|Centuries:||17th century – 18th century – 19th century|
|Decades:||1700s 1710s 1720s – 1730s – 1740s 1750s 1760s|
|Years:||1735 1736 1737 – 1738 – 1739 1740 1741|
|1738 by topic:|
|Arts and Sciences|
|Archaeology – Architecture – Art – Literature (Poetry) – Music – Science|
|Canada –Denmark – France – Great Britain – Ireland – Norway – Scotland –Sweden –|
|Lists of leaders|
|Colonial governors – State leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2491|
|British Regnal year||11 Geo. 2 – 12 Geo. 2|
|Chinese calendar||丁巳年 (Fire Snake)
4434 or 4374
— to —
戊午年 (Earth Horse)
4435 or 4375
|- Vikram Samvat||1794–1795|
|- Shaka Samvat||1660–1661|
|- Kali Yuga||4839–4840|
|Japanese calendar||Genbun 3
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 11 days|
|Minguo calendar||174 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2280–2281|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1738.|
1738 (MDCCXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (dominical letter E) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday (dominical letter A) of the Julian calendar, the 1738th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 738th year of the 2nd millennium, the 38th year of the 18th century, and the 9th year of the 1730s decade. Note that the Julian day for 1738 is 11 calendar days difference, which continued to be used from 1582 until the complete conversion of the Gregorian calendar was entirely done in 1929.
- February 4 – Court Jew Joseph Süß Oppenheimer is executed in Württemberg.
- March/April – Emperor Iyasu II of Ethiopia is defeated by the Funj at the Battle of the Dindar River.
- April 15 – Serse, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel, premieres in London.
- May 24 – John Wesley experiences a spiritual rebirth at a Moravian Church meeting in Aldersgate in the City of London, essentially launching the Methodist movement; the day is celebrated annually by Methodists as Aldersgate Day. His younger brother Charles had a similar experience three days earlier.
- September 18 – Samuel Johnson composes his first solemn prayer (published 1785).
- November 18 – The Treaty of Vienna is ratified, ending the War of the Polish Succession. Under the terms of the treaty, Stanisław Leszczyński receives Lorraine in exchange for renouncing the Polish throne.
- Specific date unknown: Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach - having completed a law degree - was hired as a court musician by Crown Prince Frederick of Prussia, the future Frederick the Great. Bach was to remain in Frederick's service until 1768.
- Russo–Turkish War (1735–1739): The Russian army fails to cross the Dniester. They are decimated by plague.
- China's Qing government announces that all western businessmen have to use the Cohong in Guangzhou to trade.
- The excavation of Herculaneum, a Roman city buried by Vesuvius in AD 79, begins.
- Pierre Louis Maupertuis publishes Sur la figure de la terre, which confirms Newton's view that the earth is an oblate spheroid slightly flattened at the poles.
- Jacques de Vaucanson presents the world's first automaton, The Flute Player (1737) to the French Academy of Sciences.
- Black Forest clockmaker Franz Ketterer produces one of the earliest cuckoo clocks.
- Holy Royal Arch is founded.
- January 21 – Ethan Allen, American patriot (d. 1789)
- April 12 – Padre Francisco Garcés, Spanish missionary (d. 1781)
- April 14 – William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1809)
- April 16 – Henry Clinton, British officer (d. 1795)
- May 1 – King Kamehameha I of Hawaii (d. 1819)
- May 27 – Nathaniel Gorham, American politician (d. 1796)
- May 28 – Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, French physician (d. 1814)
- June 4 – King George III of the United Kingdom (d. 1820)
- July 3 – John Singleton Copley, American painter (d. 1815)
- July 20 – Darejan Dadiani, Georgian queen consort (d. 1807)
- September 25 – Nicholas Van Dyke, American lawyer and President of Delaware (d. 1789)
- October 11 – Arthur Phillip, British admiral and Governor of New South Wales (d. 1814)
- October 18 – Andrei Bolotov, Russian agriculturalist and memoirist (d. 1833)
- November 15 – William Herschel, German-born astronomer (d. 1822)
- December 31 – Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis, British general (d. 1805)
- Date unknown – Etteilla, French occult cartomancer (d. 1791)
- January 30 – Benoit de Maillet, French Naturalist (b. 1656)
- February 15 – Matthias Braun, Czech sculptor (b. 1684)
- March 16 – George Bähr, German architect (b. 1666)
- March 25 – Turlough O'Carolan, Irish harper and composer (b. 1670)
- May 1 – Charles Howard, 3rd Earl of Carlisle, English statesman (b. c. 1669)
- May 15 – Sir John Chesshyre, English lawyer (b. 1662)
- June 5 – Isaac de Beausobre, French Protestant pastor (b. 1659)
- June 21 – Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend, English politician (b. 1674)
- September 23 – Herman Boerhaave, Dutch humanist and physician (b. 1668)
- December 22 – Constantia Jones, English prostitute (executed) (b. c. 1708)