From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1510s 1520s 1530s – 1540s – 1550s 1560s 1570s|
|Years:||1538 1539 1540 – 1541 – 1542 1543 1544|
|1541 by topic|
|Arts and science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2294|
|English Regnal year||32 Hen. 8 – 33 Hen. 8|
|Chinese calendar||庚子年 (Metal Rat)
4237 or 4177
— to —
辛丑年 (Metal Ox)
4238 or 4178
|- Vikram Samvat||1597–1598|
|- Shaka Samvat||1463–1464|
|- Kali Yuga||4642–4643|
|Japanese calendar||Tenbun 10
|Minguo calendar||371 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2083–2084|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1541.|
- February 12 – Pedro de Valdivia founds Santiago del Nuevo Extremo which will become the capital of Chile.
- April 7 – Francis Xavier leaves Lisbon on a mission to the Portuguese East Indies.
- April 24 – Battle of Sahart: The Emperor of Ethiopia defeats an attack by the forces of Imam Ahmad Gragn.
- May 8 – Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto reaches the Mississippi River, naming it the Rio de Espiritu Santo ("River of the Holy Spirit").
- May 23 – Jacques Cartier departs from Saint-Malo, France on his third voyage.
- June 18 – By the Crown of Ireland Act, the Parliament of Ireland declares King Henry VIII of England and his heirs to be Kings of Ireland, replacing the Lordship of Ireland with the Kingdom of Ireland.
- July 9 – Estêvão da Gama departs Massawa, leaving behind 400 matchlock men and 150 slaves under his brother Cristóvão da Gama, with orders to assist the Emperor of Ethiopia to defeat Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi, who has invaded his Empire.
- August 29 – The Janissaries of Suleiman the Magnificent take Buda by ruse, hiding themselves as visitors.
- October – An Algerian military campaign by Charles V of Spain (Habsburg) is unsuccessful.
- The Portuguese defeat the Muslims near Lake Tana.
- Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent seals off The Golden Gate in Jerusalem.
- Iceland adopts the Lutheran faith.
- Gerardus Mercator makes his first globe.
- The first official translation of the entire Bible into Swedish is made.
- John Calvin translates his Institutio Christianae religionis into French as L'Institution chrétienne.
- Elia Levita's chivalric romance, the Bovo-Bukh, is first printed, the earliest published secular work in Yiddish.
- January 24 – Magdalena Moons, Dutch heroine (d. 1613)
- January 26 – Florent Chrestien, French writer (died 1596)
- February 21 – Philipp V, Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg (d. 1599)
- March 25 – Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (died 1587)
- April 8 – Michele Mercati, Italian physician and gardener (died 1593)
- August 12 – Ipatii Potii, Metropolitan of Kiev (d. 1613)
- September 7
- September 16 – Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex, English nobleman (died 1576)
- September 17 – Roberto de' Nobili, Italian cardinal (d. 1559)
- September 21 – Anna of Nassau-Dillenburg, Countess consort of Nassau-Weilburg (d. 1616)
- November 9 – Menso Alting, Preacher and reformer (d. 1612)
- November 25 – Michele Bonelli, Catholic cardinal (d. 1598)
- December 12 – Johann Bauhin, Swiss botanist (d. 1613)
- date unknown
- Pierre Charron, French philosopher (died 1603)
- El Greco, or Domênikos Theotokópoulos (Greek: Δομήνικος Θεοτοκόπουλος), Cretian painter, sculptor and architect (died 1614)
- Hatano Hideharu, Japanese samurai (died 1579)
- Mizuno Tadashige, Japanese nobleman (died 1600)
- Guðbrandur Þorláksson, mathematician (died 1627)
- Hattori Hanzō, Ninja who served under Tokugawa Ieyasu (died 1596)
- April – Jerzy Radziwiłł, Polish nobleman (born 1480)
- May 27 – Margaret Pole, 8th Countess of Salisbury (executed) (born 1473)
- June 26 – Francisco Pizarro, Spanish conquistador (born c. 1475)
- July 4 – Pedro de Alvarado, Spanish conquistador (born 1495)
- August – Juan de Valdés, Spanish religious writer (born 1500)
- August 1 – Simon Grynaeus, German scholar and theologian (born 1493)
- September 24 – Paracelsus, Swiss alchemist and physician (born 1493)
- October 18 – Margaret Tudor, queen of James IV of Scotland (born 1489)
- November – Wolfgang Fabricius Capito, German reformer (born 1478)
- November 30 – Amago Tsunehisa, Japanese warlord
- December 10 – Thomas Culpeper, English courtier (executed)
- December 24 – Andreas Karlstadt, Christian theologian and reformer (born 1486)
- date unknown