Ruddy duck

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Ruddy duck
File:Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis) RWD2.jpg
File:Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis) RWD3.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Anseriformes
Family: Anatidae
Subfamily: Oxyurinae
Genus: Oxyura
Species: O. jamaicensis
Binomial name
Oxyura jamaicensis
(Gmelin, 1789)
  • O. j. jamaicensis (Gmelin, 1789)
    (North American ruddy duck)
  • O. j. rubida (Wilson, 1814) (disputed)
  • O. j. andina Lehmann, 1946
    (Colombian ruddy duck)
  • O. j. ferruginea (Eyton, 1838)
    (Andean ruddy duck)
File:Oxyura jamaicensis distribution.svg
Subspecies ranges

     O. j. jamaicensis      O. j. ferruginea


Erismatura jamaicensis

The ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis) is a duck from North America and the Andes Mountains of South America, one of the stiff-tailed ducks.


These are small, compact ducks with stout, scoop-shaped bills, and long, stiff tails they often hold cocked upward. They have slightly peaked heads and fairly short, thick necks. Male Ruddy Ducks have blackish caps that contrast with bright white cheeks. In summer, they have rich chestnut bodies with bright blue bills. In winter, they are dull gray-brown above and paler below with dull gray bills. Females and first-year males are brownish, somewhat like winter males but with a blurry stripe across the pale cheek patch. In flight, Ruddy Ducks show solidly dark tops of the wings.[2]

The southern subspecies ferruginea is occasionally considered a distinct species.[3] It is separable by its all-black face and larger size. The subspecies andina has a varying amount of black coloration on its white face; it may in fact be nothing more than a hybrid population between the North American and the Andean ruddy duck. As the Colombian population is becoming scarce, it is necessary to clarify its taxonomic status, because it would be relevant for conservation purposes.[citation needed]

Standard Measurements[4][5]
length 340–430 mm (13.5–17 in)
weight 560 g (1.23 lb)
wingspan 470 mm (18.5 in)
wing 133–147.5 mm (5.24–5.81 in)
tail 67–79 mm (2.6–3.1 in)
culmen 38.5–41 mm (1.52–1.61 in)
tarsus 33–38 mm (1.3–1.5 in)

Breeding and habits

Their breeding habitat is marshy lakes and ponds. They nest in dense marsh vegetation near water. The female builds the nest out of grass, locating it in tall vegetation to hide it from predators. A typical brood contains 5 to 15 ducklings.[6] Pairs form each year.

They are migratory and winter in coastal bays and unfrozen lakes and ponds.

These birds dive and swim underwater. They mainly eat seeds and roots of aquatic plants, aquatic insects and crustaceans.

File:Oxyura jamaicensis FWS.jpg
Male on the left, female on the right

As a result of escapes from wildfowl collections in the late 1950s, they became established in Great Britain, from where they spread into Europe. This duck's aggressive courting behaviour and willingness to interbreed with the endangered native white-headed duck (Oxyura leucocephala), of southern Europe, caused concern amongst Spanish conservationists. Due to this, a controversial scheme to extirpate the ruddy duck as a British breeding species started; there have also been culling attempts in other European countries.[7][8] By early 2014, the cull had reduced the British population to about 20–100, down from a peak of about 5500 in 2000.[9]


  1. BirdLife International (2014). "Oxyura jamaicensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 19 March 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Godfrey, W. Earl (1966). The Birds of Canada. Ottawa: National Museum of Canada. p. 81.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Sibley, David Allen (2000). The Sibley Guide to Birds. New York: Knopf. p. 103. ISBN 0-679-45122-6.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. "Ruddy Duck Fact Sheet". Lincoln Park Zoo.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. "R.I.P. Ruddy duck". BBC News. 3 March 2003. Retrieved 31 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Vidal, John (8 March 2012). "Final 100 ruddy ducks in the UK facing extermination". Retrieved 31 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Langley, William (8 February 2014). "The ruddy ducks with nowhere left to hide". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 31 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links