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1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (dominical letter E) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday (dominical letter F) of the Julian calendar, the 1919th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 919th year of the 2nd millennium, the 19th year of the 20th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1910s decade. Note that the Julian day for 1919 is 13 calendar days difference, which continued to be used from 1582 until the complete conversion of the Gregorian calendar was entirely done in 1929.
- May 1
- A large left-wing demonstration in France leads to a violent confrontation with the police.
- Riots break out in Cleveland, Ohio; 2 people are killed, 40 injured, and 116 arrested.
- May 2 – Weimar Republic troops and the Freikorps occupy Munich and crush the Bavarian Soviet Republic.
- May 3 – Amānullāh Khān attacks British government in India.
- May 4
- The May Fourth Movement opposes foreign colonizers in China erupts.
- The League of Red Cross Societies is founded in Paris.
- May 6 – Beginning of the Third Anglo-Afghan War.
- May 8 – Edward George Honey proposes the idea of a moment of silence to commemorate the Armistice of World War I.
- May 8–27 – United States Navy Curtiss flying boat NC-4 commanded by Albert Cushing Read makes the first transatlantic flight, from Naval Air Station Rockaway to Lisbon via Trepassey, Newfoundland (departs May 16) and the Azores (arrives May 17). (On May 30–31 it flies on to Plymouth in England.)
- May 9 – In Belgium, a new electoral law introduces universal manhood suffrage and gives the franchise to certain classes of women.
- May 14 – The University College of Wales, Aberystwyth, establishes probably the world's first Chair in International Politics, endowed by David Davies and his sisters in honour of Woodrow Wilson, with Alfred Eckhard Zimmern as first professor.
- May 15
- May 17 – The Committee of One Thousand forms to oppose the Winnipeg General Strike.
- May 19
- May 23 – The University of California opens its second campus in Los Angeles. Initially called Southern Branch of the University of California (SBUC), it is eventually renamed the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).
- May 25 – Estonian War of Independence: Estonian forces capture Pskov from the Red Army and soon hand it over to the White forces.
- May 27
- May 29
- May 30 – By agreement with the United Kingdom, later confirmed by the League of Nations, Belgium is given the mandate over part of German East Africa (Ruanda-Urundi).
- June – Earl W. Bascom, rodeo cowboy and artist, along with his father John W. Bascom at Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada, designs and makes rodeo's first reverse-opening side-delivery bucking chute, now the world standard.
- June 2 – Eight mail bombs are sent to prominent figures as part of the 1919 United States anarchist bombings.
- June 4 – Women's rights: The United States Congress approves the 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution, which would guarantee suffrage to women, and sends it to the U.S. states for ratification.
- June 5 – Estonian and Latvian Wars of Independence: The advancing pro-German Baltische Landeswehr initiates war against Estonia in Northern Latvia.
- June 6 – The Hungarian Red Army attacks the Republic of Prekmurje.
- June 7 – Sette Giugno on Malta: British troops fire on a mob protesting against the colonial government, killing four.
- June 14–15 – A Vickers Vimy piloted by John Alcock DSC with navigator Arthur Whitten Brown makes the first nonstop transatlantic flight, from St. John's, Newfoundland, to Clifden, Connemara, Ireland.
- June 15 – Pancho Villa attacks Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. When the bullets begin to fly to the American side of the border, two units of the United States 7th Cavalry Regiment cross the border to repulse Villa's forces away from American territory.
- June 17 – English Police Sergeant Thomas Green killed during the Epsom Riot by Canadian troops
- June 18 – The biggest football club in Central America, Liga Deportiva Alajuelense, is founded in Costa Rica.
- June 21
- June 23 – Estonian and Latvian Wars of Independence: The Estonian army defeats the pro-German Baltische Landeswehr in the Battle of Cēsis in northern Latvia, forcing the Landeswehr to retreat towards Riga.
- June 26 – British Foreign Office official St John Philby and T. E. Lawrence arrive in Cairo for discussions about Arab unrest in Egypt having been flown by Canadian pilot Harry Yates in a Handley Page bomber which set off from England on June 21.
- June 28
- July 2 – The Syrian National Congress in Damascus: Arab nationalists announce independence.
- July 2–6 – British airship R34 makes the first transatlantic flight by dirigible, and the first westbound flight, from RAF East Fortune, Scotland, to Mineola, New York.
- July 3 – Estonian and Latvian Wars of Independence: The pro-German Baltische Landeswehr signs a peace treaty with Estonia and Latvia. The pro-German Prime Minister of Latvia Andrievs Niedra resigns and Latvian forces take over Riga on July 8.
- July 7 – The United States Army sends a convoy across the continental U.S., starting in Washington, D.C., to assess the possibility of crossing North America by road. This crossing takes many months to complete, because the building of the U.S. Highway System has not commenced.
- July 11 – The eight-hour day and free Sunday become law for workers in the Netherlands.
- July 19 – The Foreign Ministry of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic is established by decree of the chancellory for foreign affairs.
- July 21 – Wingfoot Air Express crash: The dirigible Wingfoot Air Express catches fire over downtown Chicago. Two passengers, one aircrewman and ten people on the ground are killed. However, two people parachute to the ground safely.
- July 27 – The Chicago Race Riot of 1919 begins when a white man throws stones at a group of four black teens on a raft.
- July 31 – British police strike in London and Liverpool for recognition of the National Union of Police and Prison Officers; over 2,000 strikers are dismissed.
Romanian troops entering Budapest
- March 2 – Jennifer Jones, American actress (d. 2009)
- March 7 – M. N. Nambiar, Indian film actor (d. 2008)
- March 17 – Nat King Cole, African-American singer ("Unforgettable") (d. 1965)
- March 20 – Gerhard Barkhorn, German World War II fighter ace (d. 1983)
- April 1 – Joseph Murray, American surgeon, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2012)
- April 8 – Ian Smith, Prime Minister of Rhodesia (1967-79) (d. 2007)
- April 13 – Howard Keel, American singer, dancer and actor (Dallas) (d. 2004)
- April 13 – Madalyn Murray O'Hair, American atheist activist (d. 1995)
- April 21 – Licio Gelli, Italian financer (d. 2015)
- April 22 – Donald J. Cram, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2001)
- April 24 – Glafcos Clerides, Cypriot president (1993–2003) (d. 2013)
- May 1
- May 3 – Pete Seeger, American folk singer and musician (d. 2014)
- May 7
- May 8 – Lex Barker – American actor (d. 1973)
- May 16 – Liberace, American pianist (d. 1987)
- May 17 – Antonio Aguilar, Mexican singer and actor (d. 2007)
- May 18 – Margot Fonteyn, English ballet dancer (d. 1991)
- May 20 – George Gobel, American comedian (d. 1991)
- May 23
- May 27 – Emvin Cremona, Maltese artist (d. 1987)
- June 11 – Richard Todd, Irish-born British actor (d. 2009)
- June 12 – Ahmed Abdallah, President of the Comoros (d. 1989)
- June 21 – Gérard Pelletier, Canadian journalist, politician, and diplomat (d. 1997)
- June 23 – Hermann Gmeiner, Austrian educator (d. 1986)
- August 2 – Nehemiah Persoff, Israeli-American character actor
- August 8 – Dino De Laurentiis, Italian film producer (d. 2010)
- August 9 – Joop den Uyl, Dutch politician, Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 1973 until 1977 (d. 1987)
- August 11 – Ginette Neveu, French violinist (d. 1949)
- August 13 – George Shearing, Anglo-American jazz pianist (d. 2011)
- August 15 – Benedict Kiely, Irish author and broadcaster (d. 2007)
- August 18 – Walter Joseph Hickel, 2nd and 8th Governor of Alaska (d. 2010)
- August 21 – Dalmiro Finol, Venezuelan baseball player (d. 1994)
- August 25 – George Wallace, 45th Governor of Alabama (d. 1998)
- August 28 – Godfrey Hounsfield, English electrical engineer and inventor, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2004)
- August 30 – Wolfgang Wagner, German opera director (d. 2010)
- August 31 – Amrita Pritam, Indian poetess and author (d. 2005)
- September 1 – Gladys Davis, Canadian professional baseball player
- September 5 – Elisabeth Volkenrath, German Nazi concentration camp supervisor (d. 1945)
- September 9 – Maria Lassnig, Austrian painter (d. 2014)
- September 11 – Ota Šik, Czech economist and politician (d. 2004)
- September 18 – Pál Losonczi, Hungarian politician (d. 2005)
- September 21 – Fazlur Rahman, Pakistani Islamic scholar (d. 1988)
- September 24 – Rick Vallin, Russian-American actor (d. 1977)
- September 26 – Matilde Camus, Spanish poet and researcher (d. 2012)
- September 27
- October 3 – James M. Buchanan, American economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2013)
- October 5 – Donald Pleasence, English actor (d. 1995)
- October 6 – Mohamed Siad Barre, President of Somalia (d. 1995)
- October 7 – Zelman Cowen, Governor-General of Australia (d. 2011)
- October 11 – Art Blakey, American jazz drummer (d. 1990)
- October 16 – Kathleen Winsor, American writer (d. 2003)
- October 17 – Zhao Ziyang, Prime Minister of the People's Republic of China (d. 2005)
- October 18
- October 22 – Doris Lessing, Persian-born English writer, winner of Nobel Prize in Literature (d. 2013)
- October 23 – Manolis Andronikos, Greek archaeologist (d 1992)
- October 26
- November 3 – Jesús Blasco, Spanish comic book author (d. 1995)
- November 4 – Martin Balsam, American actor (d. 1996)
- November 6 – Christoph Probst, German White Rose resistance member (d. 1943)
- November 10 – Mikhail Kalashnikov, Russian firearms inventor (d. 2013)
- November 14 – Lisa Otto, German soprano (d. 2013)
- November 15
- November 18 – Andrée Borrel, French World War II heroine (d. 1944)
- November 20 – Rugger Ardizoia, Italian-born American baseball player (d. 2015)
- November 21 – Gert Fredriksson, Swedish canoer (d. 2006)
- November 26 – Frederik Pohl, American science fiction writer (d. 2013)
- November 28 – Keith Miller, Australian sportsman (d. 2004)
- December 4 – I. K. Gujral, Indian politician, Prime Minister of India (d. 2012)
- December 6 – Paul de Man, Belgian-born literary critic (d. 1983)
- December 7 – Lis Løwert, Danish actress (d. 2009)
- December 8 – Mieczysław Weinberg, Polish composer (d. 1996)
- December 9 – William Lipscomb, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2011)
- December 13 – Hans-Joachim Marseille, German World War II fighter ace (d. 1942)
- December 21 – Ove Sprogøe, Danish actor (d. 2004)
- December 25 – Fikret Kırcan, Turkish footballer (d. 2014)
- December 30 – David Willcocks, British choral conductor, organist and composer (d. 2015)
- December 31 – Tommy Byrne, baseball player (d. 2007)
- Isaac Asimov, Russian-born author (born between October 4, 1919, and January 2, 1920, inclusive; d. 1992)
- January 4 – Georg von Hertling, Chancellor of Germany (b. 1843)
- January 6
- January 15
- January 16 – Francisco de Paula Rodrigues Alves, 5th President of Brazil (b. 1848)
- January 18 – Prince John of the United Kingdom (b. 1905)
- January 21 – Gojong, first Emperor of Korea (b. 1852)
- January 24 – Ismail Qemali Albanian politician, former Prime Minister (b. 1844)
- January 27 – Endre Ady, Hungarian poet (b. 1877)
- February 2 – Julius Kuperjanov, Estonian military commander (b. 1894)
- February 14 – Pál Luthár, Slovene teacher, cantor and writer (b. 1839)
- February 17 – Wilfrid Laurier, 7th Prime Minister of Canada (b. 1841)
- February 20 – Habibullah Khan, Emir of Aghanistan (b. 1872; assassinated)
- February 21 – Kurt Eisner, Bavarian socialist revolutionary (b. 1867; assassinated)
- March 2 – Melchora Aquino, Filipino revolutionary hero (b. 1812)
- March 5 – Ernest von Koerber, Austrian politician, former Prime Minister (b. 1850)
- April 4
- April 8 – Frank Winfield Woolworth, American businessman (b. 1852)
- April 10 – Emiliano Zapata, Mexican revolutionary (b. 1879; assassinated)
- April 15 – Jane Delano, American nurse and founder or the American Red Cross Nursing Service (b. 1862)
- April 21 – Jules Védrines, French pre-war aviator and wartime(WW1) pilot (b. 1881)
- April 27 – Anton Irv, Estonian military officer (b. 1886)
- May 4 – Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Slovak general, politician, and astronomer (b. 1880)
- May 6 – L. Frank Baum, American author, poet, playwright, actor and independent filmmaker (The Wizard of Oz) (b. 1856)
- May 28 – Hermann von Spaun, Austro-Hungarian admiral (b. 1833)
- June 29 – José Gregorio Hernández, Venezuelan medician and saint (b. 1864)
- June 30 – John Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, English physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1842)
- July 2 – Friedrich Soennecken, German entrepreneur and inventor of hole punch and ringbinder (b. 1848)
- July 5 – Eugen Leviné, German revolutionary (b. 1883)
- July 10 – Jean Navarre, French World War I fighter ace (b. 1895)
- July 15 – Hermann Emil Fischer, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1852)
- July 18 – Raymonde de Laroche, French aviatrix, the first woman to receive an aviator's license (b. 1882)
- July 26 – Edward Poynter, British painter (b. 1836)
- August 1 – Oscar Hammerstein I, Polish-born theater impresario and composer (b. 1847)
- August 9
- August 11 – Andrew Carnegie, Scottish-born businessman and philanthropist (b. 1835)
- August 27 – Louis Botha, Afrikaner statesman, president of South Africa (b. 1875)
- September 16 – Alfred Parland, Russian architect (b. 1842)
- September 22 – Alajos Gáspár, Slovene writer in Hungary (b. 1848)
- September 27 – Adelina Patti, Italian opera singer (b. 1843)
- September 29 – Masataka Kawase, a.k.a. Kogorō Ishikawa, Japanese political activist and diplomat (b. 1840)
- October 2 – Victorino de la Plaza, Argentinian politician, former President of the Republic (b. 1840)
- October 6 – Ricardo Palma, Peruvian writer (b. 1833)
- October 7 – Alfred Deakin, second Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1856)
- October 13 – Karl Adolph Gjellerup, Danish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1857)
- October 18 – Viscount William Astor, American financier and statesman (b. 1848)
- October 22 – John Cyril Porte, Irish-born British flying boat pioneer (b. 1884)
- November 9 – Eduard Müller, Swiss Federal Councillor (b. 1848)
- November 15 – Alfred Werner, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1866)
- December 2
- December 3 – Pierre-Auguste Renoir, French painter (b. 1841)
- December 18 – Sir John Alcock, British aviator; pilot of first nonstop transatlantic flight in airplane, June 1919 (b. 1892)
- December 19 – Martin Savage, IRA commander (b. 1898)
- ↑ Lacika, Ján (2000). Bratislava. Visiting Slovakia (1st ed.). Bratislava: Dajama. p. 42. ISBN 80-88975-16-6.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- ↑ Theodore Roosevelt Centre. Accessed 20 March 2014
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 MacMillan, Margaret (2002). Paris 1919: Six Months That Changed the World. Random House.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- ↑ Tibenský, Ján; et al. (1971). Slovensko: Dejiny. Bratislava: Obzor.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- ↑ Jankovics, Marcel, Húsz esztendő Pozsonyban (in Hungarian), pp. 65–67CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- ↑ Zaide, Sonia M. (1994), The Philippines: A Unique Nation, All-Nations Publishing Co., ISBN 971-642-071-4<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- ↑ Nicholson, G. W. L. (1962). Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-1919: Official History of the Canadian Army in the First World War. Ottawa: Queen's Printer.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- ↑ "WWI and the First Czechoslovak Republic". Visit Bratislava. City of Bratislava. 2005. Retrieved January 24, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- ↑ Kaba, John (1919). Politico-economic Review of Basarabia. United States: American Relief Administration. p. 14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- ↑ "The Legacy of One Man's Vision". Aberystwyth University, Department of International Politics. Retrieved January 27, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- ↑ Beadle, Jeremy; Harrison, Ian. "Last time the British army used scaling ladders". Military. Firsts, Lasts & Onlys. London: Robson. p. 112. ISBN 9781905798063.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- ↑ Dyson, F. W.; Eddington, A. S.; Davidson, C. R. (1920). "A Determination of the Deflection of Light by the Sun's Gravitational Field, from Observations Made at the Solar eclipse of May 29, 1919". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Physical, Mathematical and Engineering Sciences. 220 (571–581): 291–333. Bibcode:1920RSPTA.220..291D. doi:10.1098/rsta.1920.0009.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- ↑ "Azerbaijani Foreign Ministry official: result of overcoming obstacles by first Azerbaijani diplomats was international recognition in Versailles". Today.az. July 3, 2009. Retrieved September 25, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- ↑ "1919, July 21: Dirigible (Balloon) Crash". Chicago Public Library Archive. 1996. Retrieved September 25, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- ↑ Beadle, Jeremy; Harrison, Ian. "First two-minute silence". Military. Firsts, Lasts & Onlys. London: Robson. p. 113. ISBN 9781905798063.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- ↑ Sykes, Christopher (1984). Nancy: the Life of Lady Astor. Academy Chicago Publishers. ISBN 0-89733-098-6.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> The first elected was Constance Markievicz in 1918.
- ↑ Tonge, Stephen. "Weimar Germany 1919-1933". European History. Retrieved September 25, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- ↑ Isaac Asimov. In Memory Yet Green.
The date of my birth, as I celebrate it, was January 2, 1920. It could not have been later than that. It might, however, have been earlier. Allowing for the uncertainties of the times, of the lack of records, of the Jewish and Julian calendars, it might have been as early as October 4, 1919. There is, however, no way of finding out. My parents were always uncertain and it really doesn't matter. I celebrate January 2, 1920, so let it be.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Phelan, Paula (2007), 1919: Misfortune's End, ZAPmedia<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>