1775

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This article is about the year 1775.
Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries: 17th century18th century19th century
Decades: 1740s  1750s  1760s  – 1770s –  1780s  1790s  1800s
Years: 1772 1773 177417751776 1777 1778
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1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (dominical letter A) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday (dominical letter D) of the Julian calendar, the 1775th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 775th year of the 2nd millennium, the 75th year of the 18th century, and the 6th year of the 1770s decade. Note that the Julian day for 1775 is 11 calendar days difference, which continued to be used from 1582 until the complete conversion of the Gregorian calendar was entirely done in 1929.

Events

Summary

The American Revolution begins this year, with the first military engagement being the April 19 Battles of Lexington and Concord on the day after Paul Revere's now-legendary ride. The Second Continental Congress takes various steps toward organizing an American government, appointing George Washington commander-in-chief (June 14), Benjamin Franklin postmaster general (July 26) and creating a Continental Navy (October 13) and a Marine force (November 10) as landing troops for it, but as yet the 13 colonies have not declared independence, and both the British (June 12) and American (July 15) governments make laws. On July 6, Congress issues the Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms and on August 23, King George III of England declares the American colonies in rebellion, announcing it to parliament on November 10. On June 17, two months into the colonial siege of Boston, at the Battle of Bunker Hill, just north of Boston, British forces are victorious, but only after suffering severe casualties and after Colonial forces run out of ammunition, Fort Ticonderoga is taken by American forces in New York Colony's northern frontier, and American forces unsuccessfully invade Canada, with an attack on Montreal defeated by British forces on November 13 and an attack on Quebec repulsed December 31.

Human knowledge and mastery over nature advances when James Watt builds a successful prototype of a steam engine, and a scientific expedition continues as Captain James Cook claims the South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands in the south Atlantic Ocean for Britain. Nature's power over humanity is dramatically demonstrated when the Independence Hurricane (August 29 – September 13) devastates the east coast of North America, killing 4,173, and when, a smallpox epidemic begins in New England.

January–June

July–December

August 18: Tucson is founded

Date unknown

The Honourable Mrs Graham (1757–1792) painted by Gainsborough in 1775


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References

  1. 1.0 1.1 de Madriaga, Isabel (January 1974). "Catherine II and the Serfs: A Reconsideration of Some Problems". The Slavonic and East European Review. 52 (126): 34–62. Retrieved 2013-04-19. 
  2. "Battles of Lexington and Concord", Britannica Student Encyclopedia, p. 454, 2006, The American Revolution began on April 19, 1775, with the Battles of Lexington and Concord. 
  3. Leamon, James S. Revolution Downeast: The War for American Independence in Maine (1995) University of Massachusetts Press pp.62-67
  4. Scherer, F. M. (1965). "Invention and Innovation in the Watt-Boulton Steam-Engine Venture". Technology and Culture. 6: 165–87. JSTOR 3101072. 
  5. "The Invention of the Steam Engine: The Life of James Watt. Part 4: The Steam Engine Gains Popularity". About.com Inventors. Retrieved 2011-02-25. 

Further reading