This article is about the year 1806.
An enamelled date from a plaque in Stamford
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1806 (MDCCCVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (dominical letter E) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday (dominical letter G) of the Julian calendar, the 1806th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 806th year of the 2nd millennium, the 6th year of the 19th century, and the 7th year of the 1800s decade. Note that the Julian day for 1806 is 12 calendar days difference, which continued to be used from 1582 until the complete conversion of the Gregorian calendar was entirely done in 1929.
- July 4
- July 10 – Vellore Mutiny, the first mutiny by Indian sepoys against the East India Company.
- July 12 – Sixteen German Imperial States leave the Holy Roman Empire and form the Confederation of the Rhine &ndash Liechtenstein being given full sovereignty – leading to collapse of the Empire after 8 centuries.
- July 15 – Pike expedition: Near St. Louis, Missouri, United States Army Lieutenant Zebulon Pike leads an expedition from Fort Bellefontaine to explore the west.
- July 23 – A British expeditionary force of 1,700 men landed on the left bank of the Río de la Plata and invaded Buenos Aires.
- August – English seal hunter Abraham Bristow discovers the Auckland Islands.
- August 6 – Francis II, the last Holy Roman Emperor, abdicates, thus ending the Holy Roman Empire after about a millennium.
- September – Prussia declares war on France, and is joined by Saxony and other minor German states.
- September 23 – The Lewis and Clark Expedition reaches St. Louis, Missouri, ending a successful exploration of the Louisiana Territory and the Pacific Northwest.
- January 1 – Lionel Kieseritzky, Baltic German chess player (d. 1853)
- January 27 – Juan Crisóstomo Arriaga, Spanish composer (d. 1826)
- February 22 – Józef Kremer, Polish messianic philosopher (d. 1875)
- March 4 – Ephraim Wales Bull, Creator of the Concord grape (d. 1895)
- March 6 – Elizabeth Barrett Browning, English poet (d. 1861)
- March 12 – Jane Pierce, First Lady of the United States (d. 1863)
- March 21 – Benito Juárez, Mexican statesman and folk hero (d. 1872)
- April 3 – Ivan Kireyevsky, Russian literary critic and philosopher (d. 1856)
- April 6 – Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl, German scholar (d. 1876)
- April 9 – Isambard Kingdom Brunel, British engineer (d. 1859)
- May 2 – Catherine Labouré, French visionary and saint (d. 1876)
- May 20 – John Stuart Mill, British philosopher (d. 1873)
- June 12 – John Augustus Roebling, German-born engineer (d. 1869)
- June 27 – Augustus De Morgan, British mathematician and logician (d. 1871)
- January 23 – William Pitt the Younger, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1759)
- February 2 – Rétif de la Bretonne, French writer (b. 1734)
- February 16 – Franz von Weyrother, Austrian general (b. 1755)
- February 19 – Elizabeth Carter, English writer (b. 1717)
- February 20 – Lachlan McIntosh, Scottish-born American military and political leader (b. 1725)
- March 23 – George Pinto English composer (b. 1785)
- March 30 – Georgiana Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire (b. 1757)
- April 9 – William V, Prince of Orange (b. 1748)
- April 22 – Pierre-Charles Villeneuve, French admiral (stabbed) (b. 1763)
- May 9 – Robert Morris (financier), Financier of the American Revolution (b. 1734)
- May 24 – John Campbell, 5th Duke of Argyll, British field marshal (b. 1723)
- June 23 – Mathurin Jacques Brisson, French naturalist (b. 1723)
- July 10 – George Stubbs, English painter (b. 1724)
- July 11 – James Smith, American signer of the United States Declaration of Independence
- August 10 – Michael Haydn, Austrian composer (b. 1737)
- August 22 – Jean-Honoré Fragonard, French painter (b. 1742)
- August 23 – Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, French physicist (b. 1736)
- September 9 – William Paterson, signer of the United States Constitution, Governor of New Jersey (b. 1745)
- October 9 – Benjamin Banneker, American astronomer and surveyor (b. 1731)
- October 10 – Louis Ferdinand of Prussia, German prince (killed in battle) (b. 1772)
- October 25 – Henry Knox, Secretary of War under George Washington (b. 1750)
- November 23 – Roger Newdigate, British politician (b. 1719)
- December 22 – William Vernon, American merchant (b. 1719)