This article is about the year 1843.
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1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (dominical letter A) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday (dominical letter C) of the Julian calendar, the 1843rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 843rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 43rd year of the 19th century, and the 4th year of the 1840s decade. Note that the Julian day for 1843 is 12 calendar days difference, which continued to be used from 1582 until the complete conversion of the Gregorian calendar was entirely done in 1929.
- January 3 – Publication in China of Illustrated Treatise on the Maritime Kingdoms (海國圖志, Hǎiguó Túzhì) compiled by Wei Yuan and others, the first significant Chinese work on the West.
- January 6 – Antarctic explorer James Clark Ross discovers Snow Hill Island.
- January 20 – Honório Hermeto Carneiro Leão, Marquis of Paraná, becomes de facto first prime minister of the Empire of Brazil.
- February 3 – Uruguayan Civil War: Argentina supports Oribe of Uruguay and begins a siege of Montevideo.
- February 6 – The Virginia Minstrels perform the first minstrel show, at the Bowery Amphitheatre in New York City.
- February 11 – Giuseppe Verdi's opera I Lombardi alla prima crociata premieres at La Scala in Milan.
- February 14 – The event that inspired the Beatles song "Being for the Benefit of Mr. Kite!" is held in England.
- February 25 – Lord George Paulet occupies the Kingdom of Hawaii in the name of Great Britain in the Paulet Affair (1843).
- March 8 – The Danish government re-establishes the Althing in Iceland as an advisory body, by royal decree.
- March 13 – Catawba County, North Carolina, is created and its first court held in Mathias Barringer Jr.'s house.
- March 15 – Victoria, British Columbia, is founded by the Hudson's Bay Company as a trading post and fort.
- March 16 – The city of Petrópolis is founded by the government of Brazil.
- March 21 – The world does not end, contrary to the first prediction by American preacher William Miller.
- March 24 – Battle of Hyderabad: The Bombay Army led by Major General Sir Charles Napier defeats the Talpur Emirs, securing Sindh as a Province of British India.
- March 25 – Marc Isambard Brunel's Thames Tunnel, the first tunnel under the River Thames and the world's first bored underwater tunnel, is opened in London.
- July 1 – Graduation from a class of 39 at the United States Military Academy, West Point, of Ulysses S. Grant (21st) and John J. Peck (8th).
- July 19 – Isambard Kingdom Brunel's SS Great Britain is launched from Bristol; it will be the first iron-hulled, propeller-driven ship to cross the Atlantic Ocean.
- July 25 - Père Antoine Désiré Mégret, a Capuchin missionary, purchases for $900 the land that will become Abbeville, Louisiana, a town founded by descendants of Acadians from Nova Scotia.
- August 1 – Brazil becomes the second country, after Great Britain, to issue nationally valid postage stamps with the release of its "Bull's Eye" series.
- August 15 – Tivoli Gardens, one of the oldest still intact amusement parks in the world, opens in Copenhagen, Denmark.
- January 8
- January 10 – Frank James, American outlaw (d. 1915)
- January 29 – William McKinley, 25th President of the United States (d. 1901)
- February 6 – Frederic W. H. Myers, British poet (d. 1901)
- February 19 – Adelina Patti, Spanish opera singer (d. 1919)
- February 22 – Rudolf Montecuccoli, Austro-Hungarian admiral (d. 1922)
- March 17 – Henry Ware Lawton, American general (d. 1899)
- April 4 – William Henry Jackson, American explorer and photographer (d. 1942)
- April 15 – Henry James, American novelist (d. 1916)
- April 25 – Princess Alice of the United Kingdom, third child of Queen Victoria (d. 1878)
- May 20 – Itō Sukeyuki, Japanese admiral (d. 1914)
- May 21 – Charles Albert Gobat, Swiss politician, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1914)
- June 3 – King Frederick VIII of Denmark (d. 1912)
- June 9 – Bertha von Suttner, Austrian writer and pacifist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1914)
- June 15 – Edvard Grieg, Norwegian composer (d. 1907)
- June 30 – Sir Ernest Satow, British diplomat and scholar (d. 1928)
- July 7 – Camillo Golgi, Italian physician, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1926)
- July 19 – Francis J. Higginson, United States Navy admiral (d. 1931)
- July 29 – Johannes Schmidt, German linguist (d. 1901)
- August 1 – Robert Todd Lincoln, American statesman and businessman (d. 1926)
- August 20 – Christina Nilsson, Swedish operatic soprano (d. 1921)
- August 31 – Georg von Hertling, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1919)
- September 4 – Ján Levoslav Bella, Slovak composer (d. 1936)
- September 23 – Melville Reuben Bissell, American entrepreneur and inventor of the Carpet sweeper (d. 1889)
- September 29 – Mikhail Skobelev, Russian general (d. 1882)
- October 4 – Marie-Alphonsine Danil Ghattas, Palestinian Catholic nun, canonized (d. 1927)
- October 25 – Pierre Lallement, French inventor of the bicycle (d. 1891)
- November 19 – C. X. Larrabee, American businessman (d. 1914)
- November 25 – Henry Ware Eliot, American industrialist, philanthropist and father of T. S. Eliot (d. 1919)
- November 27 – Cornelius Vanderbilt II, American railway magnate (d. 1899)
- November 29 – Gertrude Jekyll, English garden designer, writer and artist (d. 1932)
- December 11 – Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch, German physician, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1910)
- December 28 – Colonel Prentiss Ingraham, American author of dime fiction (d. 1904)
- July 2 – Samuel Hahnemann, German physician (b. 1755)
- July 7 – John Holmes, American politician (b. 1773)
- July 14 – Miguel de Álava, Spanish soldier and statesman (b. 1770)
- August – Sequoyah, creator of the Cherokee syllabary (b. c. 1767)
- September 4 – Léopoldine Hugo, daughter of Victor Hugo (b. 1824)
- September 11 – Joseph Nicollet, geographer (b. 1786)
- September 16 – Ezekiel Hart, Canadian entrepreneur & politician (b. 1770 or 1767)
- November 28 – József Ficzkó, Burgenland Croatian writer (b. 1772)
- December 12 – King William I of the Netherlands (b. 1772)
- December 18 – Thomas Graham, Lord Lynedoch, British Governor-General of India (b. 1748)
- ↑ Hao, Yen-p'ing; Wang, Erh-min (1980). Fairbank, John King; Twitchett, Denis Crispin, eds. The Cambridge History of China: Late Ch'ing 1800-1911. Cambridge History of China. 11. Cambridge University Press. p. 148. ISBN 978-0521-2202-93.
- ↑ Leonard, Jane Kate (1984). Wei Yuan and China's Rediscovery of the Maritime World. Harvard East Asian Monographs. Cambridge, Mass.: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University. ISBN 978-0674-9485-56.
- ↑ "Emperor Street". World Digital Library. 1860–1870. Retrieved 2013-08-24.
- ↑ Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- ↑ "Royal Visit". The Bristol Mirror. 20 July 1843. pp. 1–2.
- ↑ Fuegi, John; Francis, Jo (October–December 2003). "Lovelace & Babbage and the creation of the 1843 'notes'". IEEE Annals of the History of Computing. 25 (4): 16–26. doi:10.1109/MAHC.2003.1253887.
- ↑ "Ada Byron, Lady Lovelace". Archived from the original on 21 July 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-11.
- ↑ Menabrea, L. F. (1843). "Sketch of the Analytical Engine Invented by Charles Babbage". Scientific Memoirs. 3. Archived from the original on 13 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-01.
- ↑ "William Rowan Hamilton Plaque". Geograph. 2007. Retrieved 2011-03-08.
- ↑ Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 266–267. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- ↑ Dickens, Charles (2006). Douglas-Fairhurst, Robert, ed. A Christmas Carol and other Christmas Books. Oxford world's classics. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280694-9.
- ↑ Buday, György (1992). "The history of the Christmas card". Omnigraphics: 8.
- ↑ Joule, J. P. (1843). "On the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat". Abstracts of the Papers Communicated to the Royal Society of London. 5: 839. doi:10.1098/rspl.1843.0196. Retrieved 2012-01-27.
- ↑ Meggs, Philip B. (1998). A History of Graphic Design (3rd ed.). Wiley. p. 147. ISBN 978-0-471-29198-5. It receives U.S. Patent 5,199 in 1847 and is placed in commercial use the same year.