John Creswell

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John Andrew Jackson Creswell
File:John A J Creswell Brady-Handy Photograph Collection.tif
23rd United States Postmaster General
In office
March 5, 1869 – June 22, 1874
Preceded by Alexander Randall
Succeeded by James William Marshall
United States Senator
from Maryland
In office
March 4, 1865 – March 3, 1867
Preceded by Thomas Holliday Hicks
Succeeded by George Vickers
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Maryland's 1st district
In office
March 4, 1863 – March 3, 1865
Preceded by John W. Crisfield
Succeeded by Hiram McCullough
Personal details
Born (1828-11-18)November 18, 1828
Creswells Ferry (now Port Deposit), Maryland, U.S.
Died December 23, 1891(1891-12-23) (aged 63)
Elkton, Maryland, U.S.
Political party Whig, Republican
Alma mater Dickinson College
Profession Politician, Lawyer, Banker

John Andrew Jackson Creswell (November 18, 1828 – December 23, 1891)[1] was an American politician from Maryland, who served as United States Representative, United States Senator, and as Postmaster General of the United States appointed by President Ulysses S. Grant. Creswell is considered to be one of the ablest, if not the best, Postmaster General in United States history.[2] Creswell modernized the U.S. Postal system to adapt to an expanding demand for increased postal routes throughout the Western states and remain competitive worldwide. Sweeping and constructive reforms of the United States Postal System took place during Creswell's tenure, including securing fair competition among Star Route carriages, and the abolishment of the franking system. Creswell developed a codified classification system of offenses against postal laws.[2] Creswell streamlined and reduced postal costs making the United States Postal System run efficiently creating a fair pricing system domestically, and reducing international mailing prices. Creswell developed and implemented the United States first penny postcard.[2]

After attending a local academy, Creswell graduated from Dickinson College in 1848 and passed the bar in 1850. A former Whig, Creswell joined the Democratic Party and supported James Buchanan for President. When the Civil War broke in 1861, Creswell remained loyal to the Union and supported Abraham Lincoln. Having joined the Radical Republicans Creswell supported the end of slavery and the civil rights of African Americans. In 1861, Creswell was elected to the Maryland House of Delegates and served until 1862; having helped kept the state from joining the Confederacy. In 1862 Creswell was elected U.S. Representative; having served from 1863 to 1865. Creswell was elected U.S. Senator in 1864 and served from 1865 to 1867. In 1868 Creswell supported Ulysses S. Grant for President. In 1869, President Grant appointed the "gifted and debonair" Creswell as Postmaster General. His appointment by Grant was very popular in Maryland whose citizens considered themselves part of the South. Having retired as Postmaster, Creswell was appointed by President Grant as an Alabama Claims Commissioner, having served from 1874 to 1876. Creswell returned to private law practice and worked in the banking industry.

Early life

John A. J. Creswell was born in Port Deposit, Maryland, then known as Creswells Ferry, on November 18, 1828. His father was John G. Creswell, from Maryland of English ancestry. His mother was Rebecca E. Webb, from Pennsylvania, of German and English ancestry. One of Rebecca's forbears was Quaker missionary, Elizabeth Webb.[2] Creswell attended a local academy before moving on to Dickinson College where he graduated with honors in 1848.[2] He studied law for two years and was admitted to the bar in Baltimore in 1850, commencing practice in Elkton, Maryland.[2]


During Creswell's early career as a Maryland lawyer, he married Hannah J. Richardson of Maryland. Hannah was considerably wealthy.[2]

Political career

During the early 1850s Creswell was a strongly partisan Whig. In 1850, Creswell was an unsuccessful candidate to the Maryland Reform State Convention. When the Whig party ceased to exist in the mid-1850s, Creswell became a Democrat and he attended the 1856 Democratic convention in Cincinnati, Ohio that nominated James Buchanan for President.[2]

American Civil War

At the outbreak of the Civil War, Creswell became a devoted and strongly influential Radical Republican. In 1861 Creswell was elected for the first time to public office, as a loyalist Union member of the Maryland House of Delegates. He served until 1862 and worked to prevent Maryland from leaving the Union and joining the Confederate States. In 1863, Creswell was appointed the state's adjutant general, where he was in charge of raising Maryland's quota of troops for the Union war effort.[2]

U.S. Representative

Creswell was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1862, serving from 1863 to 1865. A staunch supporter of President Abraham Lincoln, Creswell was the first man in Congress to propose a constitutional amendment banning slavery.

U.S. Senator

Having lost reelection to the House in 1864, Creswell was elected to the U.S. Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Thomas H. Hicks, serving from 1865 until the end of that term in 1867. During his time in the Senate, he served as chairman of the Committee on the Library in the 39th Congress. At the Republican National Convention in 1868, Creswell's name was put forward for either the presidential or vice presidential nominations.

Postmaster General

John A. J. Creswell

After Ulysses S. Grant was elected, he appointed Creswell Postmaster General. As Postmaster General, he reorganized the Post Office Department, introduced penny postcards and postal telegraphs, proposed a postal savings system. Creswell proved to be one of the ablest organizers ever to head the Post Office. He cut costs while greatly expanding the number of mail routes, postal clerks and letter carriers. He introduced the penny post card and worked with Fish to revise postal treaties. A Radical, he used the vast patronage of the post office to support Grant's coalition. He asked for the total abolition of the franking privilege since it reduced the revenue receipts by five percent. The franking privilege allowed members of Congress to send mail at the government’s expense.[3] When Creswell suddenly resigned in 1874, historians have speculated this was due to impending scandals that plagued the Grant administration, however, Creswell gave no official reason for his resignation. Fatigue and an important personal matter may have been factors why Creswell resigned.

Appointed African Americans and patronage

Creswell, as Postmaster-General, had enormous power in distributing patronage nationally in the Postal Service. During Reconstruction as a Radical Republican Creswell appointed African Americans to serve in every state working in the Postal System.[4] African American postal workers encountered abuse in certain areas of the South. Creswell appointed more African Americans then any of his predecessors. [4] In distributing patronage Creswell followed the spirit of Civil Service reform and improved the efficiency of the postal service. Creswell was known to have "distributed the enormous patronage of his office with a minimum of friction."[4]

General Tate conversation (1870)

President Grant, at the beginning of his first term in office initiated an attempt to annex the Dominican Republic, then known as Santo Domingo. President Grant believed that the annexation and eventual statehood of the island country would add to American mineral resources and serve as a refuge for African Americans, who were harassed by violence from the Ku Klux Klan.[5] At a White House reception on January 1, 1870 African Haitian minister, General Alexander Tate, attended. President Grant, who had no racial animosity, cordially shook General Tate's hand.[6] Other white dignitaries refused to associate with General Tate because he was black and ignored him at the reception. Postmaster Creswell, however, having noticed that General Tate was being snubbed, went over and had a pleasant conversation with him.[6]

Attempt to remove Creswell (1870)

Upon assuming office, Postmaster Creswell strongly advocated the abolishment of the franking privilege that allowed Congress, both the Senate and the House of Representatives, to use the U.S. Postal Service paid for by taxpayers. Many in Congress, during November, 1870, opposed the removal of this privilege and friends of President Grant extensively lobbied that Creswell be removed from office and replaced by Pennsylvanian, John W. Forney. This was done in part to have a Pennsylvanian on the Presidential cabinet so President Grant could freely choose a Revenue Commissioner.[7] President Grant, however, resisted this pressure and kept Creswell in office.

Congressional franking privilege abolished (1873)

On January 28, 1873 President Ulysses S. Grant signed into law the abolition of the Congressional franking privilege. Previously, on January 27, 1873 the U.S. Senate bill, with amendments, to abolish the franking privilege, had been introduced by New Jersey Representative John Hill to vote on by the House of Representatives. Many Representatives in the House attempted by amendment to make the franking abolition legislature less sweeping, however, these efforts failed. The stronger franking abolition bill passed the House by a vote of 143 to 48. Those who voted against the franking abolition were divided equally among both Republicans and Democrats, mostly from the Southern states. A bill to cut spending on Public Printing was introduced to the House, however, this failed to gain a two thirds majority to pass. The abolition of the franking privilege would be effective on July 1, 1873.[8] On February 26, 1873 Postmaster Creswell went before the House Committee on Appropriations and testified that federal postage appropriations were necessary for the U.S. Treasury and the Postal Department, after the abolishment of the franking took effect. Federal executive departments were exempt from the law.[9]

Proposed check payable bill (1874)

By law, to secure a postal contract, bidders had to pay a 5% guarantee check at a national bank payable to the Postmaster General.[10] Some bidders however, in good faith, were only writing "John Creswell" or "John A. Creswell" rather than "John A.J. Creswell, Postmaster General" on their deposit checks. This was brought to the attention of Postmaster Creswell by California U.S. Representative John K. Luttrell.[10] Pacific Coast mail routes would be effected without the proper format. On February 8, 1874, in order to solve the problem, Postmaster Creswell wrote a bill to Congress that required the correct "Postmaster General" format be put on all postal route guarantee checks. On February 9, Representative Luttrell promptly submitted the bill written by Postmaster Creswell to the House for ratification.[10]

Alabama claims commissioner

Creswell accepted the appointment of a United States counsel before the Alabama Claims Commission which he served as from 1874 to 1876.

Legal and banking career

Creswell resumed practicing law and served as the president of two banks.


Creswell died suddenly at noon at his home a mile outside of Elkton, Cecil County, Maryland on December 23, 1891. His wife and the Presbyterian minister, Rev. Dr. Osmond, were with Creswell when he died. Creswell had contracted the flu and then succumbed to pneumonia. For the past several years Creswell had been in poor health having a heart condition.[11] Seven other Marylanders during the last previous ten days had died of the flu and pneumonia.[12] Creswell was interred in Elkton Presbyterian Cemetery.


John Creswell is the namesake of Creswell, North Carolina.[13]


  1. Some sources refer to him as John Angel James Creswell; however no evidence that he ever used "Angel James" has been found. His birth entry in his family Bible, matriculation and graduation records from Dickinson College in the mid-1840s, and letters from Ulysses S. Grant late in his career all refer to him as "John Andrew Jackson Creswell." See Osborne, John M. and Christine Bombaro (2015), Forgotten Abolitionist: John A.J. Creswell of Maryland, Carlisle, PA: House Divided Project at Dickinson College, notes 4, 8, 36, 94, and 117.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 Dictionary of American Biography (1930), Creswell, John Angel James, p. 541
  3. Allan Nevins, Hamilton Fish (1937) 139
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Friedenberg, pp. 142-143.
  5. McFeely (1981), Grant: a biography, pp. 336-337
  6. 6.0 6.1 McFeely, Grant: a biography, p. 337
  7. New York Times (November 4, 1870), Contemplated Official Changes
  8. New York Times (January 28, 1873), Abolition of the Franking Privilege
  9. New York Times (February 27, 1873), Departmental Postage
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 New York Times (February 9, 1874) The Postal Contracts
  11. Dickinson College, John Andrew Jackson Creswell (1828-1891)
  12. Chicago Daily Tribune (December 24, 1891), J. A. J. Creswell Dead, p. 9
  13. Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 96.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>


  • Friedenberg, Robert V. (Summer 1969). "John A. J. Creswell of Maryland: Reformer in the Post Office". Maryland Historical Magazine. pp. 133–143.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links

United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
John W. Crisfield
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Maryland's 1st congressional district

March 4, 1863 – March 3, 1865
Succeeded by
Hiram McCullough
United States Senate
Preceded by
Thomas H. Hicks
U.S. Senator (Class 3) from Maryland
March 9, 1865 – March 3, 1867
Served alongside: Reverdy Johnson
Succeeded by
George Vickers
Political offices
Preceded by
Alexander W. Randall
United States Postmaster General
Served under: Ulysses S. Grant

March 5, 1869 – June 22, 1874
Succeeded by
James W. Marshall