This article is about the year 1841.
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1841 (MDCCCXLI) was a common year starting on Friday (dominical letter C) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday (dominical letter E) of the Julian calendar, the 1841st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 841st year of the 2nd millennium, the 41st year of the 19th century, and the 2nd year of the 1840s decade. Note that the Julian day for 1841 is 12 calendar days difference, which continued to be used from 1582 until the complete conversion of the Gregorian calendar was entirely done in 1929.
- January 20 – Charles Elliot of the United Kingdom and Qishan of the Qing dynasty agree to the Convention of Chuenpee.
- January 26 – Britain occupies Hong Kong. Later in the year, the first census of the island records a population of about 7,500.
- January 27 – The active volcano Mount Erebus in Antarctica is discovered and named by James Clark Ross.
- January 28 – Ross discovers the "Victoria Barrier", later known as the Ross Ice Shelf. On the same voyage, he discovers the Ross Sea, Victoria Land and Mount Terror.
- January 30 – A fire ruins and destroys two-thirds of the villa (modern-day city) of Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.
- February 4 – First known reference to Groundhog Day in North America, in the diary of a James Morris.
- February 10 – Act of Union (British North America Act, 1840) proclaimed in Canada.
- February 11 – The two colonies of The Canadas are merged into the United Province of Canada.
- February 18 – The first ongoing filibuster in the United States Senate begins and lasts until March 11.
- February 20 – The Governor Fenner, carrying emigrants to the United States, sinks off Holyhead (Wales) with the loss of 123 lives.
- February – El Salvador proclaims itself an independent republic, bringing an end to the (already de facto defunct) Federal Republic of Central America.
- March 4 – Martin Van Buren is succeeded as President of the United States by William Henry Harrison.
- March 9 – United States v. The Amistad: The Supreme Court of the United States rules in the case that the Africans who seized control of the ship had been taken into slavery illegally.
- March 12 – SS President under the command of the legendary captain Richard Roberts ("I'd Go to Sea in a Bathtub") founders in rough seas with all passengers and crew lost.
- January 7 – Bernadette Soubirous, French visionary from Lourdes (d. 1879)
- January 14 – Berthe Morisot, French painter (d. 1895)
- January 23 – Benoît-Constant Coquelin, French actor,Cyrano de Bergerac (d. 1909)
- January 25 – Jackie Fisher, British admiral (d. 1920)
- January 28 – Henry Morton Stanley, Welsh explorer and journalist (d. 1904)
- February 2 – François-Alphonse Forel, Swiss hydrologist (d. 1912)
- February 4 – Clément Ader, French engineer, inventor, and airplane pioneer (d. 1926)
- February 18 – Gergely Luthár, Hungarian Slovene writer (d. 1925)
- February 25 – Pierre-Auguste Renoir, French painter (d. 1919)
- March 8 – Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., U.S. Supreme Court Justice (d. 1935)
- April 9 – William George Aston, British consular official (d. 1911)
- April 10 – Adolfo Rivadeneyra, Spanish traveler, diplomat and writer (d.1882)
- April 13 – Louis-Ernest Barrias, French sculptor (d. 1905)
- May 10 – James Gordon Bennett, Jr., American newspaper publisher (d. 1918)
- May 15 – Clarence Dutton, American geologist (d. 1912)
- June 1 – Edward Lyon Buchwalter, Captain in American Civil War, President of Superior Drill Company, President of American Seeding Machine Company and first President of The Citizens National Bank of Springfield, Ohio (d. 1933)
- August 6 – Florence Baker, Hungarian-born explorer (d. 1916)
- August 25 – Emil Kocher, Swiss medical researcher, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1917)
- August 28 – Louis Le Prince, French Inventor "Father of Cinematography" (d. 1890)
- September 8
- September 28 – Georges Clemenceau, French statesman (d. 1929)
- October 7 – King Nicholas I of Montenegro (d. 1921)
- October 16 – Prince Hirobumi Ito, Japanese governor of Korea (d. 1909)
- November 6
- November 9 – Edward VII (d. 1910)
- November 13 – Edward Burd Grubb, Jr., American Civil War Union Brevet Brigadier General (d.1913)
- November 20 – Wilfrid Laurier, 7th Prime Minister of Canada (d. 1919)
- December 6 – Frédéric Bazille, French painter (d. 1870)
- December 20 – Ferdinand Buisson, French pacifist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1932)
- January 15 – Johann Jacob Friedrich Wilhelm Parrot, Baltic German naturalist and traveller (b. 1792)
- February 17 – Ferdinando Carulli, Italian guitarist (b. 1770)
- March 1 – Claude Victor-Perrin, Duc de Belluno, French marshal (b. 1764)
- March 12 – Richard Roberts, captain of SS President (b. 1803)
- March 16 – Félix Savart, French physicist (b. 1791)
- April 4 – William Henry Harrison, 9th President of the United States (b. 1773)
- April 10 – William Lloyd, Welsh Anglican priest turned schoolteacher and Methodist preacher (b. 1771)
- April 28 – Peter Chanel, French Roman Catholic missionary (martyred) (b. 1803)
- April 30 – Peter Andreas Heiberg, Danish author and philologist (b. 1758)
- May 20 – Joseph Blanco White, British theologian (b. 1775)
- May 23 – Franz Xaver von Baader, German philosopher and theologian (b. 1765)
- June 1 – David Wilkie, Scottish artist (b. 1785)