This article is about the year 1836.
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1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (dominical letter CB) of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Wednesday (dominical letter ED) of the Julian calendar, the 1836th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 836th year of the 2nd millennium, the 36th year of the 19th century, and the 7th year of the 1830s decade. Note that the Julian day for 1836 is 12 calendar days difference, which continued to be used from 1582 until the complete conversion of the Gregorian calendar was entirely done in 1929.
- July 13 – The first numbered U.S. Patent 1 (after filing 9,957 unnumbered patents) is granted, to John Ruggles for improvements to railroad steam locomotive tires.
- July 20 – Charles Darwin climbs Green Hill on Ascension Island.
- July 21 – The Champlain and St. Lawrence Railroad opens between St. John and La Prairie, Quebec, the first steam-worked passenger railroad in British North America.
- July 27 – Adelaide, South Australia, is founded.
- July 30 – The first English-language newspaper is published in Hawaii.
- August 17 – Marriage Act in the United Kingdom establishes civil marriage and registration systems that permit marriages in nonconformist chapels, and a Registrar General of Births, Marriages, and Deaths.
- August 30 – The city of Houston, Texas, is founded.
- September 1 – Rebuilding begins at the Hurva Synagogue in Jerusalem.
- September 5 – Sam Houston is elected as the first president of the Republic of Texas.
- October 2 – Charles Darwin returns to England aboard HMS Beagle with biological data he will later use to develop his theory of evolution, having left South America on August 17.
- October 13 – Theodor Fliedner, a Lutheran minister, and Friederike, his wife, open the Deaconess Home and Hospital at Kaiserswerth, Germany, as an institute to train women in nursing.
- October 22 – Sam Houston is inaugurated as first elected President of the Republic of Texas.
- October 24 – The earliest United States patent for a phosphorus friction match is granted to Alonzo Dwight Phillips of Springfield, Massachusetts.
- October 25 – Construction begins on the Wilmington and Raleigh Railroad in North Carolina. Due to a lack of support in Raleigh, the route is revised to run from Wilmington to the Petersburg Railroad in Weldon.
- December 4 – Whig Party holds its first national convention, in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.
- December 7 – United States presidential election, 1836: Martin Van Buren defeats William Henry Harrison.
- December 15 – The United States Patent Office burns in Washington, D.C.
- December 26 – The Crown colony of South Australia is officially proclaimed (now celebrated in the state of South Australia as Proclamation Day).
- December 27 – Lewes avalanche: An avalanche at Lewes in Sussex, England, kills eight of fifteen people buried when a row of cottages is engulfed in snow.
- December 28 – Spain recognizes the independence of Mexico.
- December 28 – Colony of South Australia founded by Captain John Hindmarsh
- December 30 – In Saint Petersburg, the Lehman Theater catches fire, killing 800 people.
- January 2 – Mendele Mocher Sforim, Russian Yiddish writer (d. 1917)
- January 10 – Charles Phillip Ingalls, Pioneer father of author Laura Ingalls Wilder (d. June 8, 1902)
- January 14 – Henri Fantin-Latour, French painter (d. 1904)
- January 27 – Leopold von Sacher-Masoch, Austrian writer (d. 1895)
- February 16 – Robert Halpin, Irish mariner and cable layer (d. 1894)
- February 18 – Ramakrishna Paramhansa, Bengali religious leader (d. 1886)
- February 21 – Léo Delibes, French composer (d. 1891)
- February 24 – Winslow Homer, American painter (d. 1910)
- March 4 – Stuart Robson, American stage comedian (d. 1903)
- March 12 – Isabella Beeton, British cook and expert on household management (d. 1865)
- March 20
- April 27 – Major Charles Bendire, U.S. Army captain and ornithologist (d. 1897)
- May 23 – Touch the Clouds, native American chieftain of Teton Lakota Sioux.
- May 27 – Jay Gould, American financier (d. 1892)
- May 28
- May 31 – Jules Chéret, French printmaker (d. 1932)
- June 16 – Wesley Merritt, American general (d. 1910)
- July 8 – Joseph Chamberlain, British politician (d. 1914)
- July 9 – Camille of Renesse-Breidbach, Belgian nobleman, entrepreneur and author (d. 1904)
- August 5 – John T. Raymond, American actor (d. 1887)
- August 13 – Bishop Nikolai of Japan, Russian Orthodox priest (d. 1912)
- August 25 – Bret Harte, American writer (d. 1902)
- September 7 – Henry Campbell-Bannerman, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1908)
- September 10 – Joseph Wheeler, American general and politician (d. 1906)
- September 11 – Fitz Hugh Ludlow, American author (d. 1870)
- September 17 – William Jackson Palmer, founder of Colorado Springs, Colorado (d. 1909)
- September 26 – Thomas Crapper, English plumber and inventor (d. 1910)
- September 30 – Remigio Morales Bermúdez, Peruvian politician, 56th President of Peru (d. 1894)
- October 15 – James Tissot, French artist (d. 1902)
- November 11 – Thomas Bailey Aldrich, American poet and novelist (d. 1907)
- November 18
- January 1 – Bernhard Meyer, German physician and ornithologist (b. 1767)
- January 11 – John Molson, Canadian entrepreneur (b. 1763)
- January 21 – Ferenc Novák, Hungarian Slovene writer (b. 1791)
- January 30 – Betsy Ross, maker of the first American flag (b. 1752)
- January 31 – John Cheyne, British physician, surgeon and author (b. 1777)
- February 18 – Cornplanter, Seneca chief (b. 1750)
- March 6 (at the Alamo)
- March 16 – Nathaniel Bowditch, American mathematician (b. 1773)
- March 27 – James Fannin, Texas Revolutionary (b. 1804)
- April 7 – William Godwin, English writer (b. 1756)
- April 29 – Simon Kenton, frontiersman and American Revolutionary militia general (b. 1755)
- June 10 – André-Marie Ampère, French physicist (b. 1775)
- June 28 – James Madison, 4th President of the United States (b. 1751)
- August 20 – Agnes Bulmer, English poet (b. 1775)
- August 21 – Claude-Louis Navier, French engineer and physicist (b. 1785)
- August 25 – Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland, German physician (b. 1762)
- September 5 – Ferdinand Raimund, Austrian playwright (b. 1790)
- September 12 – Christian Dietrich Grabbe, German playwright (b. 1801)
- September 14 – Aaron Burr, Vice President of the United States (b. 1756)
- September 17 – Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, French botanist (b. 1748)
- November – Tenskwatawa, Shawnee prophet and political leader (b. 1775)
- November 5 – Karel Hynek Mácha, Czech poet (b. 1810)
- November 6 – King Charles X of France (b. 1757)
- November 16 – Christiaan Hendrik Persoon, Dutch mycologist (b. 1761)
- December 27 – Stephen F. Austin, American pioneer (b. 1793)