.45 ACP

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.45 ACP
Type Pistol
Place of origin United States of America
Service history
Wars World War I – present
Production history
Designer John Browning
Designed 1905
Variants .45 ACP +P, .45 Auto Rim, .45 Super
Case type Rimless, straight
Bullet diameter .451 in (11.5 mm)
Neck diameter .473 in (12.0 mm)
Base diameter .476 in (12.1 mm)
Rim diameter .480 in (12.2 mm)
Rim thickness .049 in (1.2 mm)
Case length .898 in (22.8 mm)
Overall length 1.275 in (32.4 mm)
Case capacity 25 gr H2O (1.6 cm3)
Rifling twist 1 in 16 in (406 mm)
Primer type Large, Small pistol
Maximum pressure (C.I.P.) 19,000 psi (130 MPa)
Maximum pressure (SAAMI) 21,000 psi (140 MPa)

The .45 ACP (Automatic Colt Pistol), or .45 Auto (11.43×23mm) is a handgun cartridge designed by John Browning in 1905, for use in his prototype Colt semi-automatic pistol. After successful military trials it was adopted along with the Browning .45 Colt handgun as the .45 M1911 cartridge. The handgun was designated M1911 handgun.[1]

Design and history

The U.S. Cavalry had been buying and testing various handguns in the late 1890s and early 20th century. The .45 Colt Single Action Army (SAA) had largely been replaced, even by some double-action versions of the same caliber. The Army had fielded some double-action revolvers in .38 Long Colt. They determined the .38 caliber round was significantly less effective than the .45 Colt against determined opponents such as the Moro juramentado warriors encountered in the Moro Rebellion.[2][3][4][5] The then-current issue rifle, the .30-40 Krag, had also failed to stop Moro warriors effectively;[6] the British had similar issues switching to the .303 British, which resulted in the development of the dum-dum bullet. This experience, and the Thompson–LaGarde Tests of 1904 led the Army and the Cavalry, to decide a minimum of .45 caliber was required in the new handgun. Thompson and Major Louis Anatole La Garde of the Medical Corps arranged tests on cadavers and animal remains in the Chicago stockyards, resulting in the finding that .45 was the most effective pistol cartridge. They noted, however, training was critical to make sure a soldier could score a hit in a vulnerable part of the body.

Colt had been working with Browning on a .41 caliber cartridge in 1904, and in 1905, when the Cavalry asked for a .45 caliber equivalent, Colt modified the pistol design to fire an enlarged version of the prototype .41 round. The result from Colt was the Model 1905 and the new .45 ACP cartridge. The original round that passed the testing fired a 200 grain (13 g) bullet at 900 ft/s (275 m/s), but after a number of rounds of revisions between Winchester Repeating Arms, Frankford Arsenal, and Union Metallic Cartridge, it ended up using a 230 grain (14.9 g) bullet fired at a nominal velocity of 850 ft/s (260 m/s). The resulting .45-caliber cartridge, named the .45 ACP, was similar in performance to the .45 Schofield cartridge, and only slightly less powerful (but significantly shorter) than the .45 Colt cartridges the Cavalry was using.

By 1906, bids from six makers were submitted, among them Browning's design, submitted by Colt. Only DWM, Savage, and Colt made the first cut. DWM, which submitted two Parabellum P08s chambered in .45 ACP, withdrew from testing after the first round of tests, for unspecified reasons.[7]

In the second round of evaluations in 1910, the Colt design passed the extensive testing with no failures, while the Savage design suffered 37 stoppages or parts failures.[7] The Colt pistol was adopted as the Model 1911.

The cartridge/pistol combination was quite successful but not satisfactory for U.S. military purposes. Over time, a series of improved designs were offered, culminating in the adoption in 1911 of the "Cal. .45 Automatic Pistol Ball Cartridge, Model of 1911", a 1.273 in (32.3 mm) long round with a bullet weight of 230 grains (15 g). The very first production, at Frankford Arsenal, was marked "F A 8 11", for the August 1911 date.

The cartridge was designed by John Browning for Colt, but the most influential person in selecting the cartridge was Army Ordnance member Gen. John T. Thompson. Thompson insisted on a real "man stopper" pistol, following the poor showing of the Army's .38 Long Colt pistols during the Philippine–American War (1899–1902).[citation needed]

Cartridge dimensions

The .45 ACP is manufactured with both large and small pistol primers.

The .45 ACP has 1.62 ml (25 grains H2O) cartridge case capacity.

.45 ACP cartridge dimensions

.45 ACP maximum C.I.P. cartridge dimensions.[8] All sizes in millimeters (mm).

The common rifling twist rate for this cartridge is 406 mm (1 in 16 in), 6 grooves, Ø lands = 11.23 mm, Ø grooves = 11.43 mm, land width = 3.73 mm and the primer type is large pistol. The cartridge headspaces on the mouth of the case at the L3 datum reference.[9]

According to Commission Internationale Permanente pour l'Epreuve des Armes à Feu Portatives rulings, the .45 ACP cartridge case can handle up to 131.000 MPa (18,999.9 psi) Pmax piezo pressure. In CIP-regulated countries every pistol cartridge combination has to be proofed at 130% of this maximum CIP pressure to certify for sale to consumers. This means that .45 ACP chambered arms in C.I.P. regulated countries are currently (2016) proof tested at 170.30 MPa (24,700 psi) PE piezo pressure.[8]

The SAAMI pressure limit for the .45 ACP is set at 21,000 psi (144.79 MPa) piezo pressure,[10] while the SAAMI pressure limit for the .45 ACP +P is set at 23,000 psi (158.58 MPa), piezo pressure.


Recent testing of the three major Police and Military calibers by the Federal Bureau of investigation found that the .45 ACP was no more effective with regard to terminal ballistics than either 9 x 19mm Parabellum or .40 S&W. The FBI recommendation to return to using 9 x 19mm Parabellum was largely based on the reduction in accuracy when the .40 S&W had been adopted after a failure of the 10mm S&W handgun. The FBI had requested a large and powerful cartridge be developed due to the poor performance of 9 x 19mm Parabellum and .45 ACP in actual use. After two years of testing one of the final FBI comments was that services that adopt (or stay with .40 S&W or .45 ACP) did so at the risk of loss of accuracy and effectiveness as 9 x 19mm with premium quality ammunition outperformed both.[11]

The .45 ACP cartridge has relatively low muzzle blast and flash, but produces heavy recoil in handguns made worse in compact models. The standard issue military .45 ACP round has a 230 grain bullet that travels at approximately 830 feet per second when fired from the government issue M1911A1 pistol and approximately 950 feet per second from the M1A1 Thompson sub-machine gun. The cartridge also comes in various specialty rounds of varying weights and performance levels.[1]

It operates at a relatively low maximum chamber pressure rating of 21,000 psi (145 MPa) (compared to 35,000 psi/241 MPa for 9mm Parabellum and .40 S&W, 37,500 psi/259 MPa for 10mm Auto, 40,000 psi/276 MPa for .357 SIG), which due to a low bolt thrust helps extend service life of weapons in which it is used. Some makers of pistols chambered in .45 ACP do not certify them to use Plus P ammunition.

Drawbacks for military use include the cartridge's large size, weight, increased material costs in comparison to the smaller, flatter shooting NATO standard 9×19mm Parabellum cartridge, which uses less powder, brass and lead per round. Standard 9mm Nato ammunition has adequate armor penetration capability, a definite lack with .45 ACP whose large slow bullet does not penetrate armor to any great extent. The slow muzzle velocity also makes bullet drop at range very substantial making hits at range more difficult.

A factor rated by the recent FBI testing was accuracy and time to recover. The .45 ACP handguns ranked last, largely due to heavy recoil. The .40 S&W was found to be 40% less accurate when adopted by Police departs to replace 9mm. Additionally, some firearms selected were also less safe.[11]

In its non-expanding full metal jacket (FMJ) version, the .45 ACP cartridge has a reputation for effectiveness against human targets because its large diameter creates a deep and substantial permanent wound channel which lowers blood pressure rapidly. This is reputation only as the FBI found no effective difference in wounds from 9 x 19mm, .40 S&W or .45 ACP.[11][dubious ]

Because of its large diameter and straight-walled design, the .45 ACP geometry is the highest power-per-pressure production, repeating round in existence. This is because of the higher powers achievable with .45 Super, and +P loads. Because of these inherent low pressures of the standard pressure round however, compensators and brakes have little effect until +P and Super loads are utilized.[12]

The table below shows common performance parameters for several .45 ACP loads. Bullet weights ranging from 185 to 230 grains are common. Penetration depths from 11 inches to over 27 inches are available for various applications and risk assessments.[citation needed]

.45 ACP Cartridges

Full Metal Jacket - Original Factory Loads

Manufacturer Cartridge Bullet Weight Muzzle Velocity Muzzle Energy
Military FMJ 15 g (230 gr) 261 m/s (855 ft/s) 506 J (373 ft·lb)
Federal FMJ 15 g (230 gr) 260 m/s (850 ft/s) 500 J (369 ft·lb)
Remington FMJ 15 g (230 gr) 255 m/s (835 ft/s) 483 J (356 ft·lb)

Jacketed Hollow Point

Manufacturer Cartridge Bullet Weight Muzzle Velocity Muzzle Energy
Federal JHP 15 g (230 gr) 260 m/s (850 ft/s) 500 J (369 ft·lb)
Remington JHP 15 g (230 gr) 255 m/s (835 ft/s) 483 J (356 ft·lb)
Winchester JHP 15 g (230 gr) 270 m/s (880 ft/s) 537 J (396 ft·lb)

Plus P (not to be used in older or non Plus P certified handguns)

Manufacturer Cartridge Bullet Weight Muzzle Velocity Muzzle Energy
Atomic Ammunition Plus P JHP 15 g (230 gr) 300 m/s (1,000 ft/s) 693 J (511 ft·lb)
Speer Plus P JHP 13 g (200 gr) 330 m/s (1,080 ft/s) 702 J (518 ft·lb)
Hornady Plus P JHP 15 g (230 gr) 290 m/s (960 ft/s) 625 J (461 ft·lb)

Lead Free .45 ACP (note all are Plus P not to be used in older or non Plus P certified handguns)

Manufacturer Cartridge Bullet Weight Muzzle Velocity Muzzle Energy
Barnes Plus P JHP 12.0 g (185 gr) 300 m/s (1,000 ft/s) 557 J (411 ft·lb)
Cor-Bon Plus P JHP 12.0 g (185 gr) 328 m/s (1,075 ft/s) 644 J (475 ft·lb)
Buffalo Bore Plus P JHP 12.0 g (185 gr) 350 m/s (1,150 ft/s)0 736 J (543 ft·lb)

Magazine Capacities

With standard (not extended) single-stack magazines, pistols chambered in .45 ACP usually hold 8 rounds or less (exceptions to this include the 10-round standard 14 round extended capacity .45 ACP from Sig Sauer in their P227 [13] and 13 round Glock 21.[14] and 15 rounds, such as the .45 ACP versions of the FN FNP and FN FNX, though this greatly increases the pistol's bulk and with that lowers maneuverability.[15]


.45 ACP hollowpoint (Federal HST) with two .22LR cartridges for comparison
Side on view of Sellier & Bellot .45 ACP cartridge with a metric ruler for scale

Many US tactical police units still use the .45 pistol round, including the FBI's Hostage Rescue Team.[16][17][18] While high capacity firearms are available in .45 ACP, the greater length and diameter of the .45 ACP means that the grip of the pistol must be longer and wider than the grip of a comparable pistol of a smaller caliber; this increase in grip size can make the pistol difficult to use for shooters with smaller hands.

Today, most NATO militaries use sidearms chambered for the 9×19mm Parabellum cartridge, but the effectiveness of the .45 ACP cartridge has ensured its continued popularity with large caliber sport shooters, especially in the United States.[19] In addition, select military and police units around the world still use firearms firing the .45 ACP.[19] In 1985, the .45 ACP M1911A1 pistol was replaced by the Beretta M9 9mm pistol as the main sidearm of the U.S. military, although select Special Operations units continue to use the M1911A1 or other .45 ACP pistols.

Operating Pressures

Because standard pressure and load .45 ACP rounds fired from handguns or short barreled submachine guns are inherently subsonic, it is one of the most powerful pistol calibers available for use in suppressed weapons since subsonic rounds are quieter than supersonic rounds. The latter inevitably produce a highly compressed shock wave, audible as a loud "crack", literally a small sonic boom, while they travel through the air. Suppressors reduce the audible "report" by slowing and channeling the high speed gas generated by the burning/expanding gunpowder before it exits the muzzle resulting in a muffled "cough". Suppressors cannot act on a supersonic shock wave continuously generated by a bullet exceeding the 1,087 ft/s (331 m/s) speed of sound at 32 °F (0 °C) ambient cold temperatures, as this shock wave is continuously produced throughout the entire flight path over which the bullet is supersonic, which extends long after it exits the barrel.

The downside to the use of .45 ACP in suppressed weapons is that increasing the diameter of the passage through a suppressor decreases the suppressor's efficiency; thus, while .45 ACP is among the most powerful suppressed pistol rounds, it is also one of the loudest. Most .45 suppressors must be fired "wet" (with an ablative medium, usually water) to bring sound levels down to "hearing-safe" (under 140 dB, generally).[20]

Base of Sellier & Bellot .45 ACP cartridge, showing lacquered primer
Several .45ACP variants: hollow point, full metal jacket, WWII-era military issue birdshot
A target handload with cast 200-grain semiwadcutter bullet
A modern 230-grain jacketed hollow point bullet recovered from raw beef

Load variants

Rounds are available from 68 grains to 255 grains (4.4 g to 16.5 g) with a common load being the standard military loading of a 230-grain (15 g) FMJ bullet at around 850 ft/s (259 m/s). Specialty rounds are available in weights under 100 grains (6.5 g) and over 260 grains (16.8 g); popular rounds among reloaders and target shooters include 185-grain and 230-grain (12 g and 15 g) bullets.[citation needed] Hollow-point rounds intended for maximum effectiveness against live targets are designed to expand upon impact with soft tissue, increasing the size of the permanent cavity left by the bullet as it passes through the target.

Tracer ammunition for the .45 ACP was manufactured by Frankford Arsenal and by Remington Arms. This ammunition was available to the United States Border Patrol as early as 1940 and was used through World War II for emergency signalling by downed United States Navy and Marine Corps air crew. Tracer ammunition was identified by painting the bullet tip red.[21]

Plus P

Most ammunition manufacturers also market what are termed "+P" (pronounced "plus P") loadings in pistol ammunition, including the .45 ACP. This means the cartridge is loaded to a higher maximum pressure level than the original SAAMI cartridge standard, generating higher velocity and more muzzle energy. In the case of the .45 ACP, the standard cartridge pressure is 21,000 psi (140 MPa) and the SAAMI .45 ACP +P standard is 23,000 psi (160 MPa). This is a common practice for updating older cartridges to match the better quality of materials and workmanship in modern firearms.[19]

The terminology is generally given as ".45 ACP +P", and appears on the headstamp. It is important to note that +P cartridges have the same external dimensions as the standard-pressure cartridges and will chamber and fire in all firearms designed for the standard-pressure loadings. However, it should be noted that the inner dimensions of the +P cartridge are different from the standard-pressure cartridge dimensions and thus allows for higher pressures to be safely achieved in the +P cartridge. If +P loadings are used in firearms not specifically designed for them they may cause damage to the weapon and injuries to the operator.


Popular derivative versions of the .45 ACP are the .45 Super and .460 Rowland.[19] The Super is dimensionally identical to the .45 ACP; however, the cartridge carries a developer established pressure of 28,500 psi (197 MPa) and requires minor modification of quality firearms for use. The Rowland case is 0.057 inches (1.4 mm) longer specifically to prevent it from being chambered in standard .45 ACP firearms. The Rowland operates at a developer established 40,000 c.u.p. and may only be used within a select group of firearms significantly modified for this purpose. Brass cases for each of these cartridges carry the applicable name within the headstamp. The Super provides approximately 20% greater velocity than the .45 ACP +P; the Rowland approximately 40% greater velocity than the .45 ACP +P.[19]


  • 1899/1900: Self-loading pistols test: Colt M1900 of .38 caliber entered.
  • 1904: Thompson-LaGarde Tests—caliber of new handgun should be at least .45.
  • 1906–1907: Handgun trials—Colt enters with .45 ACP design.
  • 1910: Final tests—Colt pistol (designed by John Browning) out-performs Savage.
  • March 29, 1911: The Colt pistol is officially adopted as the Model 1911—and with it the .45 ACP cartridge.


  • .45 Auto
  • .45 M1911 (US Military)
  • S.A. .450 (Commonwealth Military)
  • 11.43×23mm (Metric)

Related rounds


See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 Barnes, Fred C (2014). Cartridges of the World. Iola, WI, USA: Krause Publications. ISBN 978-1-4402-4265-6.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. DK (October 2, 2006). Weapon: A Visual History of Arms and Armor. DK Publishing. pp. 290–. ISBN 978-0-7566-4219-8.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Green Muse Writers Collective, The (December 2008). Keep Calm Carry on: A Survival Guide. iUniverse. pp. 138–. ISBN 978-1-4401-0249-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. http://www.manilatimes.net/juramentados-and-the-development-of-the-colt-45-caliber-model-1911/107609/
  5. http://www.bagongkasaysayan.org/saliksik/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/13-Artikulo-Lasco.pdf
  6. 1911 History 16, 2006/https://web.archive.org/web/20060716083501/http://www.sightm1911.com/1911%20History.htm Archived July 16, 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  7. 7.0 7.1 Background
  8. 8.0 8.1 C.I.P. TDCC sheet .45 Auto
  9. Wilson, R. K. Textbook of Automatic Pistols, p.229. Plantersville, SC: Small Arms Technical Publishing Company, 1943. ISBN 0-935632-89-1
  10. "SAAMI Pressures". Archived from the original on October 14, 2007. Retrieved November 29, 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 "Case Closed: FBI Says 9mm Is The Best Pistol Round". grandviewoutdoors.com. Retrieved February 23, 2017. “There is little to no noticeable difference in the wound tracks between premium line law Auto enforcement projectiles from 9mm Luger through the .45 Auto.”<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. McAlpine, Alex. "Pressure to power of combat cartridges". BrainLubeOnline.com. Retrieved November 10, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. "Sig Sauer P227 .45 ACP 14RD Extended Magazine". topgunsupply.com. Retrieved February 23, 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. "Top 5 .45s for Home Defense". gunsamerica.com. Retrieved February 23, 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. Ayoob, Massad. "Choose your ammo ... police style". Backwoods Home Magazine. Archived from the original on February 25, 2007. Retrieved February 21, 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. Diez, Octavio. Special Police Task Forces. Lima Publications. p. 40.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> ISBN 978-84-95323-43-9
  17. Hogg, Ian. Jane's Gun Recognition Guide, 2nd Edition. Harper Collins Publishers. p. 113.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. Hopkins, Cameron (2000). "Most Wanted". American Handgunner. Publishers Development Corporation. Retrieved February 21, 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 Barnes, Frank C.; Skinner, Stan (2003). Cartridges of the World: 10th Edition, Revised and Expanded. Krause Publications. p. 528. ISBN 978-0-87349-605-6.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. Truby, J. David(1987)Silencers, Snipers, and Assassins...an Overview of Whispering Death, Paladin Press, Boulder, CO, 216 pp. ISBN 0-87364-012-8
  21. Andrews, Dave 45 ACP Tracers on page 20 of February 2002 American Rifleman magazine
  22. "Short History of the .451 Detonics Magnum". August 5, 2012. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. [1]
  24. "Cartridge Interchangeability". TINCANBANDIT's Gunsmithing. October 15, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links