This article is about the year 1847. For the number, see 1847 (number)
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1847 (MDCCCXLVII) was a common year starting on Friday (dominical letter C) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday (dominical letter E) of the Julian calendar, the 1847th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 847th year of the 2nd millennium, the 47th year of the 19th century, and the 8th year of the 1840s decade. Note that the Julian day for 1847 is 12 calendar days difference, which continued to be used from 1582 until the complete conversion of the Gregorian calendar was entirely done in 1929.
- January 4 – Samuel Colt sells his first revolver pistol to the U.S government.
- January 13 – The Treaty of Cahuenga ends the fighting in the Mexican–American War in California.
- January 16 – John C. Frémont is appointed Governor of the new California Territory.
- January 17 – St. Anthony Hall is founded at Columbia University, New York City, New York.
- January 30 – Yerba Buena, California is renamed San Francisco.
- February 5 – A rescue effort, called the First Relief, leaves Johnson's Ranch to save the ill-fated Donner Party. These California bound emigrants became snowbound in the Sierra Nevada in the winter of 1846–47, and some had resorted to cannibalism to survive.
- February 22 – Mexican–American War – The Battle of Buena Vista: 5,000 American troops under General Zachary Taylor use their superiority in artillery to drive off 15,000 Mexican troops under Antonio López de Santa Anna, defeating the Mexicans the next day.
- March 1
- March 4 – The 30th United States Congress is sworn into office.
- March 9 – Mexican–American War: United States forces under General Winfield Scott invade Mexico near Veracruz.
- March 14 – Verdi's opera Macbeth premieres at Teatro della Pergola in Florence, Italy.
- March 29 – Mexican–American War: United States forces led by General Winfield Scott take Veracruz after a siege.
- January 5 – Oku Yasukata, Japanese field marshal and a leading figure in the early Imperial Japanese Army (d. 1930)
- January 7 – Caspar F. Goodrich, American admiral (d. 1925)
- January 24 – Radomir Putnik, Serbian general (d. 1917)
- January 28 – Dorus Rijkers, Dutch naval hero (d. 1928)
- February 8 – Hugh Price Hughes, Methodist social reformer, first Superintendent of the West London Mission (d. 1902)
- February 11 – Thomas Alva Edison, American inventor (d. 1931)
- February 15 – Robert Fuchs, Austrian composer (d. 1927)
- February 16 – Philipp Scharwenka, Polish-German composer (d. 1917)
- March 3 – Alexander Graham Bell, Scottish-born inventor (d. 1922)
- March 4 – Carl Josef Bayer, Austrian chemist (d. 1904)
- March 8 – John Lister, English politician (d. 1933)
- March 14 – Castro Alves, Brazilian poet (d. 1871)
- March 23 – Edmund Gurney, British psychologist (d. 1888)
- March 27 – Otto Wallach, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1931)
- April 2 – Flora Annie Steel, English writer (d. 1929)
- April 10 – Joseph Pulitzer, Hungarian-born journalist and newspaper publisher (d. 1911)
- May 7 – Archibald Primrose, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1929)
- June 8 – Ida Saxton McKinley, U.S. First Lady (d. 1907)
- June 11 – Millicent Fawcett, British suffragist and feminist (d. 1929)
- July 9 – Wong Fei-hung, Chinese healer and revolutionary (d. 1924)
- July 20 – Max Liebermann, German painter and printmaker (d. 1935)
- July 25 – Paul Langerhans, German pathologist and biologist (d. 1888)
- August 14 – Karl Oskar Medin, Swedish scientist and pediatrician (1927)
- August 21 – Hale Johnson, American temperance movement leader (d. 1902)
- September 3 – Charles Stillman Sperry, American admiral (d. 1911)
- September 5 – Jesse James, American outlaw (d. 1882)
- October 1 – Annie Besant, English women's rights activist, writer and orator (d. 1933)
- October 2 – Paul von Hindenburg, President of Germany (d. 1934)
- October 14 – Wilgelm Vitgeft, Russian admiral (d. 1904)
- October 17 – Chiquinha Gonzaga, Brazilian composer (d. 1935)
- November 2 – Georges Sorel, French socialist (d. 1922)
- November 7 – Lotta Crabtree, American stage actress (d. 1924)
- November 8 – Bram Stoker, creator of the Gothic novel Dracula (d. 1912)
- November 26 – Dagmar of Denmark, empress of Tsar Alexander III of Russia (d. 1928)
- November 30 – Afonso Pena, Brazilian president (d. 1909)
- December 7 – George Grossmith, English actor and comic writer (d. 1912)
- December 18 – Augusta Holmès, French composer (d. 1903)
- December 17
- December 28 – Giuseppe Maria Giulietti, Italian explorer (d. 1881)
- January 19 – Charles Bent, first Governor of New Mexico Territory (assassinated)
- March 9 – Mary Anning, British paleontologist (b. 1799)
- April 21 – Barbara Spooner Wilberforce, wife of British Abolitionist William Wilberforce (b. 1777)
- April 30 – Archduke Charles of Austria, Austrian general (b. 1771)
- May 14 – Fanny Mendelssohn, German composer and pianist (b. 1805)
- May 15 – Daniel O'Connell, Irish politician, who promoted the Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829 (b. 1775)
- May 29 – Emmanuel de Grouchy, Marquis de Grouchy, French marshal (b. 1766)
- May 31 – Abbasgulu Bakikhanov, Azerbaijani writer (b. 1794)