This article is about the year 1868.
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1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (dominical letter ED) of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Monday (dominical letter GF) of the Julian calendar, the 1868th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 868th year of the 2nd millennium, the 68th year of the 19th century, and the 9th year of the 1860s decade. Note that the Julian day for 1868 is 12 calendar days difference, which continued to be used from 1582 until the complete conversion of the Gregorian calendar was entirely done in 1929.
- January 2 – British Expedition to Abyssinia: Robert Napier leads an expedition to free captive British officials and missionaries.
- January 3 – The 15-year-old Mutsuhito, Emperor Meiji of Japan, declares the "Meiji Restoration", his own restoration to full power, under the influence of supporters from the Chōshū and Satsuma Domains and against the supporters of the Tokugawa shogunate, triggering the Boshin War.
- January 5 – Paraguayan War: Brazilian Army commander Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias enters Asunción, Paraguay's capital. Some days later he declares the war is over. Nevertheless, Francisco Solano López, Paraguay's president, prepares guerrillas to fight in the countryside.
- January 7 – Arkansas constitutional convention meets in Little Rock.
- January 9 – Penal transportation from Britain to Australia ends with arrival of the convict ship Hougoumont in Western Australia after an 89-day voyage from England. There are 62 Fenians among the transportees.
- January 10 – Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu declares the emperor's declaration "illegal" and prepares to attack Kyoto.
- January 27–31 – Battle of Toba–Fushimi: forces of the Tokugawa shogunate and the allied pro-Imperial forces of the Chōshū, Satsuma and Tosa Domains clash near Fushimi, Kyoto, ending in a decisive victory for the Imperial forces (although in the January 28 naval Battle of Awa the Shogunate is victorious against Satsuma).
- February – Foreign ministers meeting in Hyōgo are persuaded to recognise the restored Emperor Meiji of Japan with promises that harbours will be open in accordance with international treaties.
- February 13 – The British War Office sanctions the formation of what becomes the Army Post Office Corps.
- February 16 – In New York City the Jolly Corks organization is renamed the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks (BPOE).
- February 24
- March – French geologist Louis Lartet discovers the first identified skeletons of Cro-Magnon, the first early modern humans (early Homo sapiens sapiens), at Abri de Crô-Magnon, a rock shelter at Les Eyzies, Dordogne, France.
- March 12 – Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Edinburgh, is shot in the back in Sydney, Australia, at a fund raising event for the Sydney Sailors Home by Irishman Henry James O'Farrell. The prince survives and quickly recovers; O'Farrell is executed on April 21 despite attempts by the prince to gain clemency for him.
- March 23 – The University of California is founded in Oakland, California, when the Organic Act is signed into California law.
- March 24 – The Metropolitan Life Insurance Company is formed.
- March 27 – The Lake Ontario Shore Railroad Company is organized in Oswego, New York.
- April 1 – The Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute is established in Hampton, Virginia.
- April 7 – The Charter Oath, drawn up by his councilors, is promulgated at the enthronement of the Emperor Meiji of Japan, promising deliberative assemblies and an end to feudalism.
- April 9 – Emperor Tewodros II of Ethiopia massacres at least 197 of his own people at Magdala. These are prisoners incarcerated, for the most part, for very trivial offenses, and are killed for requesting bread and water.
- April 9–April 13 – Battle of Magdala: A British-Indian task force under Robert Napier inflicts 700 deaths and a crushing defeat on the army of Emperor Tewodros II; the British and Indians suffer 30 wounded, 2 of whom die subsequently. Tewodros commits suicide and Magdala is captured, ending the British Expedition to Abyssinia.
- April 11–July – Fall of Edo: the Japanese city is surrendered to the Emperor Meiji. The Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu submits to the Emperor.
- April 29 – General William Tecumseh Sherman brokers the Treaty of Fort Laramie between the federal government of the United States and the Plains Indians.
- May 10–14 – Battle of Utsunomiya Castle (Boshin War) in Japan: forces of the Emperor Meiji resist the retreating troops of the Tokugawa shogunate.
- May 16 – President Andrew Johnson is acquitted during his impeachment trial, by one vote in the United States Senate.
- May 26 – Fenian bomber Michael Barrett becomes the last person publicly hanged in the United Kingdom.
- May 29 – The Parliament of the United Kingdom passes the Capital Punishment Amendment Act, thus ending public hanging.
- May 30 – Memorial Day is observed in the United States for the first time (it was proclaimed on May 5 by General John A. Logan).
- May 31
- June 2 – The first Trades Union Congress is held in Manchester, England.
- June – Titokowaru's War breaks out in the South Taranaki District of New Zealand's North Island between the Ngāti Ruanui Māori tribe and the New Zealand Government.
- June 20 – Fort Fred Steele is established to protect what is at this time the western terminus of the Union Pacific Railway, near the modern-day Sinclair, Wyoming.
- July 1 – The cable-operated West Side and Yonkers Patent Railway in Manhattan becomes the first elevated railway in the United States.
- July 4 – Battle of Ueno: Imperial Japanese troops defeat the Shōgitai (forces remaining loyal to the Shogun).
- July 5 – Preacher William Booth establishes the Christian Mission, predecessor of The Salvation Army, in the East End of London.
- July 9 – The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified.
- July 18 – The Navajo people begin their long march home.
- July 25 – Wyoming becomes a United States territory.
- July 25 – the Allies in an amphibious operation capture the fortress of Humaitá in the Paraguayan War.
- July 27 – The United States Expatriation Act ("An Act concerning the Rights of American Citizens in foreign States") is adopted.
- July 28 – The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is adopted, including the Citizenship Clause and the Equal Protection Clause, legally, if not actually, guaranteeing African Americans full citizenship and equal protection and all persons in the United States due process of law.
- August 13 – Arica earthquake in southern Peru (at this time) with an estimated magnitude between 8.5 and 9.0 kills around 25,000 with the resultant tsunami recorded on the far side of the Pacific Ocean.
- August 18 – The element later named as helium is first detected in the spectrum of the Sun's chromosphere by French astronomer Jules Janssen during a total eclipse in Guntur, British India, but is assumed to be sodium.
- August 20 – Abergele rail disaster in Wales: An Irish Mail passenger train collides with 4 cargo trucks loaded with paraffin: 33 are killed (the first major train disaster in Britain).
- August 22 – The Yangzhou riot in China targets a station of the China Inland Mission, and nearly leads to war between Britain and China.
- September – Glorious Revolution: Queen Isabella II of Spain is effectively deposed and sent into exile; she formally abdicates on June 25, 1870.
- September 3 – The Emperor Meiji of Japan announces that the name of the city of Edo is to be changed to Tokyo.
- September 7 – Titokowaru's War: Māori leader Titokowaru defeats a New Zealand military force at Te Ngutu o Te Manu, North Island.
- September 18 – The University of the South holds its first convocation in Sewanee, Tennessee.
- September 23 – Grito de Lares: Rebels (some 400–600 led by Ramón Emeterio Betances) in the town of Lares declare Puerto Rico independent; the local militia easily defeats them a week later.
- September 24 – Croatian–Hungarian Settlement (Croatian: Hrvatsko-ugarska nagodba, Hungarian: Horvát–magyar kiegyezés, German: Kroatisch-Ungarischer Ausgleich) is concluded, governing Croatia's political status in the Hungarian-ruled part of Austria-Hungary until 1918.
- January 6 – Vittorio Monti, Italian composer (d. 1922)
- January 9 – S. P. L. Sørensen, Danish chemist (d. 1939)
- January 11 – Cai Yuanpei, Chinese educator (d. 1940)
- January 12 – Ioannis Trilivas, Greek general (d. ? )
- January 15 – Otto von Lossow, Bavarian and German general (d. 1938)
- January 21 – Felix Hoffmann, German chemist (d. 1946)
- January 31 – Theodore William Richards, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1928)
- February 5 – Maxine Elliott, actress, (d. 1940)
- February 10 – William Allen White, American journalist (d. 1944)
- February 12 – William Faversham, English actor (d. 1940)
- February 20 – John Nathan Cobb, American author, naturalist, conservationist, fisheries researcher, and educator (d. 1930)
- February 23 – W. E. B. Du Bois, American civil rights leader (d. 1963)
- February 26 – Venceslau Brás, Brazilian president (d. 1966)
- March 1 – Adolf von Trotha, German admiral (d. 1940)
- March 14 – Emily Murphy, Canadian woman's rights activist (d. 1933)
- March 22 – Robert Millikan, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1953)
- March 25 – William Lockwood, English cricketer (d. 1932)
- March 28 – Maxim Gorky, Russian author (d. 1936)
- July 12 – Stefan George, German poet (d. 1933)
- July 14 – Gertrude Bell, English archaeologist, writer, spy, and administrator (d. 1926)
- July 17 – Henri Nathansen, Danish writer and stage director (d. 1944)
- July 28 – Theodor Wulf, German physicist and Jesuit (d. 1946)
- August 5 – Oskar Merikanto, Finnish composer (d. 1924)
- August 10 – Hugo Eckener, German dirigible engineer, Commander of Graf Zeppelin I (d. 1954)
- August 23 – Edgar Lee Masters, American poet, biographer and dramatist. (d. 1950)
- August 26 – Charles Stewart, Premier of Alberta (d. 1946)
- September 1 – Henri Bourassa, Canadian politician and publisher (d. 1952)
- September 6 – Heinrich Häberlin, Swiss politician, member of the Federal Council (d. 1947)
- September 8 – Seth Weeks, African-American mandolinist, composer, arranger and jazz bandleader (d. 1953)
- September 9 – Mary Hunter Austin, American writer of fiction and non-fiction (d. 1934)
- September 17 – James Alexander Calder, Canadian politician (d. 1956)
- September 22 – John T. Raulston, American state judge (Scopes Monkey Trial) (d. 1956)
- October 18 – Ernst Didring, Swedish writer (d. 1931)
- October 23 – William Rylands, British baronet (d. 1948)
- November 7 – Delfim Moreira, Brazilian president (d. 1920)
- November 8 – Felix Hausdorff, German mathematician (d. 1942)
- November 9 – Marie Dressler, Canadian actress (d. 1934)
- November 14 – Arthur Hoey Davis, Australian author (d. 1935)
- November 22 – John Nance Garner, U.S. Vice President (d. 1967)
- November 23 – Mary Brewster Hazelton, American painter (d. 1953)
- November 30 – Ernest Newman, English music critic (d. 1959)
- December 9
- December 19 – Eleanor Hodgman Porter, American novelist (d. 1920)
- December 25 – Eugenie Besserer, Silent film actress (d. 1934)
- January 20 – Damien Marchessault, 7th Mayor of Los Angeles (suicide) (b. 1818)
- January 23 – János Erdélyi, Hungarian poet and ethnographer (b. 1814)
- January 28 – Adalbert Stifter, Austrian writer (b. 1805)
- February 8 – Lai Wenguang, Chinese leader of the Taiping Rebellion and Nien Rebellion (b. 1827)
- February 10 – David Brewster, Scottish physicist (b. 1781)
- February 11 – Léon Foucault, French physicist (b. 1819)
- February 19 – Venancio Flores, Uruguayan general and president of Uruguay (b. 1808)
- February 29 – King Ludwig I of Bavaria (b. 1786)
- March 4 – Jesse Chisholm, American pioneer (b. 1805)
- March 28 – James Brudenell, 7th Earl of Cardigan, British military leader (b. 1797)
- April 3 – Franz Berwald, Swedish composer (b. 1796)
- April 7 – Thomas D'Arcy McGee, Canadian father of confederation (assassinated) (b. 1825)
- April 12 – James Gascoyne-Cecil, 2nd Marquess of Salisbury, British politician and peer (b. 1791)
- April 13 – Emperor Theodore or Tewodros II of Ethiopia by suicide (b. 1818)
- April 21 – Henry O'Farrell, Irish-Australian criminal (executed) (b. 1833)
- May 7 – Henry Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux, Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain (b. 1778)
- May 10 – Henry Bennett, American politician (b. 1808)
- May 17 – Isami Kondo, Commander of the Shinsengumi (b. 1834)
- May 22 – Julius Plücker, German mathematician and physicist (b. 1801)
- May 23 – Kit Carson, American trapper, scout, and Indian agent (b. 1809)
- June 1 – James Buchanan, 15th President of the United States (b. 1791)
- June 22 – Heber C. Kimball, Latter Day Saint leader (b. 1801)
- July 6 – Sanosuke Harada, Shinsengumi Captain (b. 1840)
- July 6 – Samuel Lover, Irish writer and composer (b. 1797)
- July 19 – Soji Okita, Shinsengumi Captain (b. 1842 or 1844)
- July 21 – William Bland, Australian politician (b. 1789)
- July 26 – Robert Rolfe, 1st Baron Cranworth, English Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain (b. 1791)
- July 29 – John Elliotson, English physician (b. 1791)
- August 3 – Edward Welch, Welsh architect (b. 1806)
- August 10 – Adah Isaacs Menken, American actress (b. 1835)
- August 11 – Thaddeus Stevens, American politician (b. 1792)
- August 29 – Christian Friedrich Schönbein, a German chemist (b. 1799)
- September 19 – William Sprague, American minister and politician from Michigan (b. 1809)
- September 26 – August Ferdinand Möbius, German mathematician and astronomer (b. 1790)
- October 9 – Howell Cobb, American politician (b. 1815)
- October 17 – Laura Secord, Canadian patriot (b. 1775)
- October 18 – Mongkut, Rama IV, King of Thailand (b. 1804)
- October 27 – Charles Longley, Archbishop of Canterbury (b. 1794)
- November 13 – Gioachino Rossini, Italian composer (b. 1792)
- November 15 – James Mayer de Rothschild, German-born banker (b. 1792)
- November 27 – Chief Black Kettle, Southern Cheyenne Peace Chief, Survivor of Sand Creek massacre (b. 1803)
- December 6 – August Schleicher, German linguist (b. 1821)
- December 25 – Linus Yale, Jr., American inventor (b. 1821)
- ↑ Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- ↑ Satow, Ernest (1921). A Diplomat in Japan: the inner history of the critical years in the evolution of Japan when the ports were opened and the monarchy restored. London: Seeley, Service.
- ↑ Jansen, Marius B. (2000). The Making of Modern Japan. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
- ↑ Polak, Christian (2001). Soie et lumières: l'âge d'or des échanges franco-japonais (des origines aux années 1950). Tokyo: Chambre de Commerce et d'Industrie Française du Japon. p. 75.
- ↑ Keene, Donald (2002). Emperor of Japan: Meiji and His World, 1852-1912. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 137. ISBN 978-0-231-12340-2. OCLC 46731178
- ↑ Rice, Daniel (2011). "The 'Uniform Rule' and its exceptions: a history of Congressional naturalization legislation" (PDF). Ozark Historical Review. 40. Retrieved 2012-06-11.
- ↑ "Catalog of Damaging Earthquakes in the World (Through 2009)". IISEE. Archived from the original on 6 March 2010. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- ↑ "Arica, Peru (now Chile) 1868 August 13 21:30 UTC". Historic Earthquakes. USGS. 2009-10-26. Archived from the original on 16 January 2010. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- ↑ Kochhar, R. K. (1991). "French astronomers in India during the 17th –19th centuries". Journal of the British Astronomical Association. 101 (2): 95–100. Bibcode:1991JBAA..101...95K.
- ↑ "Nagodba". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009.
- ↑ Hampel, Clifford A. (1968). The Encyclopedia of the Chemical Elements. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. pp. 256–268. ISBN 0-442-15598-0.
- ↑ "The man who gave us traffic lights". Nottingham: BBC. July 2009. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- ↑ Coe, Brian (1978). Colour Photography: the first hundred years 1840-1940. London: Ash & Grant. ISBN 0-904069-24-9.
- ↑ Ley, Willy (1959). Exotic Zoology. New York: Viking Press.