claims commissions. Later, Clark took a position as personal legal adviser to the US Ambassador to Mexico, Dwight Morrow, who had been impressed with Clark's work in the State Department.

In 1928, as Under Secretary of State to Secretary of State Frank Kellogg in the Calvin Coolidge Administration, Clark wrote the "Clark Memorandum on the Monroe Doctrine",[33] which repudiated the idea that the United States could arbitrarily use military force in Latin America. The Memorandum was a 238-page treatise exploring every nuance of America’s philosophy of Western Hemispherical guardianship. The “Clark Memorandum” was published as an official State Department document[34] and partially reprinted in textbooks for years.[35]

When Dwight Morrow resigned as ambassador to serve in the US Senate, Clark was recommended as his replacement. Herbert Hoover appointed Clark as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the United States to Mexico on October 3, 1930. The Mexican ambassadorship was a key post in US foreign relations and earned him instant prestige.[36] Clark served as US ambassador to Mexico from 1930–1933.

While Clark was serving in the First Presidency of the LDS Church, he was summoned to the White House by Franklin D. Roosevelt who asked him to be a delegate to the Pan-American Conference at Montevideo, Uruguay. Again, in 1933, Roosevelt tapped Clark, this time to serve on the newly formed Foreign Bondholders Protective Council.

LDS Church service

In June 1925, Clark was appointed to the Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association Board of the LDS Church. In April 1933, Clark was called to serve Second Counselor in the church's First Presidency to Heber J. Grant. Grant held the position in the First Presidency vacant for over a year until Clark was able to resign from his ambassadorship and resolve necessary government matters.[37]

ca. 1914
Published in 1962

Clark was sustained as second counselor to Grant on April 6, 1933. He replaced Charles W. Nibley, who had died in December 1931. This call was unusual, not only for the delay between Nibley's death and Clark's call, but also because counselors were generally selected from within the church's general authorities. (Clark had also never been a stake president or bishop in the church.) He immediately set out to relieve Grant of some of the administrative duties he placed upon himself that became a source of fatigue.[38]

Grant had been active in business throughout his life and encouraged his new second counselor to continue to take advantage of business and governmental opportunities whenever possible. Grant believed the interests of the LDS Church would be best served by Clark continuing to be involved in leadership endeavors outside the church. A week after joining the First Presidency, Clark was asked to fill a position on the board of directors of the Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States, headquartered in New York. Soon afterward came the appointment as a delegate to the Pan-American Conference. Grant gave his approval to both of these proposals, and Clark felt duty-bound to again serve in these capacities.

Following the church's October 1933 general conference, Roosevelt again asked Clark to serve on the newly formed Foreign Bondholders’ Protective Council. As the Great Depression ravaged the world’s economies, a billion dollars in US citizen-owned foreign bonds had fallen into default. Clark was asked to lead the Council’s effort in recovering money on the defaulted bonds, first as General Counsel and then as Council President.

In 1933, Clark began urging change in the welfare policy of the LDS Church, which directed members to seek assistance from the government before the church, and adopt many of the innovative techniques instituted by Harold B. Lee of the Salt Lake Pioneer Stake to aid church members, such as employment coordination, operation of a farm and cannery, and the organization of jobs for stake members to refurbish and sell a Utah company’s unsold, defective products.[39]


In September 1934, Grant's First Counselor, Anthony W. Ivins, died. In October 1934, Clark was ordained an apostle and member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles for purposes of seniority. Immediately thereafter, he was set apart as Grant's First Counselor, with David O. McKay as the Second Counselor.[40]

In 1935, Grant presented a new “Church Security” program, renamed the “Welfare Plan” in 1938, which encouraged industry and personal responsibility and enabled the members to turn to the church instead of relying on the “demoralizing system” of government dependence. The Welfare Plan would centralize the church’s efforts and grow to include a “Beautification Program,” church farms, Deseret Industries, and a Bishop’s Central Storehouse. In a special meeting of stake presidents on October 2, 1936, Clark would capture the goal of church welfare: “The real long term objective of the Welfare Plan is the building of character in the members of the Church, givers and receivers, rescuing all that is finest deep down inside of them, and bring to flower and fruitage the latent richness of the spirit which after all is the mission and purpose and reason for being of this Church.” [41] Clark’s counsel remains the guiding principle of LDS Church welfare.

In 1940, Clark initiated a project to transmit sessions of general conference to additional assembly halls via closed circuit radio. In February 1940, Grant suffered a stroke that left the left side of his body paralyzed and eventually led to his virtual incapacitation. Soon afterward, McKay fell seriously ill, and by necessity, Clark took hold of the reigns of LDS Church administration, although he always kept the other members of the First Presidency apprised and consulted with them prior to making any major decision.

After Grant's death, Clark and McKay were also first and second counselors, respectively, to George Albert Smith. However, when Smith died and McKay became church president, he surprised some by choosing Clark as his Second Counselor, with Stephen L Richards as First Counselor. McKay cited Richards' longer tenure as an apostle as the only reason for not making Clark his first counselor, Clark's leadership style clashed with McKay's way of doing things.[42] It was after this that Clark famously remarked that, "In the service of the Lord, it is not where you serve but how. In the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, one takes the place to which one is duly called, which place one neither seeks nor declines."[43] Clark was returned to the position of First Counselor after Richards died in 1959. Although he served in that capacity until his death on October 6, 1961, McKay excluded Clark from much of the decision-making.[42]

In the 1950s while serving as second counselor in the First Presidency, Clark was able to see two major religious works he had been working on for several years published. In 1954, Our Lord of the Gospels a deep study of the life of Jesus Christ was brought to publication with Thomas S. Monson serving as the representative of Deseret Book in the publishing project. In 1956, Clark's work Why the King James Version advocating continued use of the King James Bible by the church was published.[44]

Clark was closely involved with most of the administrative innovations of the church while he was in the First Presidency. He was especially involved in advocating for regional priesthood councils.[45]


Clark died on 6 October 1961, at his residence, 80 D Street, Salt Lake City, Utah, at ninety years of age.[46] Clark served in the First Presidency for over twenty-eight years, longer than any other man who has not been church president.[36] He was buried at Salt Lake City Cemetery.

Approach toward minorities

As noted in D. Michael Quinn's 2002 biography, J. Reuben Clark's life spanned a period that saw "enormous changes in the attitudes and conduct of Western society, the United States, and the LDS church toward the races and ethnic peoples of the world."[47] As a young man, writes Quinn, Clark possessed "the full endowment of racism characteristic of late nineteenth-century America."[48] Clark's nativist views were evident in his 1898 valedictory speech at the University of Utah, in which he declared that "America must cease to be the cess-pool into which shall drain the foul sewage of Europe."[49] Clark eventually changed some of his racial and ethnic views; others he maintained to the end of his life.

Speaking to a church audience in 1956 about his service as U.S. ambassador to Mexico, Clark admitted that he had gone to Mexico "with a great prejudice against the Mexican people." However, as he learned their history and lived among them, he came to develop a great affection for them.[50] Clark's views of the Japanese softened after he performed legal work on behalf of the Japanese embassy in 1913.[51] Although his son-in-law, Mervyn Bennion, was killed during the attack on Pearl Harbor, Clark "neither felt nor manifested any bitterness toward the Japanese," according to Quinn.[52] Clark wrote to an LDS serviceman on 3 August 1945: "I have nothing but kindness for the [Japanese] race."[53]

During Clark's lifetime, Utah had de facto segregation policies and males of African descent were excluded from the LDS priesthood. As a church leader, Clark resisted the social integration of whites and blacks and strongly opposed interracial marriage, explaining in a 1949 letter: "Since they are not entitled to the Priesthood, the Church discourages social intercourse with the negro race, because such intercourse leads to marriage, and the offspring possess negro blood and is therefore subject to the inhibition set out in our Scripture."[54] Clark nevertheless expressed support for Brown v. Board of Education, stating that "the Latter-day Saints willingly accord to [blacks] in civil matters all the rights, privileges, liberties, and protection guaranteed them...in all their social, economic, and political activities."[55]

Quinn notes that "there was one ethnic group, however, for whom Reuben expressed lifelong dislike and distrust—the Jewish people."[56] According to Quinn, Clark kept several copies of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion in his personal library and shared this and other anti-Jewish publications with colleagues and acquaintances.[57] He expressed anti-Jewish attitudes in "code words publicly and in specifics privately" and used his church position to obstruct what he perceived as "Jewish influence."[58] Clark's anti-Semitism seems to have derived at least in part from his ardent anti-communism. As Quinn notes, "although not all American anti-Communists were anti-Semitic, the more intense tended to be. Reuben's own fusion of anti-Communism and anti-Semitism was representative of this tendency."[59] Clark's views put him at odds with LDS Church president David O. McKay, whose "positive attitudes toward the Jews, Zionism, and the State of Israel were more representative of Mormons generally than were President Clark's anti-Semitic attitudes and administrative actions."[60]

Career timeline

Published works

  • Clark, J. Reuben (1930). Memorandum on the Monroe doctrine. US GPO. ASIN B0006D9U6Q. OCLC 1739572.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • —— (1947). "Gratitude for our heritage": Address before the Salt Lake Rotary Club. Rotary Club. ASIN B0007HE99Y. OCLC 28325923.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • —— (1947). Wist Ye Not That I Must Be About My Father’s Business. Reprint, Relief Society Magazine. OCLC 7810610.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • —— (1949). On the way to immortality and eternal life: A series of radio talks. Deseret Book Company. ASIN B0007EJWAS. OCLC 3051171.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • —— (1954). Our Bible: Address at General Conference, The Tabernacle, Salt Lake City, Utah, April 4, 1954. Bookcraft. ASIN B0007H2ZL8. OCLC 22012699.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • —— (1968). Immortality and eternal life. Course of study for the Melchizedek Priesthood quorums. LDS Church. ASIN B0007G3A2C. OCLC 3405390.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • —— (1974) [1954]. Our Lord of the Gospels: a harmony of the Gospels. Deseret Book Company. ASIN B00183Z8S2. OCLC 16790161.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • —— (1978) [1962]. Stand fast by our Constitution. Deseret Book Company. ASIN B0006WZ8SG. OCLC 4558825.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • —— (1979). Why the King James version. Classics in Mormon literature. Deseret Book Company. ISBN 978-0-87747-773-0. OCLC 5008280.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • —— (1987). Yarn, David H., Jr. (ed.). J. Reuben Clark: Selected Papers on Americanism and National Affairs. Deseret Book Company. ISBN 978-0-87579-109-8. OCLC 16004232.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • —— (1991). Behold the Lamb of God. Classics in Mormon literature. Deseret Book Company. ISBN 978-0-87579-536-2. OCLC 23769367.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • —— (1998). To Them of the Last Wagon; and, Who Was This Jesus. Classic Talks Series. Deseret Book Company. ISBN 978-0-87579-975-9. OCLC 40197720.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>


  • "There has not been another such group of men in all our history that even challenged the supremacy of this group. It is the union of independence and dependence of these branches -- legislative, executive and judicial -- and of the governmental functions possessed by each of them, that constitutes the marvelous genius of this unrivaled document. ... It was here that divine inspiration came. It was truly a miracle."[62]

See also


  1. Clark was only a member of the Quorum of the Twelve for one week in 1945 and six days in 1951, periods of time when the First Presidency was dissolved due to the death of the church's president.
  2. Clark had been a member of the First Presidency since 1933.
  3. After Clark's death, Henry D. Moyle was moved from Second Counselor in the First Presidency to First Counselor; Hugh B. Brown was elevated from Third Counselor in the First Presidency to Second Counselor.
  4. J. Reuben Clark Law School about page
  5. J. Reuben Clark, Sr., journal, Vol. 12, 9 December 1885
  6. Yarn 1973, p. 17
  7. J Reuben Clark, Sr., Journal, Vol. 9, 1883.
  8. J. Reuben Clark, Sr., Journal, Vol. 16, 5 July 1890
  9. J. Reuben Clark, Sr., Journal, Vol. 1, 30 March 1879
  10. Clark, Joshua R., Sr., personal journal, edited by David H. Yarn, Jr., Vol. 15 June 1889.
  11. Yarn 1973, p. 51
  12. J. Reuben Clark, Sr., Journal, Vol. 16, 28 August 1890
  13. J. Reuben Clark, Sr., Journal, Vol. 17, 19 January 1891
  14. James E. Talmage, "Deseret Museum Bulletin," New Series No. 1, Deseret News, 1 August 1911.
  15. Lee, Harold B. (September 1961), "President J. Reuben Clark, Jr., An Appreciation on His Ninetieth Birthday", Improvement Era: 632<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. Yarn 1973, p. 73
  17. Fox 1980, p. 15
  18. Yarn 1973, p. 93
  19. D. Michael Quinn, J. Reuben Clark: The Church Years (Provo: Brigham Young University Press, 1983), p. 11
  20. J. Reuben Clark, Sr., Journal, Vol. 29, 15 September 1898.
  21. Fox 1980, p. 21
  22. "The Southern Branch of the State Normal School", Deseret Evening News, 15 December 1900<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. Parkinson, George D. (April 1914), "How a Utah Boy Won His Way", Improvement Era: 559<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. J. Reuben Clark Law School website, Student Groups page, J. Reuben Clark biographical sketch
  25. Later LDS Attorneys, publications of the J. Reuben Clark Law School
  26. Later LDS Attorneys, J. Reuben Clark Law School publications
  27. J. Reuben Clark biography, J. Reuben Clark Law School website
  28. Fox 1980, pp. 174–175
  29. Davis 2001, p. 3
  30. J. Reuben Clark Law Society membership brochure
  31. Fox 1980, p. 514
  32. 32.0 32.1 United States Government archives, guide-fed records, #076
  33. Davis 2001, p. 5
  34. Clark Memorandum, p. 12, J. Reuben Clark Law School Publications
  35. J. Reuben Clark Law School, Clark Memorandum, p. 12
  36. 36.0 36.1 Davis 2001, p. 4
  37. Davis 2001, p. 6
  38. Journal of J. Reuben Clark, Sr., in Quinn 1983, p. 73
  39. Quinn 1983, pp. 266–67
  40. Davis 2001, p. 7
  41. Motives/Living Welfare Principles MGR.pdf Marion G. Romney, "Living Welfare Principles
  42. 42.0 42.1 Bringhurst, Newell G. "The Private versus the Public David O. McKay" (PDF). Dialogue. 3 (25). Retrieved 4 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  43. [General] Conference Report, April 1951, p. 154
  44. Quinn, The Church Years, p. 133
  45. Quinn, The Church Years, p. 134
  46. Yarn 1973, p. 138
  47. Quinn, D. Michael (2002). Elder Statesman: A Biography of J. Reuben Clark. Salt Lake City: Signature Books. p. 318.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  48. Quinn, Elder Statesman, p. 319
  49. Quoted in Quinn, Elder Statesman, p. 319
  50. See Quinn, Elder Statesman, p. 320; Davis, p. 4
  51. Quinn, Elder Statesman, p. 322–23
  52. Quinn, Elder Statesman, p. 323
  53. Quoted in Quinn, Elder Statesman, p. 324
  54. Quoted in Quinn, Elder Statesman, p. 345
  55. Quoted in Quinn, Elder Statesman, p. 347
  56. Quinn, Elder Statesman, p. 325
  57. Quinn, Elder Statesman, p. 328
  58. Quinn, Elder Statesman, p. 337
  59. Quinn, Elder Statesman, p. 327
  60. Quinn, Elder Statesman, p. 339
  61. Yarn 1973, pp. 135–138
  62. J. Reuben Clark, Jr. on the U.S. Constitution, General Conference Report October 1942, 2nd Session


External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Robert E. Olds
United States Under Secretary of State
Succeeded by
Joseph P. Cotton
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Dwight Morrow
US Ambassador to Mexico
Succeeded by
Josephus Daniels
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints titles
Preceded by
Stephen L Richards
First Counselor in the First Presidency
June 12, 1959 – October 6, 1961
Succeeded by
Henry D. Moyle
Preceded by
David O. McKay
Secound Counselor in the First Presidency
April 9, 1951 – June 12, 1959
Preceded by
Anthony W. Ivins
First Counselor in the First Presidency
May 21, 1945 – April 4, 1951
October 6, 1934 – April 9, 1951
Succeeded by
Stephen L Richards
Preceded by
Charles W. Nibley
Secound Counselor in the First Presidency
April 6, 1933 – October 11, 1934
Succeeded by
David O. McKay
Preceded by
Charles A. Callis
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles
April 4, 1951 – April 9, 1951
May 14, 1945 – May 21, 1945
October 11, 1934 – October 11, 1934
Succeeded by
Alonzo A. Hinckley