Hospers in 1998
June 9, 1918|
Pella, Iowa, U.S.
|Died||June 12, 2011
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
|Alma mater||Central College, Iowa
University of Iowa
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John Hospers (9 June 1918 – 12 June 2011) was an American philosopher and political activist. Hospers was interested in Objectivism, and was once a friend of the philosopher Ayn Rand, though she later broke with him. In 1972, Hospers became the first presidential candidate of the Libertarian Party, and was the only minor party candidate to receive an electoral vote in that year's U.S. presidential election.
Education and career
John Hospers was born on June 9, 1918, in Pella, Iowa, the son of Dena Helena (Verhey) and John De Gelder Hospers. He graduated from Central College in 1939 before earning an M.A. in English from the University of Iowa in 1942 and a Ph.D. in philosophy from Columbia University in 1946. He conducted research, wrote, and taught in areas of philosophy, including aesthetics and ethics. He taught philosophy at the University of Minnesota, Brooklyn College, California State College Los Angeles (1966–1968) and at the University of Southern California, where for many years he was chairman of the philosophy department and professor emeritus.
Friendship with Ayn Rand
During the period he taught philosophy at Brooklyn College, Hospers was very interested in Objectivism. He appeared on radio shows with Ayn Rand, and devoted considerable attention to her ideas in his ethics textbook Human Conduct.
According to Rand's biographer, Barbara Branden, Hospers met Rand when she addressed the student body at Brooklyn College. They became friends, and had lengthy philosophical conversations. Rand's discussions with Hospers contributed to her decision to write nonfiction. Hospers read Atlas Shrugged (1957), which he considered an aesthetic triumph. Although Hospers became convinced of the validity of Rand's moral and political views, he disagreed with her about issues of epistemology, the subject of their extensive correspondence. Rand broke with Hospers after he, in his position as moderator, critiqued her address, and she felt he had criticized her talk on "Art and Sense of Life" before the American Society of Aesthetics at Harvard.
1972 presidential candidacy
In the 1972 U.S. Presidential election, Hospers and Tonie Nathan were the first presidential and vice-presidential nominees, respectively, of the newly formed Libertarian Party. The Libertarian Party was poorly organized and Hospers and Nathan managed to get on the ballot in only two states (Washington and Colorado), receiving 3,674 popular votes.
Hospers and Nathan received one electoral vote from faithless elector Roger MacBride, a Republican from Virginia, resulting in Nathan's becoming the first woman and the first Jew to receive an electoral vote in a United States presidential election. (Although Barry Goldwater was half-Jewish by ethnicity, he was not Jewish by religion, as he was raised in the Episcopalian faith of his mother; Goldwater received his electoral votes 8 years before Nathan did.)
Hospers' books include:
- Meaning and Truth in the Arts (1946)
- Introductory Readings in Aesthetics (1969)
- Artistic Expression (1971)
- Libertarianism – A Political Philosophy for Tomorrow (1971)
- Understanding the Arts (1982)
- Law and the Market (1985)
- Human Conduct (now in its 3rd edition, 1995)
- An Introduction to Philosophical Analysis (now in the 4th edition, 1996)
Hospers was editor of three anthologies, and contributed to books edited by others. He wrote more than 100 articles in various scholarly and popular journals.
"Art and Morality", Journal of Comparative Literature and Aesthetics (JCLA), Vol. 1, No. 1, Summer 1978.
- "John Hospers, first Libertarian presidential nominee, dies at 93". Libertarian Party (press release). June 13, 2011. Retrieved June 13, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Walker, Jesse (June 13, 2011). "John Hospers, RIP". Reason Online. Retrieved June 14, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Who Is John Hospers? First Libertarian Party Presidential Candidate (1972)", www.Johnhospers.com.
- John Hospers: The Intellectual Portrait Series 14, 2005/https://web.archive.org/web/20050314044859/http://www.libertyfund.org/details.asp?displayID=1933 Archived March 14, 2005 at the Wayback Machine, Liberty Fund.
- Rand, Ayn (1995). Berliner, Michael S. (ed.). Letters of Ayn Rand. Dutton. pp. 502–564. ISBN 0525939466.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Hospers, John. Atlas Shrugged: A Twentieth Anniversary Tribute, Libertarian Review, Vol. VI, No. 6, October 1977.
- Branden, Barbara (1986). The Passion of Ayn Rand. Doubleday & Company. pp. 323–324, 413. ISBN 0385191715.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Branden, Barbara, The Passion of Ayn Rand. ibid. p. 324.
- Boaz, David (2008). "Hospers, John (1918– )". In Hamowy, Ronald (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE; Cato Institute. p. 228. doi:10.4135/9781412965811.n139. ISBN 978-1-4129-6580-4. LCCN 2008009151. OCLC 750831024.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Dionne, E. J. Why Americans Hate Politics. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991. p. 269. ISBN 978-0671682552
- "1972 Presidential General Election Results", Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections.
- "RIP Tonie Nathan, the First Woman to Receive an Electoral Vote". March 21, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Doherty, Brian (2008). Radicals for Capitalism: A Freewheeling History of the Modern American Libertarian Movement. PublicAffairs. pp. 392–393. ISBN 978-1-58648-572-6.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- White, James E. (2005). Contemporary Moral Problems. Cengage Learning. p. 321. ISBN 978-0534584306.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Cox, Stephen (June 17, 2011). "John Hospers, R.I.P." Liberty. Retrieved July 31, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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|First||Libertarian nominee for President of the United States