This article is about the year 1932.
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1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (dominical letter CB) of the Gregorian calendar, the 1932nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 932nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 32nd year of the 20th century, and the 3rd year of the 1930s decade.
Main article: January 1932
Main article: February 1932
- May 2 – Comedian Jack Benny's radio show airs for the first time.
- May 6 – Paul Gorguloff shoots French president Paul Doumer in Paris; Doumer dies the next day.
- May 6 – The politically powerful General Kurt von Schleicher meets secretly with Adolf Hitler. General Schleicher tells Hitler that he is scheming to bring down the Brüning government and asks for Nazi support of the new "presidential government" Schleicher is planning to form. Schleicher and Hitler negotiated a "gentlemen's agreement" where in exchange for lifting the ban on the SA and SS and having the Reichstag dissolved for early elections that summer, the Nazis will support Schleicher's new chancellor.
- May 10 –
- May 12 –
- Ten weeks after his abduction, the infant son of Charles Lindbergh is found dead just a few miles from the Lindbergh home.
- General Wilhelm Groener resigns as Defense Minister. Schleicher takes control of the Defense Ministry.
- May 13 – The Premier of New South Wales, Jack Lang, is dismissed by the State Governor, Sir Philip Game.
- May 15 – Japanese troops leave Shanghai. Back in Japan, the May 15 Incident as an attempted military coup is known occurs. The Japanese prime minister Tsuyoshi Inukai is assassinated by naval officers.
- May 16 – Massive riots between Hindus and Muslims in Bombay leave thousands dead and injured.
- May 20–May 21 – Amelia Earhart flies from the United States to County Londonderry, Northern Ireland in 14 hours 54 minutes.
- May 20 – Federación Obrera de la Industria de la Carne initiates a major strike in the Argentinian meat-packing industry.
- May 26 – Judgement in Donoghue v Stevenson handed down in the House of Lords, creating the neighbour principle in English law.
- May 29 – The first of approximately 15,000 World War I veterans arrive in Washington, D.C. demanding the immediate payment of their military bonus, becoming known as the Bonus Army.
- May 30 – German chancellor Heinrich Brüning is dismissed by President von Hindenburg. President Hindenburg asks Franz von Papen to form a new government, known as the "Government of the President's Friends", which is openly dedicated to the destruction of democracy and the Weimar Republic. The downfall of Brüning is largely the work of Schleicher, who been scheming against him since the beginning of May. Schleicher takes the position of Defense Minister in his friend Papen's government.
Main article: August 1932
- August – A farmers' revolt begins in the Midwestern United States.
- August 1
- August 2 – The first positron is discovered by Carl D. Anderson.
- August 5 – Hitler meets with Schleicher and reneges on the "gentlemen's agreement", demanding that he be appointed Chancellor. Schleicher agrees to support Hitler as Chancellor provided that he can remain minister of defense. Schleicher sets up a meeting between Hindenburg and Hitler on for the 13 August to discuss Hitler's possible appointment as chancellor.
- August 6 – The first Venice Film Festival is held.
- August 6 – In Germany the first worldwide Autobahn opened by Konrad Adenauer: Bundesautobahn 555.
- August 6 – Carl Gustaf Ekman resigns as Prime Minister of Sweden, and is replaced by his Minister of Finance Felix Hamrin.
- August 7 – Raymond Edward Welch becomes the first one legged man to scale the 6,288 ft. Mount Washington in New Hampshire.
- August 9 –
- The Papen government in Germany, which likes to take a tough "law and order" stance, passes via Article 48 a law proscribing the death penalty for a variety of offenses and with the court system simplified so that the courts can hand down as many death sentences as possible.
- The Potempa Murder case: In the German town of Potempa, five Nazi "Brownshirts" break into the house of Konrad Pietrzuch, a Communist miner, and proceed to castrate and beat him to death in front of his mother. The case attracts much media attention in Germany. The murderers were released from jail after Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany.
- August 10 – A 5.1 kg chondrite-type meteorite breaks fragments and strikes earth near the town of Archie, Missouri.
- August 11 – To celebrate Constitution Day in Germany, Chancellor Franz von Papen and his interior minister Baron Wilhelm von Gayl present proposed amendments to the Weimar constitution for a "New State" to deal with the problems besetting Germany.
- August 13 – Hitler meets President von Hindenburg and asks to be appointed as Chancellor. Hindenburg refuses under the grounds that Hitler is not qualified to be Chancellor and asks him instead to serve as Vice-Chancellor in Papen's government. Hitler announces his "all or nothing" strategy in which he will oppose any government not headed by himself and will accept no office other than Chancellor.
- August 18 – Auguste Piccard reaches an altitude of 16,197 m (53,140 ft) with a hot air balloon.
- August 18–19 – Scottish aviator Jim Mollison becomes the first pilot to make an East-to-West solo transatlantic flight, from Portmarnock, Dublin, Ireland to Pennfield, New Brunswick, Canada, in his de Havilland Puss Moth biplane The Heart's Content.
- August 20 – The Ottawa conference ends with the adoption of Imperial Preference tariff, turning the British Empire into one economic zone with a series of tariffs meant to exclude non-empire states from competing within the markets of Britain; the Dominions; and the rest of the empire.
- August 22 – The five SA men involved in the torture and murder of Konrad Pietrzuch are quickly convicted and sentenced to death under an emergency law introduced by the Papen government on 8 August. The Potempa case becomes a cause célèbre in Germany with the Nazis demonstrating for amnesty for the "Potempa five" under the grounds they were justified in killing the Communist Pietrzuch. Hitler sends a telegram congratulating the "Potempa five". Many Germans argue that the "Potempa five" are patriotic heroes who should not be executed while others maintain the death sentences are appropriate given the brutality of the torture and murder.
- August 23 – The Panama Civil Aviation Authority is established.
- August 30 – Hermann Göring is elected as Speaker of the German Reichstag.
- August 31 – A total solar eclipse is visible from northern Canada through northeastern Vermont, New Hampshire, southwestern Maine and the Capes of Massachusetts.
Main article: September 1932
- September 1 – Germany walks out of the World Disarmament Conference under the grounds that the other powers are refusing to grant gleichberechtigung.
- September 2 – Despite the court's sentence of death against the "Potempa five", Chancellor von Papen in his capacity as Reich Commissioner of Prussia refuses to have the "Potempa five" executed under the grounds that they were not aware of the emergency law at the time they committed the murder, but in reality because he is still hoping for Nazi support for his government.
- September 9 – Generalitat of Catalonia is restored within the Second Spanish Republic from September 25 until the collapse of the Republic in 1939.
- September 9 – Beginning of the Chaco War a conflict between Paraguay and Bolivia because of delimitation problems and others.
- September 10 – The IND Eighth Avenue Line, at this time the world's longest subway line (31 miles (50 km)), begins operation in Manhattan.
- September 11 – Canadian operations end on the International Railway (New York–Ontario).
- September 12 – The very unpopular Papen government is defeated on a massive motion of no-confidence in the Reichstag. With the exceptions of the German People's Party and the German National People's Party, every party in the Reichstag votes for the no-confidence motion. Papen has Hindenburg dissolve the Reichstag for new elections in November.
- September 20 – Mohandas K. Gandhi begins a hunger strike in Poona prison, India.
- September 22 – Soviet famine of 1932–33 begins, millions starve to death as a result of forced collectivization and as part of the government's effort to break rural resistance to its policies. The Soviet regimes denies the famine and allows millions to die.
- September 23 – The Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd is proclaimed the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, concluding the country's unification under the rule of Ibn Saud.
- September 24 – After his party`s victory in the election to the Swedish Riksdag`s second chamber, Social Democrat Per Albin Hansson becomes the new Prime Minister of Sweden, after Felix Hamrin.
- September 27 – Ryutin Affair at its height in the Soviet Union. The Soviet Politburo meets and condemns the so-called "Ryutin Platform" and agrees to expel those associated with it from the Communist Party, but refuses Stalin's request to execute those associated with the "Ryutin Platform".
Main article: October 1932
Main article: November 1932
The Cipher Bureau
breaks the German Enigma cipher and overcomes the ever-growing structural and operating complexities of the evolving Enigma
, the main German cipher device during World War II.
Main article: December 1932
- December 1 – Germany returns to the World Disarmament Conference after the others powers agree to accept gleichberechtigung "in principle". Henceforward, it is clear that Germany will be allowed to rearm beyond the limits imposed by the Treaty of Versailles.
- December 3 – Hindenburg names Kurt von Schleicher as German chancellor after he ousts Papen. Papen is deeply angry about how his former friend Schleicher has brought him down and decides that he will do anything to get back into power.
- December 4 – Chancellor Schleicher meets with Gregor Strasser and offers to appoint him Vice-Chancellor and Reich Commissioner for Prussia out of the hope that if faced with a split in the NSDAP, Hitler will support his government.
- December 5 – At a secret meeting of the Nazi leaders, Strasser urges Hitler to drop his "all or nothing" strategy and accept Schleicher's offer to have the Nazis serve in his cabinet. Hitler gives a dramatic speech saying that Schleicher's offer is not acceptable and he will stick to his "all or nothing" strategy whatever the consequences might be and wins the Nazi leadership over to his viewpoint.
- December 8 – Gregor Strasser resigns as the chief of the NSDAP's organizational department in protest against Hitler's "all or nothing" strategy.
- December 12 – Japan and the Soviet Union reform their diplomatic connections.
- December 19 – BBC World Service begins broadcasting as the BBC Empire Service.
- December 23 – A coal mine in Moweaqua, Illinois, kills 54.
- December 24 – A methane gas explosion causes the Moweaqua Coal Mine Disaster which claims 54 lives.
- December 25
- December 27 –
- December 28 – The Cologne banker Kurt von Schröder-who is a close friend of Papen and a NSDAP member-meets with Adolf Hitler to tell him that Papen wants to set up a meeting to discuss how they can work together. Papen wants Nazi support to return to the Chancellorship while Hitler wants Papen to convince Hindenburg to appoint him Chancellor. Hitler agrees to meet Papen on 3 January 1933.
- Dust storms begin in Kansas, Oklahoma, Colorado, New Mexico and Texas, the start of the Dust Bowl in the United States.
- Zippo lighters are developed.
- Zero-length springs are invented, revolutionizing seismometers and gravimeters.
- The Kennedy–Thorndike experiment shows that measured time as well as length are affected by motion, in accordance with the theory of special relativity.
- James Chadwick discovers the neutron.
- Geneticist J. B. S. Haldane publishes The Causes of Evolution, unifying the findings of Mendelian genetics with those of evolutionary science.
- The heath hen becomes extinct in North America.
- Walter B. Pitkin publishes Life Begins at Forty in the United States.
- The Republican Citizens Committee Against National Prohibition is established for the repeal of Prohibition in the United States.
- Yezd Fire temple (Atash Behram) becomes established in Yazd, Iran.
- Association for Research and Enlightenment, Inc. (ARE) founded in Virginia Beach, Virginia, as an open-membership group to research the collected transcripts of Edgar Cayce's continuing trances, stored at the Edgar Cayce Foundation.
- "The Noah of Washington Mud Flats" predicts a Deluge in 1936, building an Ark and demon-proof armor.
- Unemployment in the United States – ca. 33% – 14 million. A similar level of unemployment affects Germany. Many people in depressed countries do not receive unemployment benefit due to governments not being able to afford benefit payments.
- January 1 – Tzaims Luksus, American artist and fashion designer
- January 2 – Jean Little, Canadian author
- January 3 – Dabney Coleman, American actor
- January 5
- January 6 – Stuart A. Rice, American chemist
- January 11 – Takkō Ishimori, Japanese voice actor (d. 2013)
- January 13 – Joseph Cardinal Zen, Catholic Bishop of Hong Kong
- January 15 – Cleven "Goodie" Goudeau art director and cartoonist
- January 16 – Dian Fossey, American zoologist (d. 1985)
- January 17 – Sheree North, American actress and singer (d. 2005)
- January 18 – Robert Anton Wilson, American author (d. 2007)
- January 22 – Piper Laurie, American actress
- January 23
- January 25 – Nikolay Anikin, Soviet cross-country skier (d. 2009)
- January 26 – Coxsone Dodd, Jamaican record producer (d. 2004)
- January 28 – Don McMichael, Australian public servant
- January 29
- January 30
- February 1 – John Nott, British politician
- February 3 – Peggy Ann Garner, American actress (d. 1984)
- February 6 – François Truffaut, French film director (d. 1984)
- February 7 – Gay Talese, American author
- February 8
- February 9 – Gerhard Richter, German painter
- February 11
- February 12 – Julian Lincoln Simon, American economist and author (d. 1998)
- February 13 – Susan Oliver, American actress (d. 1990)
- February 14 – Alexander Kluge, German author and film director
- February 16
- February 18 – Miloš Forman, Czech film director
- February 20 – Adrian Cristobal, Filipino writer (d. 2007)
- February 22
- February 23
- February 24 – Michel Legrand, French composer
- February 25 – Faron Young, American country singer (d. 1996)
- February 26 – Johnny Cash, American country singer (d. 2003)
- February 27 – Dame Elizabeth Taylor, British-American actress (d. 2011)
- February 28 – Don Francks, Canadian actor
- March – Dennis O'Neill, young victim of manslaughter by foster parents (d. 1945)
- March 4
- March 6 – Bronisław Geremek, Polish social historian and politician (d. 2008)
- March 7 – Momoko Kōchi, Japanese actress (d. 1998)
- March 12 – Andrew Young, U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations
- March 16 – Don Blasingame, Major League Baseball player and Japanese baseball manager (d. 2005)
- March 17 – Donald N. Langenberg, American physicist
- March 18 – John Updike, American author (d. 2009)
- March 21 – Walter Gilbert, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
- March 22 – Els Borst, Dutch politician, Deputy Prime Minister of the Netherlands (1998-2002) (d. 2014)
- March 30 – Ted Morgan, French-born biographer and journalist
- March 31 – Nagisa Oshima, Japanese film director (d. 2013)
- July 2
- July 4 – Otis Young, African-American actor (d. 2001)
- July 5 – Gyula Horn, Prime Minister of Hungary (d. 2013)
- July 7 – Eileen Lemass, Irish politician
- July 8 – John Pascal, American playwright, screenwriter, author, and journalist (d. 1981)
- July 9 – Donald Rumsfeld, former U.S. Secretary of Defense
- July 12 – Otis Davis, American runner
- July 13 – Per Nørgård, Danish composer
- July 16
- July 17 – Yukio Aoshima, Japanese politician and comedian (d. 2006)
- July 20
- July 21 – Ernie Warlick, American football player (d. 2012)
- July 29 – Nancy Landon Kassebaum Baker, U.S. Senator
- July 31 – John Searle, American philosopher
- August 1
- August 2
- August 6 – Howard Hodgkin, British painter and print-maker
- August 7
- August 8 – Mel Tillis, American country singer
- August 11 – Fernando Arrabal, Spanish writer
- August 12
- August 15 – Jim Lange, American disc jockey and game show host (d. 2014)
- August 17 – V. S. Naipaul, West Indian-born writer, Nobel Prize laureate
- August 18 – William R. Bennett, Premier of British Columbia
- August 20 – Vasily Aksyonov, Russian writer (d. 2009)
- August 24 – W. Morgan Sheppard, British actor
- August 25 – Luis Félix López, Ecuadorian writer and politician (d. 2008)
- August 27 – Mohamed Hamri, Moroccan artist (d. 2000)
- September 1
- September 3 – Eileen Brennan, American actress and singer (d. 2013)
- September 4 – Dinsdale Landen, British actor (d. 2003)
- September 5 – Carol Lawrence, American actress, singer and dancer
- September 6 – Marguerite Pearson, American professional baseball player (d. 2005)
- September 7 – John Paul Getty, Jr., American-born philanthropist (d. 2003)
- September 8 – Patsy Cline, American singer (d. 1963)
- September 11 – Peter Anderson, English footballer
- September 13 – Fernando González Pacheco, Colombian television host, announcer, journalist and actor (d. 2014)
- September 18 – Nikolay Rukavishnikov, Russian cosmonaut (d. 2002)
- September 22 – Algirdas Brazauskas, President of Lithuania (d. 2010)
- September 25
- September 26
- September 27 – Oliver E. Williamson, American economist
- September 28 – Víctor Jara, Chilean politician and singer-songwriter (d. 1973)
- September 29 – Mehmood, Indian actor (d. 2004)
- September 30 – Shintarō Ishihara, Japanese author and politician
- October 3 – Hugh Curtis, Canadian politician (d. 2014)
- October 4 – Milan Chvostek, Canadian television director
- October 5 – Michael John Rogers, English ornithologist (d. 2006)
- October 8 – Ray Reardon, Welsh snooker player
- October 9 – David Plowden, American photographer
- October 10 – Harry Smith, English footballer
- October 11 – Dottie West, American singer/songwriter (d. 1991)
- October 12
- October 13 – Jean Edward Smith, American political scientist and biographer
- October 14 – Wolf Vostell, German artist (d. 1998)
- October 18 – Vytautas Landsbergis, Lithuanian politician
- October 19 – Robert Reed, American actor (d. 1992)
- October 20
- October 24
- October 27
- October 28
- October 31 – Iemasa Kayumi, Japanese voice actor, actor and narrator (d. 2014)
- November 3 – Albert Reynolds, eighth Taoiseach of Ireland (d. 2014)
- November 4
- November 10
- November 11 – Germano Mosconi, Italian journalist (d. 2012)
- November 12 – Jerry Douglas, American actor
- November 13 – Richard Mulligan, American actor (d. 2000)
- November 15
- November 18 – Yoyoy Villame, Filipino singer and actor (d. 2007)
- November 20 – Richard Dawson, British-born comedian and game show host (d. 2012)
- November 21 – Pelle Gudmundsen-Holmgreen, Danish composer
- November 22
- November 27 – Benigno Aquino, Jr., Filipino politician and senator (d. 1983)
- November 29 – Jacques Chirac, President of France
- December 1 – Dame Heather Begg, New Zealand mezzo-soprano (d. 2009)
- December 2 – Sergio Bonelli, Italian comic book author and publisher (d. 2011)
- December 3 – Corry Brokken, Dutch singer, Eurovision Song Contest 1957 winner
- December 4 – Roh Tae-woo, President of South Korea
- December 5
- December 7
- December 9
- December 11 – Enrique Bermúdez, Nicaraguan Contra leader (d. 1991)
- December 13 – Tatsuya Nakadai, Japanese actor
- December 21 – Edward Hoagland, American essayist
- December 24 – Earl Dodge, American temperance movement leader (d. 2007)
- December 28
- December 29 – Inga Swenson, American actress and singer
- December 31 – Felix Rexhausen, German journalist, editor and author (d. 1992)
- February 1 – Farabundo Martí, Salvadorean revolutionary (murdered) (b. 1893)
- February 8 – Yordan Milanov, Bulgarian architect (b. 1867)
- February 8 – Mad Dog Coll, American gangster (b. 1908)
- February 10 – Edgar Wallace, English novelist and screenwriter (b. 1875)
- February 15 – Minnie Maddern Fiske, American actress (b. 1865)
- February 16 – Ferdinand Buisson, French pacifist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1841)
- February 17 – Albert Johnson, Canadian criminal (b. ? )
- February 18 – Frederick Augustus III, last King of Saxony (b. 1865)
- February 29 – Ramon Casas i Carbó, Spanish painter (b. 1866)
- March 1
- March 4 – Fawcet Wray, British admiral (b. 1873)
- March 6 – John Philip Sousa, American band leader, conductor, and composer (The Stars and Stripes Forever) (b. 1854)
- March 7
- March 11 – Dora Carrington, British painter (b. 1893)
- March 10 – Paolo Boselli, 22nd Prime Minister of Italy (b. 1838)
- March 17 – Iliaz Vrioni, Albanian statesman, former Prime Minister (b. 1882)
- March 14 – George Eastman, American inventor (Kodak) (b. 1854)
- March 18 – Chauncey Olcott, American stage actor and singer-songwriter (b. 1858)
- March 31 – Eben Byers, American steel tycoon and socialite (radiation poisoning) (b. 1880)
- April 2 – Bill Pickett, African-American cowboy whose parents were slaves (b. 1870)
- April 4 – Wilhelm Ostwald, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1853)
- April 7 – Grigore Constantinescu, Romanian priest and journalist (b. 1875)
- April 20 – Giuseppe Peano, Italian mathematician (b. 1858)
- April 22 – Ferenc Oslay, Hungarian-Slovene historian, writer and irredenta (b. 1883)
- April 26 – William Lockwood, English cricketer (b. 1868)
- April 27 – Hart Crane, American poet (b. 1899)
- April 29 – José Félix Uriburu, 22nd President of Argentina (b. 1868)
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Feuchtwanger, Edgar (1993). From Weimar to Hitler. Basingstoke: Macmillan. pp. 270–9. ISBN 0333274660.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Kershaw, Sir Ian. Hitler Hubris, New York: Norton, 1998, p. 366.
- ↑ Wheeler-Bennett, John. The Nemesis of Power, London: Macmillan, 1967, p. 250.
- ↑ Wheeler-Bennett, John. The Nemesis of Power, London: Macmillan, 1967, p. 253.
- ↑ Kershaw, Sir Ian. Hitler Hubris, New York: Norton, 1998, pp. 368-69.
- ↑ "Mars – the chocolate planet". Slough History Online. Retrieved 2010-02-08.
- ↑ Wheeler-Bennett, John. The Nemesis of Power, London: Macmillan, 1967, p. 257.
- ↑ Kershaw, Sir Ian. Hitler Hubris, New York: Norton, 1998, p. 371.
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Kershaw, Sir Ian. Hitler Hubris, New York: Norton, 1998, p. 382.
- ↑ Kershaw, Ian. Hitler: 1889-1936: Hubris, New York: Norton, 1998, p. 381; ISBN 0-393-04671-0
- ↑ Burleigh, Michael The Third Reich: A New History New York: Hill & Wang, 2000. p. 159; ISBN 0-8090-9325-1
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 Kershaw, Sir Ian. Hitler Hubris, New York: Norton, 1998, p. 372.
- ↑ Kershaw, Sir Ian. Hitler Hubris, New York: Norton, 1998, p. 373.
- ↑ "Mollison's Atlantic Flight". Flight. 24 (35): 795–8. 1932-08-26. Retrieved 2012-08-21.
- ↑ "New York City Transit - History and Chronology". Metropolitan Transportation Authority (New York). 2009. Retrieved 2012-01-03.
- ↑ Turner, Henry Ashby. Hitler's Thirty Days to Power, New York: Addison-Wesley, 1996, p. 25.
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 Turner, Henry Ashby. Hitler's Thirty Days to Power, New York: Addison-Wesley, 1996, p. 26.
- ↑ Turner, Henry Ashby. Hitler's Thirty Days to Power, New York: Addison-Wesley, 1996, pp. 27-28.
- ↑ Lesch, J. E. (2007). "Prontosil". The First Miracle Drugs: How the Sulfa Drugs Transformed Medicine. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 51–61. ISBN 978-0-19-518775-5.
- ↑ 1959 Encyclopedia Americana.
- ↑ US unemployment statistics, historyhome.co.uk; accessed December 10, 2014.