This article is about the year 1605.
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1605 (MDCV) was a common year starting on Saturday (dominical letter B) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday (dominical letter F) of the Julian calendar, the 1605th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 605th year of the 2nd millennium, the 5th year of the 17th century, and the 6th year of the 1600s decade. Note that the Julian day for 1605 is 10 calendar days difference, which continued to be used from 1582 until the complete conversion of the Gregorian calendar was entirely done in 1929.
- January 16 – The first part of Miguel de Cervantes' satire on the theme of chivalry, Don Quixote (El ingenioso hidalgo don Quixote de la Mancha, "The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote of La Mancha"), is published in Madrid. One of the first significant novels in the western literary tradition, it becomes a global bestseller almost at once.
- March 11 – A proclamation declares all people of Ireland to be the direct subjects of the British Crown and not of any local lord or chief.
- April 1 – Pope Leo XI succeeds Pope Clement VIII as the 232nd pope.
- April 13 – Tsar Boris Godunov dies; Feodor II accedes to the Russian throne.
- April 16 – In England, John Winthrop, later governor of the future Massachusetts Bay Colony, marries his first wife (of 4), Mary Forth, daughter of John Forth, of Great Stambridge, Essex.
- May 16 – Pope Paul V succeeds Pope Leo XI as the 233rd pope, making this the last Year of Three Popes until 1978.
- June 1 – Russian troops in Moscow imprison Feodor II and his mother, later executing them.
- June 20 – Pretender Dmitriy and his supporters, including troops of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, march to Moscow.
The Red Hall, Bourne
, England, dating from 1605
- Tokugawa Ieyasu abdicates as shogun of Japan, becoming Ogosho. His son Tokugawa Hidetada succeeds him to the office.
- Habitation at Port-Royal established by France under Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons, the first European colonization of Nova Scotia in North America (at this time part of Acadia); the Gregorian calendar is adopted.
- Crew of the Olive become the first English visitors to Barbados.
- Refugee French Huguenot merchants begin to settle in Dublin and Waterford.
- The Priory of St. Gregory's is founded at Douai, Flanders, at this time in the Spanish Netherlands, by its first prior, John Roberts, and other exiles, thus becoming the first English Benedictine house to renew conventual life after the English Reformation. More than two centuries later the community will establish Downside Abbey back in England.
- The Irish College in Paris is co-founded by John Lee, an Irish priest, and John de l'Escalopier, President of the Parlement.
- Central Mexico's Amerindian population reaches one million.
- April 8 – King Philip IV of Spain (d. 1665)
- April 18 – Giacomo Carissimi, Italian composer (d. 1674)
- May 7 – Patriarch Nikon of Moscow, Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church (d. 1681)
- June 15 – Thomas Randolph, English poet and dramatist (d. 1635)
- July 25 – Theodore Haak, German scholar (d. 1690)
- July 29 – Simon Dach, Prussian lyrical poet and writer of hymns (d. 1659)
- August – Bulstrode Whitelocke, English lawyer and parliamentarian (d. 1675)
- August 8 – Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore, English colonial Governor of Maryland (d. 1675)
- August 18 – Henry Hammond, English churchman (d. 1660)
- September 12 – William Dugdale, English antiquary (d. 1686)
- September 14 – Brynjólfur Sveinsson, Icelandic bishop and scholar (d. 1675)
- September 28 – Ismaël Bullialdus, French astronomer (d. 1694)
- October 19 – Sir Thomas Browne English physician and philosopher (d. 1682)
- October 22 – Frédéric Maurice de La Tour d'Auvergne, prince of the independent principality of Sedan (d. 1652)
- November 4 – William Habington, English poet (d. 1654)
- December 23 – Tianqi Emperor, Ming emperor of China (d. 1627)
- date unknown
- approximate date
- February 19 – Orazio Vecchi, Italian composer (b. 1550)
- March 5 – Pope Clement VIII (b. 1536)
- April 5 – Adam Loftus, English Catholic archbishop (b. c.1533)
- April 6 – John Stow, English historian and antiquarian (b. 1525)
- April 13 – Boris Godunov, Tsar of Russia (b. 1551)
- April 25 – Naresuan, Siamese King of Ayutthaya kingdom (b. c.1555)
- April 27 – Pope Leo XI (b. 1535)
- June 3 – Jan Zamoyski, Polish nobleman (b. 1542)
- July 20 – Tsar Feodor II of Russia (b. 1589)
- July 26 – Rev. Fr. Miguel de Benavides, O.P., Spanish clergyman and sinologist (b. 1552)
- September 11 – Sir Thomas Tresham, English politician (b. 1550)
- September 14 – Jan Tarnowski, Archbishop of Kraków (b. 1550)
- September 23 – Pontus de Tyard, French poet (b. c. 1521)
- September 24 – Manuel Mendes, Portuguese composer (b. 1547)
- October 13 – Theodore Beza, French theologian (b. 1519)
- October 27 – Akbar, Mughal Emperor (b. 1542)
- November 8 – Robert Catesby, English conspirator (b. 1573)
- November 10 – Ulisse Aldrovandi, Italian naturalist (b. 1522)
- December – Francis Tresham, English conspirator (b. 1567)
- December 29 – John Davis, English explorer (b. 1550)
- date unknown – Marek Sobieski, Polish nobleman (b. 1549)