Tertiary source

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
(Redirected from Tertiary sources)
Jump to: navigation, search

A tertiary source is an index and/or textual consolidation of primary and secondary sources.[1][2][3] Some tertiary sources are not to be used for academic research, unless they can also be used as secondary sources, or to find other sources.[4]

Overlap with secondary sources

Depending on the topic of research, a scholar may use a bibliography, dictionary, or encyclopedia as either a tertiary or a secondary source.[1] This causes difficulty in defining many sources as either one type or the other.

In some academic disciplines the distinction between a secondary and tertiary source is relative.[1][3]

In the United Nations International Scientific Information System (UNISIST) model, a secondary source is a bibliography, whereas a tertiary source is a synthesis of primary sources.[5]

Types of tertiary sources

As tertiary sources, encyclopedias, textbooks, and compendia attempt to summarize and consolidate the source materials into an overview, but may also present subjective commentary and analysis (which are characteristics of secondary sources).

Indexes, bibliographies, concordances, and databases may not provide much textual information, but as aggregates of primary and secondary sources, they are often considered tertiary sources.

Almanacs, travel guides, field guides, and timelines are also examples of tertiary sources.

Survey or overview articles are usually tertiary, though review articles in peer-reviewed academic journals are secondary (not be confused with film, book, etc. reviews, which are primary-source opinions).

Some usually primary sources, such as user guides and manuals, are secondary or tertiary (depending on the nature of the material) when written by third parties.

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Primary, secondary and tertiary sources.". University Libraries, University of Maryland. Retrieved 07/26/2013
  2. "Tertiary Information Sources". Old Dominion University -- ODU Libraries. September 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Tertiary sources". James Cook University.
  4. "Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Resources". University of New Haven.
  5. Søndergaard, T. F.; Andersen, J.; Hjørland, B. (2003). "Documents and the communication of scientific and scholarly information: Revising and updating the UNISIST model". Journal of Documentation. 59 (3): 278. doi:10.1108/00220410310472509.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>