|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1550s 1560s 1570s – 1580s – 1590s 1600s 1610s|
|Years:||1580 1581 1582 – 1583 – 1584 1585 1586|
|1583 by topic|
|Arts and science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2336|
|English Regnal year||25 Eliz. 1 – 26 Eliz. 1|
|Chinese calendar||壬午年 (Water Horse)
4279 or 4219
— to —
癸未年 (Water Goat)
4280 or 4220
|- Vikram Samvat||1639–1640|
|- Shaka Samvat||1505–1506|
|- Kali Yuga||4684–4685|
|Japanese calendar||Tenshō 11
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||329 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2125–2126|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1583.|
1583 (MDLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (dominical letter B) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday (dominical letter F) of the Julian calendar, the 1583rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 583rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 83rd year of the 16th century, and the 4th year of the 1580s decade. Note that the Julian day for 1583 is 10 calendar days difference, which continued to be used from 1582 until the complete conversion of the Gregorian calendar was entirely done in 1929.
- January 18 – François, Duke of Anjou, attacks Antwerp.
- February 4 – Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg, newly converted to Calvinism, formally marries Agnes von Mansfeld-Eisleben, a former canoness of Gerresheim, while retaining his position as Archbishop-Elector of Cologne.
- March 10 – The Queen Elizabeth's Men troupe of actors is ordered to be founded in England.
- May – Battle of Shizugatake in Japan: Shibata Katsuie is defeated by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who goes on to commence construction of Osaka Castle.
- May 22 – Ernest of Bavaria is elected as Roman Catholic Archbishop of Cologne in opposition to Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg. The opposition rapidly turns into armed struggle, the Cologne War within the Electorate of Cologne, beginning with the Destruction of the Oberstift.
- July 25 – Cuncolim Revolt: the first documented battle of India's independence against a European colonial ruler is fought by the Desais of Cuncolim in Goa, against the Portuguese.
- August 5 – Sir Humphrey Gilbert, on the site of the modern-day city of St John's, Newfoundland, claims the island of Newfoundland on behalf of England, marking the beginning of the British Empire.
- August 19 – Petru Cercel enters Bucharest, and becomes Prince of Wallachia.
- December 17 – Cologne War: The Siege of Godesberg (begun on November 18) concludes when Catholic forces under Prince-elector-archbishop Ernest of Bavaria capture the strategic position from defenders of the Calvinist convert Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg.
- The world's oldest, intact, still-surviving amusement park, Dyrehavsbakken, is founded north of Copenhagen.
- The Bunch Of Grapes pub is built on Narrow Street, London. Referred to by Charles Dickens in Our Mutual Friend as "The Six Jolly Fellowship Porters", it still stands in the 21st century, much rebuilt and renamed The Grapes.
- From 28 May until 9 November, the first translation of the complete Bible into the Slovene language: Bibilija, tu je vse svetu pismu stariga inu noviga testamenta, slovenski tolmačena skuzi Jurija Dalmatina (work by Jurij Dalmatin, 1578) is published in Wittenberg.
- January 8 – Simon Episcopius, Dutch theologian (d. 1643)
- March 3 – Edward Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Cherbury, English diplomat, poet, and philosopher (d. 1648)
- April 10 – Hugo Grotius, Dutch philosopher and writer (d. 1645)
- June 16 – Axel Oxenstierna, Lord High Chancellor of Sweden (d. 1654)
- June 20 – Jacob De la Gardie, Swedish soldier and statesman (d. 1652)
- July 2 – Dodo Knyphausen, German soldier (d. 1636)
- September – Girolamo Frescobaldi, Italian composer (d. 1643)
- September 24 – Albrecht von Wallenstein, Austrian general (d. 1634)
- November 24 – Juan Martínez de Jáuregui y Aguilar, Spanish poet (d. 1641)
- December 17 – Robert Bertie, 1st Earl of Lindsey, English adventurer and soldier (d. 1642)
- December 25 – Orlando Gibbons, English composer (d. 1625)
- date unknown
- Hendrick Jacobszoon Lucifer, Dutch pirate and buccaneer (d. 1627)
- Johann Heinrich Alting, German divine (d. 1644)
- John Beaumont, English poet (d. 1627)
- Bonaventura Elzevir, Dutch printer (d. 1652)
- Stanisław Lubomirski, Polish nobleman (d. 1649)
- Philip Massinger, English dramatist (d. 1640)
- Hayashi Razan, Japanese neo-Confucianist scholar (d. 1657)
- March 18 – King Magnus of Livonia (b. 1540)
- April – Lucas David, Prussian historian (b. 1503)
- May 6 – Zacharias Ursinus, German theologian (b. 1534)
- June 6
- June 9 – Thomas Radclyffe, 3rd Earl of Sussex, Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland (b. 1525)
- July 1 – Sakuma Morimasa, Japanese samurai and warlord (beheaded)
- July 6 – Edmund Grindal, Archbishop of Canterbury (b. 1519)
- September 9 – Humphrey Gilbert, English explorer (born c. 1537)
- September 16 – Catherine Jagiellon, queen of John II of Sweden (b. 1526)
- November 11 – Gerald FitzGerald, 15th Earl of Desmond, Irish rebel
- November 24 – René de Birague, French cardinal and chancellor (b. 1506)
- December 14 – Ivan Fyodorov, Russian printer
- December 31 – Thomas Erastus, Swiss theologian (b. 1524)
- date unknown
- "The London Charles Dickens Knew", walksoflondon.co.uk.