This article is about the year 1844.
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1844 (MDCCCXLIV) was a leap year starting on Monday (dominical letter GF) of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Saturday (dominical letter BA) of the Julian calendar, the 1844th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 844th year of the 2nd millennium, the 44th year of the 19th century, and the 5th year of the 1840s decade. Note that the Julian day for 1844 is 12 calendar days difference, which continued to be used from 1582 until the complete conversion of the Gregorian calendar was entirely done in 1929.
- April – The Fleet Prison for debtors in London is closed, marking a significant milestone in the country's human rights record.
- May 1 – Hong Kong Police Force, the world's second, Asia's first modern police force is established.
- May 23 – Persian Prophet The Báb privately announces his revelation to Mullá Husayn, just after sunset, founding the Bábí faith (later evolving into the Bahá'í Faith as the Báb intended) in Shiraz, Persia (now Iran). Contemporaneously, on this day in nearby Tehran, was the birth of `Abdu'l-Bahá; the eldest Son of Bahá'u'lláh, Prophet-Founder of the Bahá'í Faith, the inception of which, the Báb's proclaimed His own mission was to herald. `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself was later proclaimed by Bahá'u'lláh to be His own successor, thus being the third "central figure" of the Bahá'í Faith.
- May 24 – The first electrical telegram is sent by Samuel Morse from the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C. to the B&O Railroad "outer depot" in Baltimore, saying "What hath God wrought".
- June–July – The Great Flood of 1844 hits the Missouri River and Mississippi River.
- June 6 – George Williams founds the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) in London.
- January 9 – Julián Gayarre, Spanish opera singer (d. 1890)
- February 17 – Aaron Montgomery Ward, American department store founder (d. 1913)
- February 20
- February 21 – Charles-Marie Widor, French organist and composer (d. 1937)
- February 28 – French Ensor Chadwick, American admiral (d. 1919)
- March 10 – Pablo de Sarasate, Spanish violinist (d. 1908)
- March 18 – Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Russian composer (d. 1908)
- March 25 – Adolf Engler, German botanist (d. 1930)
- March 30 – Paul Verlaine, French poet (d. 1896)
- April 16 – Anatole France, French writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1924)
- May 3
- May 14 – Alexander Kaulbars, Russian general and explorer (d. 1925)
- May 17 – Julius Wellhausen, German biblical scholar (d. 1918)
- May 19 – William M. Folger, American admiral (d. 1928)
- May 21 – Henri Rousseau, French artist (d. 1910)
- May 22 – Mary Cassatt, American artist (d. 1926)
- May 23 – `Abdu'l-Bahá, Persian Bahá'í religious leader (d. 1921)
- June 3 – Garret A. Hobart, 24th Vice President of the United States (d. 1899)
- July 11 – King Peter I of Serbia (d. 1921)
- July 22 – William Archibald Spooner, British scholar and Anglican priest (d. 1930)
- July 28 – Gerard Manley Hopkins, English poet (d. 1889)
- July 30 – Robert Jones Burdette, American minister and sentimental humorist (d. 1914)
- August 5
- August 6 – Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (d. 1900)
- August 17 – Menelik II, Emperor of Ethiopia (d. 1913)
- August 22 – George Washington DeLong, American naval officer and explorer (d. 1881)
- August 23 – Hamilton Disston, American land developer (d. 1896)
- August 29 – Edward Carpenter, English Socialist poet (d. 1929)
- August 30 – Emily Ruete, princess of Zanzibar (d. 1924)
- September 13 – Ludwig von Falkenhausen, German general (d. 1936)
- September 16 – Claude-Paul Taffanel, French flutist and composer (d. 1908)
- September 20 – William H. Illingworth, American photographer (d. 1893)
- October 5 – Francis William Reitz, 5th State President of the Orange Free State (d. 1934)
- October 15 – Friedrich Nietzsche, German philosopher (d. 1900)
- October 22 – Louis Riel, Canadian leader (d. 1885)
- October 23
- October 24 – Karl Lueger, Vienna's mayor (d. 1910)
- October 27 – Klas Pontus Arnoldson, Swedish writer and pacifist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1916)
- November 2 – Mehmed V, Ottoman Sultan (d. 1918)
- November 10 – Henry Eyster Jacobs, American Lutheran theologian (d. 1932)
- November 11 – Marcelino Crisologo, Filipino politician, playwright, writer and poet (d. 1927)
- November 13 – Andrew Harper, Scottish-Australian biblical scholar and teacher (d. 1936)
- January 25 – Jean-Baptiste Drouet, Comte d'Erlon, French marshal (b. 1765)
- January 27 – Charles Nodier, French writer (b. 1780)
- January 29 – Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (b. 1784)
- February 15 – Henry Addington, 1st Viscount Sidmouth, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1757)
- February 27 – Nicholas Biddle, president of the Second Bank of the United States (b. 1786)
- March 8 – King Charles XIV John of Sweden, Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, French Napoleonic general (b. 1763)
- March 20 – Claude Pierre Pajol, French military leader (b. 1772)
- April 3 – Edward Bigge, English cleric, 1st Archdeacon of Lindisfarne (b. 1807)
- April 13 – Mamiya Rinzō, Japanese explorer of Sakhalin (b. 1775)
- May 18 – Richard McCarty, American politician (b. 1780)
- June 13 – Thomas Charles Hope, Scottish chemist and discoverer of strontium (b. 1766)
- June 15 – Thomas Campbell, Scottish poet (b. 1777)
- June 27