Patricia M. Shields
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|Patricia M. Shields|
|Research methods, civil-military relations, gender studies, public administration, pragmatism, privatization|
|Applying pragmatism to public administration|
Patricia M. Shields (born 1951) is a Professor of Political Science at Texas State University. She is also the current editor of the journal Armed Forces & Society.  Patricia M. Shields is notable for her publications focusing on research methods, civil-military relations, gender issues, and the importance of classical pragmatism in public administration. She received a BA in Economics from the University of Maryland - College Park, an MA in Economics and a PhD in Public Administration from The Ohio State University.
Patricia M. Shields is perhaps most widely known as a scholar for promoting the classical pragmatism of C. S. Peirce, William James, and John Dewey as an "organizing principle" for the discipline of public administration. Her publication, "The Community of inquiry: Classical Pragmatism and Public Administration" (2003), began an ongoing, interdisciplinary, academic debate in the journal Administration & Society. She applies the feminist pragmatism of Jane Addams to Public Administration.
Shields is also notable in the public administration community for utilizing pragmatism to advance research methodology in the field. For example, Shields is responsible in part for popularizing Dewey's notion of the working hypothesis as a method of preliminary, qualitative, exploratory research, in addition to the concept of the practical ideal type for program evaluation.
She received recognition by the American Society for Public Administration, the Section for Women in Public Administration with the Rita Mae Kelly Award for her contribution to gender studies in public administration  and recognition from the National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration with the Leslie A. Whittington Award for excellence in teaching research methods.
- (2014)Routledge Handbook of Research Methods in Military Studies New York: Routledge (Edited with Joseph Soeters and Sebastiaan Rietjens).
- (2013)A Playbook for Research Methods: Integrating Conceptual Frameworks and Project Management. Stillwater, OK: New Forums Press. (With Nandhini Rangarajan).
- (2013) "Pragmatism, Peacekeeping and the Constabulary Force" In A Bold New World: Essays on Philosophical Pragmatism and International Relations. edited by Shane Ralston. pp. 87–110. New York: Lexington Books. (With Joseph Soeters).
- (2012) Open Access Digital Repository: Sharing Student Research with the World". Journal of Public Affairs Education. 18(1):157 - 181 (With Nandhini Rangarajan and Lewis Stewart).
- (2011) "Reconciling the Varieties of Pragmatism in Public Administration." . Administration & Society, Vol. 43. No. 4. (With Travis Whetsell)
- (2011) "An American Perspective on 21st Century Expeditionary Mindset and Core Values: A Review of the Literature." Core Values and the Expeditionary Mindset: Armed Forces in Metamorphosis, edited by Henrick Furst and Gerhard Kummel pp. 17–34, Baden-Baden: Nomos. - available at Faculty Publications, Political Science, Texas State.
- (2011) "Out of the Woods: Facilitating Pragmatic Inquiry and Dialogue." Administration & Society. Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 1245–132 (with Philip Salem). http://aas.sagepub.com/content/43/1/124.abstract
- (2011) Public Service Professionals: The Legacy of Florence Nightingale, Mary Livermore and Jane Addams. In The State of Public Administration: Issues, Challenges and Opportunity. Edited by Donald Menzel and Harvey White. New York: M. E. Sharpe. (with Nandhini Rangarajan).
- (2010) "Jane Addams Theory of Democracy and Social Ethics: Incorporating a Feminist Perspective" in Women in Public Administration: Theory and Practice. edited by Maria D’Agostiono and Helisse Levine. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett. pp. 15–34.
- (2008) "Rediscovering the Taproot: Is Classical Pragmatism the Route to Renew Public Administration?" Public Administration Review. Vol.68, No. 2, pp. 205–221. Washington, DC. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1540-6210.2007.00856.x/abstract
- (2006)"Using Pragmatism to Bridge the Gap Between Academe and Practice." Faculty Publications-Political Science. http://ecommons.txstate.edu/polsfacp/1
- (2006) "Intermediate Theory: The Missing Link in Successful Student Scholarship"Journal of Public Affairs Education. (with Hassan Tajalli) Vol.12, No. 3., pp. 313–334.
- (2006) "Democracy and the Social Ethics of Jane Addams: A Vision for Public Administration." Administrative Theory and Praxis. Vol. 28, No.3 pp. 418–443. Washington, DC.
- (2006) "Civil-Military Relations: Changing Frontiers" (Review Essay). Public Administration Review. Vol. 66, No. 6. pp. 924–928. Washington, DC. (Winner: Burchfield Award-Public Administration Review).
- (2006) "Classical Pragmatism, the American Experiment and Public Administration." Handbook of Organization Theory and Management: The Philosophical Approach 2nd edition, (With Robert Brom) Edited by Thomas Lynch and Peter Cruise. pp. 301–322. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis.
- (2005) "Classical Pragmatism does NOT Need an Upgrade: Lessons for Public Administration." Administration & Society. Vol. 37, No 4 (September) pp. 504–518.
- (2005) "Classical Pragmatism: Roots and Promise for a PA Feminist Theory." Administrative Theory and Praxis27(2):370-376.
- (2004) "Classical Pragmatism: Engaging Practitioner Experience." Administration & Society, Vol. 36 No.3 (July) pp. 351–361.
- (2004) STEP By STEP: Building a Research Paper (2nd edition) Stillwater OK: New Forums Press.
- (2004) "Mary Livermore: Cooperative Womanhood Serving the State." Outstanding Women in Public Administration. Eds. C. Felbinger and W. Haynes. pp. 49–64. New York: M. E. Sharpe.
- (2003) "A Pragmatic Teaching Philosophy.” Journal of Public Affairs Education. Vol. 9, No. 1 (January) pp. 7–12.
- (2003) "The Community of inquiry: Classical Pragmatism and Public Administration." Administration & Society Vol. 35, No. 5 (November) pp. 510–538.
- (1999) "Zen and the Art of Higher Education Maintenance: Bridging Classic and Romantic Notions of Quality," Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management. Vol. 21 No. 2 pp. 165–172.
- (1999) "Getting Organized: A Pragmatic Tool for Writing Graduate Papers," Journal of Graduate Teaching Assistant Development. Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 5–17.
- (1998) "Pragmatism as a Philosophy of Science: A Tool for Public Administration." Research in Public Administration. Vol. 4. pp. 195–225.
- (1996) "Pragmatism: Exploring Public Administration's Policy Imprint." Administration and Society. Vol. 28, No. 3 (November) pp. 390–411.
- (1993) "Woman 'On War:' Marie Von Clausewitz Essential Contribution to Military Philosophy." Minerva: Quarterly Journal on Woman and the Military. (with Cecelia Rodriguez) Vol. 11, Nos. 3 & 4 (Fall/Winter) pp. 5–1.
- (1993)"A New Paradigm for Military Policy: Socio-economics." Armed Forces & Society. Vol. 19, No. 4 (Summer) pp. 511–532.
- (1990) "Military Privatization: The Normative/Affective Context" Presented at the Second Annual Conference, Society for the Advancement of Socioeconomics, Washington, DC (1990).
- (1989) "Freud, Efficiency, and Pragmatism." Transaction/Society. Vol. 26, No. 2 (Jan/Feb) pp. 67–72
- (1988) "Sex Roles in the Military." The Military - More Than a Job? edited by Charles Moskos and F. Wood. pp. 99–114. McLean, VA: Pergamon-Brassey’s International Defense Publishers.
- (1984) "The Influence of Military Policy on Black Men: Its Benefits and Burdens." Contemporary Public Policy and Black Americans. edited by M. Rice and W. Jones. pp. 93–106.
- (1981) "The Burden of the Draft: The Vietnam Years." Journal of Military and Political Sociology. Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 215–228.
- (1980) "Enlistment During the Vietnam Era and the 'Representation' Issue of the All-Volunteer Force." Armed Forces & Society. Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 133–151.
- (1980) "A Comment on Veterans Status Earnings and Race: Some Long Term Results." Armed Forces & Society. Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 171–172.
- (1980) "Reaping the Spoils of Defeat: Labor Market Benefits of Vietnam-era Veterans." Strangers at Home: Vietnam Veterans Since the War. (with A. Kohen) Edited by C. Figley and S. Leventman. pp. 181–211.
- http://www.sagepub.com/journals/Journal201730/boards Website accessed July 9, 2014.
- http://www.aspanet.org/scriptcontent/PDFs/interviewShields.pdf - website accessed 5/18/11
- http://www.polisci.txstate.edu/people/faculty/shields.html - website accessed 5/18/11
- http://aspaonline.org/swpa/current_awards.html -website accessed 5/28/11
- Patricia M. Shields, (2003). "The Community of Inquiry: Classical Pragmatism and Public Administration." Administration & Society 35 (November): 510-538. The debate began with Miller, Hugh. (2004). Why old pragmatism needs an upgrade Administration & Society Vol. 36 (May): 243-249. Miller asserted that the neopragmatism of Richard Rorty was an upgrade to classical pragmatism. Miller took issue with the Community of inquiry concept defined through 1) problematic situation, 2) scientific attitude, and 3) participatory democracy. The primary dispute occurred over scientific attitude. Shields responded: (2004) Classical Pragmatism: Engaging Practitioner Experience Administration & Society 36 (July):351-362. Other public administration scholars contributed: Snider, Keith. (2005). Rorytan Pragmatism: 'where's the beef' for public administration Administration & SocietyVol. 37 (May):243-247; Evans, Karen. (2005). Upgrade or a different animal altogether? Why old pragmatism better informs public management and new pragmatism misses the point Administration & Society Vol. 37(May) 248-255; Stocis, Gregory. (2005). A view from the trenches: Comments on Miller's Why Old Pragmatism Needs an Upgrade Administration & Society Vol. 36 (July):362-369; Hildebrand, David. (2005) "Pragmatism, Neopragmatism, and Public Administration." Administration & Society 37(July): 345-359; Hickman, Larry. (2004). On Hugh Miller on 'Why old pragmatism needs an Upgrade' Administration & Society Vol. 36: 496-499; Webb, James. (2004). Comment on Hugh T. Miller's Why old Pragmatism needs an upgrade.' Administration & Society Vol. 36: 479-495; Hoch, Charles. (2006) "What Can Rorty Teach an Old Pragmatist Doing Public Administration or Planning? "Administration & Society" 38(3) 389-398. Hugh Miller responded to these critics: (2005) Residues of foundationalism in classical pragmatism Administration & Society Vol. 37(May):360-374, which was countered by Shields (2005) summarizing the responses and reiterating classical pragmatism's applicability to public administration: "Classical Pragmatism Does Not Need and Upgrade: Lessons for Public Administration". Administration & Society 37 (September), 504-518. In 2010, Karen Evans re-energized the discussion: "Into the Woods: A Cautionary Tale for Governance." Administration & Society 42(November): 859-883. Keith Snider (2011) responded to Evans' call for pragmatism with skepticism in "On the problem of adopting pragmatism in public administration." 37: 243-247. Philip Salem and Patricia Shields responded (2011)."Out of the Woods: Facilitating pragmatic inquiry and dialogue." 43:124-132, the debate was concluded (for now) by Travis Whetsell and Patricia Shields (2011). "Reconciling the Varieties of Pragmatism in Public Administration." Administration & Society 43:474- 483. Oliver Kasdan re-articulated the neopragmatist upgrade claim - (2011) A neopragmatist approach to administrative authority: Using rorty's liberalism for social progress. Administrative Theory & Praxis. Vol. 33.No. 4.- which was countered by Whetsell, Travis. (2012). Theory Pluralism in Public Administration: Epistemology, Legitimacy, and Method. American Review of Public Administration. Forthcoming.
- Shields, Patricia M. (2010) "Jane Addams Theory of Democracy and Social Ethics: Incorporating a Feminist Perspective" in Women in Public Administration: Theory and Practice. edited by Maria D’Agostiono and Helisse Levine. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett. pp. 15–34.
- Shields, Patricia M. and Nandhini Rangarajan. (2011) Public Service Professionals: The Legacy of Florence Nightingale, Mary Livermore and Jane Addams. In The State of Public Administration: Issues, Challenges and Opportunity. Edited by Donald Menzel and Harvey White. New York: M. E. Sharpe.
- Shields, Patricia (2006) "Democracy and the Social Ethics of Jane Addams: A Vision for Public Administration." Administrative Theory and Praxis. Vol. 28, No.3 pp. 418–443. Washington, DC.
- Shields, Patricia M. (2005) "Classical Pragmatism: Roots and Promise for a PA Feminist Theory." Administrative Theory and Praxis27(2):370-376.
- http://chipbruce.wordpress.com/2010/06/21/navigating-the-corridor-of-inquiry/ - website accessed 5/24/11
- Shields, Patricia M. 1998. "Pragmatism as a Philosophy of Science: A Tool for Public Administration." Research in Public Administration Vol. 4 pp.195-225.
- Shields, Patricia and Hassan Tajalli. 2006. "Intermediate Theory: The Missing Link in Successful Student Scholarship." Journal of Public Affairs Education Vol. 12. No. 3.
- Shields, Patricia and Nandhini Rangarajan. 2013. A Playbook for Research Methods: Integrating Conceptual frameworks and Project Management. Stillwater, OK: New Forums Press
- http://newforums.com/title-list/featured-authors/pat-shields/ Website accessed July 12, 2014
- http://www.aspaonline.org/swpa/current_awards.html - website accessed 5/31/11
- http://www.naspaa.org/principals/awards/past.asp#Leslie - website accessed 5/31/11
- http://www.polisci.txstate.edu/people/faculty/shields/contentParagraph/00/content_files/file0/VITA-ps%205-3-2011.pdf website accessed 5/18/11