|Johann Paul Friedrich Richter|
Portrait of Jean Paul by Heinrich Pfenninger (1798)
|Born||Johann Paul Friedrich Richter
21 March 1763
Wunsiedel, Holy Roman Empire
|Died||14 November 1825
Bayreuth, German Confederation
|Pen name||Jean Paul|
|Alma mater||University of Leipzig|
|Genre||Humorous novels and stories|
|Notable awards||PhD (Hon):
University of Heidelberg (1817)
Life and work
Jean Paul was born at Wunsiedel, in the Fichtelgebirge mountains (Franconia). His father was an organist at Wunsiedel. In 1765 his father became a pastor at Joditz near Hof and, in 1767 at Schwarzenbach, but he died on 25 April 1779, leaving the family in great poverty. After attending the Gymnasium at Hof, in 1781 Jean Paul went to the University of Leipzig. His original intention was to enter his father's profession, but theology did not interest him, and he soon devoted himself wholly to the study of literature. Unable to maintain himself at Leipzig he returned in 1784 to Hof, where he lived with his mother. From 1787 to 1789 he served as a tutor at Töpen, a village near Hof; and from 1790 to 1794 he taught the children of several families in a school he had founded in nearby Schwarzenbach.
Jean Paul began his career as a man of letters with Grönländische Prozesse ("Greenland Lawsuits"), published anonymously in Berlin in 1783–84, and Auswahl aus des Teufels Papieren ("Selections from the Devil's Papers", signed J. P. F. Hasus), published in 1789. These works were not received with much favour, and in later life even their author had little sympathy for their satirical tone.
Jean Paul's outlook was profoundly altered by a spiritual crisis he suffered on November 15, 1790, in which he had a vision of his own death. His next book, Die unsichtbare Loge ("The Invisible Lodge"), a romance published in 1793 under the pen-name Jean Paul (in honour of Jean-Jacques Rousseau), had all the qualities that were soon to make him famous, and its power was immediately recognized by some of the best critics of the day.
Encouraged by the reception of Die unsichtbare Loge, Richter composed a number of books in rapid succession: Leben des vergnügten Schulmeisterleins Maria Wutz in Auenthal ("Life of the Cheerful Schoolmaster Maria Wutz", 1793), the best-selling Hesperus (1795), which made him famous, Biographische Belustigungen unter der Gehirnschale einer Riesin ("Biographical Recreations under the Brainpan of a Giantess", 1796), Leben des Quintus Fixlein ("Life of Quintus Fixlein", 1796), Der Jubelsenior ("The Parson in Jubilee", 1797), and Das Kampaner Tal ("The Valley of Campan", 1797). Also among these was the novel Blumen- Frucht- und Dornenstücke, oder Ehestand, Tod, und Hochzeit des Armenadvokaten Siebenkäs ("Flower, Fruit, and Thorn Pieces; or, the Married Life, Death, and Wedding of Siebenkäs, Poor Man's Lawyer") in 1796–97.
Siebenkäs' slightly supernatural theme, involving a Doppelgänger and pseudocide, stirred some controversy over its interpretation of the Resurrection, but these criticisms served only to draw awareness to the author. This series of writings assured Richter a place in German literature, and during the rest of his life every work he produced was welcomed by a wide circle of admirers.
After his mother's death in 1797, Richter went to Leipzig, and in the following year, to Weimar, where he started work on his most ambitious novel, Titan, published between 1800 and 1803. Richter became friends with such Weimar notables as Johann Gottfried Herder, by whom he was warmly appreciated, but despite their close proximity, Richter never became close to Johann Wolfgang von Goethe or Friedrich Schiller, both of whom found his literary methods repugnant; but in Weimar, as elsewhere, his remarkable conversational powers and his genial manners made him a favorite in general society. The English writers Thomas Carlyle and Thomas De Quincey took an interest in Jean Paul's work.
In 1801 he married Caroline Meyer, whom he had met in Berlin the year before. They lived first at Meiningen, then at Coburg; and finally, in 1804, they settled at Bayreuth. Here Richter spent a quiet, simple, and happy life, constantly occupied with his work as a writer. In 1808 he was delivered from anxiety about outward necessities by Prince Primate Karl Theodor von Dalberg, who gave him an annual pension of 1,000 florins, which was later continued by the king of Bavaria.
Jean Paul's Titan was followed by Flegeljahre ("The Awkward Age", 1804–5). His later imaginative works were Dr Katzenbergers Badereise ("Dr Katzenberger's Trip to the Medicinal Springs", 1809), Des Feldpredigers Schmelzle Reise nach Flätz ("Army Chaplain Schmelzle's Voyage to Flätz", 1809), Leben Fibels ("Life of Fibel", 1812), and Der Komet, oder Nikolaus Marggraf ("The Comet, or, Nikolaus Markgraf", 1820–22). In Vorschule der Aesthetik ("Introduction to Aesthetics", 1804) he expounded his ideas on art; he discussed the principles of education in Levana, oder Erziehungslehre ("Levana, or, Pedagogy", 1807); and the opinions suggested by current events he set forth in Friedenspredigt ("Peace Sermon", 1808), Dämmerungen für Deutschland ("Twilights for Germany", 1809), Mars und Phöbus Thronwechsel im Jahre 1814 ("Mars and Phoebus Exchange Thrones in the Year 1814", 1814), and Politische Fastenpredigten ("Political Lenten Sermons", 1817). In his last years he began Wahrheit aus Jean Pauls Leben ("The Truth from Jean Paul's Life"), to which additions from his papers and other sources were made after his death by C. Otto and E. Förster.
Also during this time he supported the younger writer E. T. A. Hoffmann, who long counted Richter among his influences. Richter wrote the preface to Fantasy Pieces, a collection of Hoffmann's short stories published in 1814.
In September 1821 Jean Paul lost his only son, Max, a youth of the highest promise; and he never quite recovered from this shock. He lost his sight in 1824, and died of dropsy at Bayreuth, on 14 November 1825.
Characteristics of his work
Jean Paul occupies an unusual position in German literature and has always divided the literary public. Some hold him in highest veneration while others treat his work with indifference. He took the Romantic formlessness of the novel to extremes: Schlegel called his novels soliloquies, in which he makes his readers take part (in this respect going even further than Laurence Sterne in Tristram Shandy). Jean Paul habitually played with a multitude of droll and bizarre ideas: his work is characterized by wild metaphors as well as by digressive and partly labyrinthine plots. He mixed contemplation with literary theory: alongside spirited irony the reader finds bitter satire and mild humour; next to soberly realistic passages there are romanticized and often ironically-curtailed idylls, social commentary and political statements. The quick changes of mood attracted the composer Schumann whose Papillons was inspired by Jean Paul.
His novels were especially admired by women. This was due to the empathy with which Jean Paul created the female characters in his works: never before in German literature were women represented with such psychological depth. Jean Paul's character may have been as diverse and as confusing as many of his novels: he was said to be very sociable and witty, while at the same time extremely sentimental: having an almost childlike nature, quickly moved to tears. It is obvious from his works that his interests encompassed not only literature but also astronomy and other sciences.
It is no surprise that the relationship of so capricious an author with the Weimar classicists Goethe and Schiller always remained ambivalent: Schiller once remarked that Jean Paul was as alien to him as someone who fell from the moon, and that he might have been worthy of admiration "if he had made as good use of his riches as other men made of their poverty." Herder and Wieland on the other hand fully appreciated his work and supported him. Although he always kept his distance from the classicists, who wanted to "absolutize" art, and although his theoretical approach (most notably in his Introduction to Aesthetics) was considerably influenced by Romanticism, it would be misleading to call him a Romantic without qualification. Here too he kept his distance: with all his subjectivism he didn't absolutize the subject of the author as the Romantics often did. Jean Paul had what had become rare amidst classical severity and romantic irony: humour. He also was one of the first who approached humour from a theoretical standpoint.
He thought that both the Enlightenment and metaphysics had failed, though they still held importance for his worldview. He arrived at a philosophy without illusions, and a state of humorous resignation. Correspondingly he was one of the first defenders of Schopenhauer's philosophy. He didn't try to indoctrinate but to portray human happiness, even (and especially) in an increasingly alienated environment — the rococo castles and bleak villages of Upper Franconia. Jean Paul was not only the first to use and name the literary motif of the Doppelgänger, he also utilised it in countless variations (e.g. Siebenkäs and Leibgeber, Liane and Idoine, Roquairol and Albano). In his novel Siebenkäs he defines the Doppelgänger as the "people who see themselves."
- The long sleep of death closes our scars, and the short sleep of life our wounds. (Der lange Schlaf des Todes schliesst unsere Narben zu, und der kurze des Lebens unsere Wunden, Hesperus, XX).
- Abelard und Heloise (1781)
- Grönländische Prozesse (1783–1784)
- Auswahl aus des Teufels Papieren (1789)
- Leben des vergnügten Schulmeisterlein Maria Wutz in Auenthal. Eine Art Idylle (1790)
- Die unsichtbare Loge (1793)
- Hesperus (1795)
- Biographische Belustigungen (1796)
- Leben des Quintus Fixlein (1796)
- Siebenkäs (1796)
- Der Jubelsenior (1797)
- Das Kampaner Tal (1797)
- Konjekturalbiographie (1798)
- Des Luftschiffers Giannozzo Seebuch (1801)
- Titan (1800–1803)
- Vorschule der Aesthetik (1804)
- Flegeljahre (1804–1805; unfinished)
- Freiheitsbüchlein'' (1805)
- Levana oder Erziehlehre (1807)
- Dr. Katzenbergers Badereise (1809)
- Des Feldpredigers Schmelzle Reise nach Flätz (1809)
- Leben Fibels (1812)
- Bemerkungen über uns närrische Menschen
- Clavis Fichtiana (see also Johann Gottlieb Fichte)
- Das heimliche Klaglied der jetzigen Männer
- Der Komet (1820–1822)
- Der Maschinenmann
- Die wunderbare Gesellschaft in der Neujahrsnacht
- Selberlebenbeschreibung (1826; posthumous)
- Selina (1827; posthumous)
- Works in English translations
- Tales from the German (1826; translated by Richard Holcroft. Contains: "The Death of an Angel" and "The Moon: A Tale of the Imagination")
- Jean Paul Friedrich Richter (1827; translated by Thomas Carlyle. Contains: "Life of Quintus Fixlein" and "Army-Chaplain Schmelzle's Journey to Flaetz")
- Translations in Poetry and Prose, from Celebrated German Writers (1836; translated by Hermann Bokum. Contains: "The New Year's Night of an Unhappy Man")
- Flower, Fruit and Thorn Pieces (1845; translated by Edward Henry Noel)
- Flower, Fruit and Thorn Pieces (1877; translated by Alexander Ewing)
- Walt and Vult, or The Twins (1846; translated by Eliza B. Lee)
- The Campaner Thal (1848; translated by Juliette Gowa)
- Levana: or The Doctrine of Education (1848; translated by A.– H.–)
- Titan: A Romance (1862; translated by Charles T. Brooks)
- Maria Wuz and Lorenz Stark: or English Prints of Two German Originals (1881; translated by F. and R. Storr)
- The Invisible Lodge (1883; translated by Charles T. Brooks)
- "The Lunatics Dream." In: Romance, Vol. VII (1892)
- Nineteenth Century German Tales (1959; translated by John D. Grayson. Contains: "Life of the Cheerful Schoolmaster Maria Wutz)"
- Robert Schumann: Papillons pour le pianoforte seul (1832)
- Johann Friedrich Kittl: Wär’ ich ein Stern (1838)
- Robert Schumann: Blumenstück (1839)
- Carl Grünbaum: Lied (Es zieht in schöner Nacht der Sternenhimmel) (1840)
- Ernst Friedrich Kauffmann: Ständchen nach Jean Paul (1848)
- Carl Reinecke: O wär’ ich ein Stern (from: Flegeljahre) (1850)
- Stephen Heller: Blumen-, Frucht- und Dornenstücke (Nuits blanches) (1850)
- Marta von Sabinin: O wär ich ein Stern (1855)
- Ernst Methfessel: An Wina (1866)
- Gustav Mahler: Sinfonie Nr. 1 in D-Dur (Titan) (1889)
- Ferdinand Heinrich Thieriot: Leben und Sterben des vergnügten Schulmeisterlein Wuz (1900)
- Hugo Leichtentritt: Grabschrift des Zephyrs (1910)
- Henri Sauguet: Polymetres (1936)
- Eduard Künnecke: Flegeljahre (1937)
- Karl Kraft: Fünf kleine Gesänge auf Verse des Jean Paul für Singstimme und Klavier (1960)
- Walter Zimmermann: Glockenspiel für einen Schlagzeuger (1983)
- Wolfgang Rihm: Andere Schatten (from: Siebenkäs) (1985)
- Oskar Sala: Rede des toten Christus vom Weltgebäude herab, dass kein Gott sei (1990)
- Iván Eröd: Blumenstück für Viola solo (1995)
- Thomas Beimel: Idyllen (1998/99)
- Christoph Weinhart: Albanos Traum (2006)
- Georg Friedrich Haas: Blumenstück (from: Siebenkäs) (2009)
- Ludger Stühlmeyer: Zum Engel der letzten Stunde (from: Das Leben des Quintus Fixlein) (2013)
- Benham, G.F. (1978), "On Some Salient Features of Jean Paul's Pedagogical Writings", Colloquia Germanica, XI (3/4): 233–62<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- Berger, Dorothea (1972), Jean Paul Friedrich Richter, New York: Twayne Publishers<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- Black, Joel D. (1980), "Levana: Levitation in Jean Paul and Thomas de Quincey", Comparative Literature, XXXII (1): 42–62, doi:10.2307/1770741<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- Blackall, Eric A. (1983), "Toward a Poetic Novel: Jean Paul and Hölderlin", The Novels of German Romantics, Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, pp. 65–106, ISBN 0801415233<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- Blake, Kathleen (1975), "What the Narrator Learns in Jean Paul's Wutz", The German Quarterly, XLVIII (1): 52–65, doi:10.2307/403440<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- Brewer, Edward V. (1930), "The Influence of Jean Paul Richter on George Meredith's Conception of the Comic", The Journal of English and Germanic Philology, XXIX (2): 243–56<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- Burwick, Frederick (1968), "The Dream-Visions of Jean Paul and Thomas De Quincey", Comparative Literature, XX (1): 1–26, doi:10.2307/1769803<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- Casey, Timothy J. (1990), "Digressions for Future Instalments: Some Reflections on Jean Paul's Epic Outlook", The Modern Language Review, LXXXV (4): 866–78, doi:10.2307/3732645<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- Casey, Timothy J., ed. (1992), Jean Paul: A Reader, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 0801841534<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- Fife, Robert Herndon (1907), "Jean Paul Friedrich Richter and E. T. A. Hoffmann", PMLA, XXII (1): 1–32, doi:10.2307/456660<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- Fischer, William B. (1976), "German Theories of Science Fiction: Jean Paul, Kurd Lasswitz, and After", Science Fiction Studies, III (3): 254–65<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- Fleming, Paul (2006), The Pleasures of Abandonment: Jean Paul and the Life of Humor, Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, ISBN 9783826032479<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- Geissendoerfer, Theodore (1926), "Carlyle and Jean Paul Friederich Richter", The Journal of English and Germanic Philology, XXV (4): 540–53<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- Geissendoerfer, Theodore (1928), "Jacobi's Allwill and Jean Paul's Titan", The Journal of English and Germanic Philology, XXVII (3): 361–70<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- Higonnet, Margaret R. (1977), "Jean Paul Righter: Kunstrichter", The Journal of English and Germanic Philology, LXXVI (4): 471–90<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- Jacobs, Robert L. (1949), "Schumann and Jean Paul", Music & Letters, XXX (3): 250–58<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- Jensen, Eric Frederick (1998), "Explicating Jean Paul: Robert Schumann's Program for Papillons, Op. 2", 19th-Century Music, XXII (2): 127–43, doi:10.2307/746854<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- Kuzniar, Alice A. (1984), "The Bounds of the Infinite: Self-Reflection in Jean Paul's 'Rede des todten Christus'", The German Quarterly, LVII (2): 183–96, doi:10.2307/405150<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- Libhart, Byron R. (1972), "Madame de Staël, Charles de Villers, and the Death of God in Jean Paul's Songe", Comparative Literature Studies, IX (2): 141–51<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- Menhennet, Alan (2016), The Romantic Movement, London: Routledge, ISBN 9781138195233<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- Reiman, Erika (2004), Schumann's Piano Cycles and the Novels of Jean Paul, Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, ISBN 9781580461450<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- Schmitz-Emans, Monika (2012), "The Spirit World of Art and Robert Schumann's Gothic Novel Project: The Impact of Gothic Literature on Schumann's Writings", in Cusack, Andrew; Murnane, Barry (eds.), Popular Revenants: The German Gothic and Its International Reception, 1800-2000, Rochester, N.Y.: Camden House, pp. 144–60, ISBN 9781571135193<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- Tiddeman, L.E. (1893), "Jean Paul", Belgravia, LXXXI: 299–310<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- Smeed, J. W. (1964), "Thomas Carlyle and Jean Paul Richter", Comparative Literature, XVI (3): 226–53, doi:10.2307/1769476<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- Vardoulakis, Dimitris (2010), "The Task of the Doppelgänger: Jean Paul as Collocutor of Maurice Blanchot", The Doppelganger: Literature's Philosophy, New York: Fordham University Press, pp. 106–34, doi:10.2307/j.ctt13x097j.8<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
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