|Centuries:||19th century – 20th century – 21st century|
|Decades:||1920s 1930s 1940s – 1950s – 1960s 1970s 1980s|
|Years:||1951 1952 1953 – 1954 – 1955 1956 1957|
|1954 by topic|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1954.|
1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (dominical letter C) of the Gregorian calendar, the 1954th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 954th year of the 2nd millennium, the 54th year of the 20th century, and the 5th year of the 1950s decade.
- 1 Events
- 2 Births
- 3 Deaths
- 4 Nobel Prizes
- 5 References
- January 1 – The Soviet Union ceases to demand war reparations from East Germany.
- January 10 – BOAC Flight 781, a de Havilland Comet jet plane, disintegrates in mid-air due to metal fatigue and crashes in the Mediterranean near Elba. All 35 people on board are killed.
- January 12 – Avalanches in Austria kill more than 200.
- January 14 – Marilyn Monroe marries baseball player Joe DiMaggio.
- January 15 – Mau Mau leader Waruhiu Itote is captured in Kenya.
- January 17 – In Yugoslavia, Milovan Đilas, one of the leading members of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, is relieved of his duties.
- January 20 – The US-based National Negro Network is established with forty-six member radio stations.
- January 21 – The first nuclear-powered submarine, the USS Nautilus, is launched in Groton, Connecticut, by First Lady of the United States Mamie Eisenhower.
- January 25 – The foreign ministers of the United States, Britain, France and the Soviet Union meet at the Berlin Conference.
- February 3 – Elizabeth II becomes the first reigning monarch to visit Australia.
- February 10 – After authorizing $385 million over the $400 million already budgeted for military aid to Vietnam, President of the United States Dwight D. Eisenhower warns against his country's intervention in Vietnam.
- February 19 – 1954 transfer of Crimea: The Soviet Politburo of the Soviet Union orders the transfer the Crimean Oblast from the Russian SFSR to the Ukrainian SSR.
- February 23 – The first mass vaccination of children against polio begins in Pittsburgh, United States.
- February 25 – Lt. Col. Gamal Abdel Nasser becomes premier of Egypt.
- March 1
- U.S. officials announce that a hydrogen bomb test (Castle Bravo) has been conducted on Bikini Atoll in the Pacific Ocean.
- U.S. Capitol shooting incident: Four Puerto Rican nationalists open fire in the United States House of Representatives chamber and wound five; they are apprehended by security guards.
- March 9 – American journalists Edward R. Murrow and Fred W. Friendly produce a 30-minute See It Now documentary, entitled A Report on Senator Joseph McCarthy.
- March 12 – Finland and Germany officially end their state of war.
- March 13 – French troops begin the battle against the Viet Minh in Dien Bien Phu.
- March 19 – Joey Giardello knocks out Willie Tory at Madison Square Garden, in the first televised boxing prize fight to be shown in colour.
- March 23 – In Vietnam, the Viet Minh capture the main airstrip of Dien Bien Phu. The remaining French Army units there are partially isolated.
- March 25
- March 27 – The Castle Romeo nuclear test explosion is executed.
- March 28
- March 29 – A C-47 transport with French nurse Geneviève de Galard on board is wrecked on the runway at Dien Bien Phu.
- March 30 – The first operational subway line in Canada opens in Toronto.
- April – Bill Haley & His Comets record "Rock Around the Clock", thus starting the rock and roll craze.
- April 1
- April 3 – Vladimir Petrov defects from the Soviet Union and asks for political asylum in Australia.
- April 4 – The legendary symphony conductor Arturo Toscanini experiences a lapse of memory during a concert. At this concert's end, his retirement is announced, and Toscanini never conducts in public again.
- April 7 – Dwight D. Eisenhower gives his "domino theory" speech during a news conference.
- April 8 – A Royal Canadian Air Force Canadair Harvard collides with a Trans-Canada Air Lines Canadair North Star over Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, killing 37 people.
- April 11 – This day is denoted as the most boring day in the 20th century by True Knowledge, an answer engine developed by William Tunstall-Pedoe. No significant newsworthy events, births, or deaths are known to have happened on this day.
- April 14
- April 16 – Vice President Richard Nixon announces that the United States may be “putting our own boys in Indochina regardless of Allied support”.
- April 22 – Senator Joseph McCarthy begins hearings investigating the United States Army for being "soft" on Communism.
- April 26 –
- April 28 – U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles accuses Communist China of sending combat troops to Indo-China to train the Viet Minh guerrillas.
- May 1 – The Unification Church is founded in South Korea.
- May 4 – General Alfredo Stroessner deposes Federico Chávez in a coup d'état in Paraguay and rules until 1989.
- May 6 – Roger Bannister runs the first sub-four minute mile, in Oxford, England.
- May 7 – Vietnam War (run-up): The Battle of Dien Bien Phu ends in a French defeat (the battle began on March 13).
- May 8 – The Asian Football Confederation (AFC) is formed in Manila, Philippines.
- May 11 – U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles declares that Indochina is important but not essential to the security of Southeast Asia, thus ending any prospect of American intervention on the side of France.
- May 14
- The Boeing 707 is released after about two years of development.
- The Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict was adopted in The Hague, Netherlands.
- May 15 – The Latin Union (Unión Latina) is created by the Convention of Madrid. Its member countries use the five Romance languages: Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Romanian. It will suspend operations in 2012.
- May 17
- May 20 – Chiang Kai-shek is reelected as the president of the Republic of China by the National Assembly.
- May 22 – The common Nordic Labour Market act is signed.
- May 26 – A fire on board the U.S. Navy aircraft carrier USS Bennington off Narragansett Bay, Massachusetts, kills 103 sailors.
- May 29
- June 7 – Early computer scientist Alan Turing commits suicide.
- June 9 – McCarthyism: Joseph Welch, special counsel for the United States Army, lashes out at Senator Joseph McCarthy, during hearings on whether Communism has infiltrated the Army, saying, "Have you, at long last, no decency?"
- June 14 – The words "under God" are added to the United States Pledge of Allegiance.
- June 15 – The UEFA (Union of European Football Associations) is formed in Basel, Switzerland.
- June 16 – July 4 – the 1954 FIFA World Cup is held in Switzerland
- June 17 – A CIA-engineered military coup occurs in Guatemala.
- June 18 – Pierre Mendès France becomes prime minister of France.
- June 22
- June 27
- July 1
- The Common Nordic Labor Market Act comes into effect.
- The United States officially begins using the international unit of the nautical mile, equal to 6,076.11549 ft. or 1,852 meters.
- July 4
- July 10 – Peter Thomson becomes the first Australian to win the British Open Golf Championship.
- July 15
- July 21 – First Indochina War: The Geneva Conference sends French forces to the south, and Vietnamese forces to the north, of a ceasefire line, and calls for elections to decide the government for all of Vietnam by July 1956. Failure to abide by the terms of the agreement leads to the establishment de facto of regimes of North Vietnam and South Vietnam, and the Vietnam War.
- July 31 – Italian mountaineers Lino Lacedelli and Achille Compagnoni become the first successfully to reach the summit of the Himalayan peak K2.
- August 1 – The First Indochina War ends with the Vietnam People's Army in North Vietnam, the Vietnamese National Army in South Vietnam, the Kingdom of Cambodia in Cambodia, and the Kingdom of Laos in Laos, emerging victorious against the French Army.
- August 6 – Emilie Dionne, one of the Dionne quintuplets, dies of asphyxiation following an epileptic seizure. She is the first of the five to perish, and three of them live into the 21st century.
- August 16 – The first issue of Sports Illustrated magazine is published in the United States.
- August 24 – Brazilian president Getúlio Vargas commits suicide after being accused of involvement in a conspiracy to murder his chief political opponent, Carlos Lacerda.
- September 3 – The last 'new' episode of The Lone Ranger radio program is broadcast, after 2,956 episodes over a period of 21 years. Reruns of old episodes continue to be transmitted.
- September 6 – The SEATO treaty is signed in Manila, Philippines.
- September 8 – The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) is established in Bangkok, Thailand.
- September 9 – An earthquake centered on the city of Orléansville, Algeria kills 1,500 and leaves thousands homeless.
- September 11 – The Miss America Pageant is broadcast on television for the first time.
- September 14
- September 15 – Black Wednesday in air travel: severe delays to flights due to bad weather along the East Coast of the United States.
- September 17 – William Golding's novel Lord of the Flies is published in London.
- September 25 – Footscray Football Club win their first and only Australian Football League Grand Final.
- September 26 – The Japanese ferry Tōya Maru sinks during a typhoon in the Tsugaru Strait. More than 1,100 people are killed. Seven other ships are wrecked and at least nine others seriously damaged.
- September 30 – The USS Nautilus (SSN-571), the first nuclear-powered submarine in the world, is commissioned into the U.S. Navy.
- October 11
- October 15 – Hurricane Hazel makes U.S. landfall; it is the only recorded Category 4 hurricane to strike as far north as North Carolina.
- October 18
- October 20 – A dock workers' strike expands in England.
- October 23
- October 25 – Landslides caused by heavy rains hit Salerno, Italy, killing about 300.
- October 26 – Muslim Brotherhood member Mahmoud Abdul Latif tries to kill Gamal Abdel Nasser.
- October 31 – Algerian War of Independence: The Algerian National Liberation Front begins a revolt against French rule.
- November 1 – The FLN attacks representative and public buildings of the French colonial power.
- November 2
- November 3 – The first Godzilla film premieres in Tokyo.
- November 5 – Japan and Burma sign a peace treaty in Rangoon, to end their long-extinct state of war.
- November 10 – U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower dedicates the USMC War Memorial (Iwo Jima memorial) at the Arlington National Cemetery.
- November 12 – The main immigration port-of-entry in New York Harbor at Ellis Island closes permanently.
- November 14 – Egyptian president Muhammad Naguib is deposed, and Gamal Abdel Nasser replaces him.
- November 19 – The Korean Cold War between the communist North and the capitalist South begins over a year after the conclusion of the Korean War.
- November 22 – The U.S. Supreme Court decides the landmark case Berman v. Parker (348 U.S. 26), upholding the federal slum clearance and urban renewal programs.
- November 23 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average rises 3.27 points, or 0.86 percent, closing at an all-time high of 382.74. More significantly, this is the first time the Dow has surpassed its peak level reached just before the Wall Street Crash of 1929.
- November 30 – In Sylacauga, Alabama, a four-kilogram piece of the Hodges Meteorite crashes through the roof of a house and badly bruises a napping woman, in the first documented case of an object from outer space hitting a person.
- December 1 – The first Hyatt Hotel, The Hyatt House Los Angeles, opens on the grounds of Los Angeles International Airport. It is the first hotel in the world built on an airport property.
- December 2
- December 4 – The first Burger King opens in Miami, Florida.
- December 15 – The Netherlands Antilles is created out of the Dutch Caribbean nations. It is later dissolved between 1986 and 2010.
- December 23 – J. Hartwell Harrison, and Joseph Murray perform the world's first successful kidney transplant in Boston, Massachusetts.
- December 24 – Laos gains full independence from France.
- New Zealand engineer Sir William Hamilton develops the first pump-jet engine (the "Hamilton Jet") capable of propelling a jetboat.
- The first electric drip brew coffeemaker is patented in Germany and named the Wigomat after its inventor Gottlob Widmann.
- The Boy Scouts of America desegregates on the basis of race.
- Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) are brought to the United States by Dr. Victor Schwentker.
- The case of Lothar Malskat, who had admitted that he had painted the supposedly antique frescoes in Marienkirche himself, goes to trial.
- The TV dinner is introduced by the American entrepreneur Gerry Thomas.
- New York City Ballet founding balletmaster George Balanchine's production of The Nutcracker is staged for the first time in New York City, and it became a tradition there, still being performed annually as of 2010[update].
- South Korea opens the Gimpo International Airport.
- In South Vietnam the Viet Minh is reorganised into the Viet Cong.
- After the death of Joseph Stalin, the Soviet Union starts releasing political prisoners and deportees from its Gulag prison camps.
- January 2 – Henry Bonilla, American politician
- January 3 – Ross the Boss, American heavy metal/punk guitarist
- January 4
- January 5 – Alex English, American basketball player
- January 6 – Anthony Minghella, British film and theatre director (d. 2008)
- January 7
- January 8 – Julieta Castellanos, Honduran sociologist
- January 12 – Howard Stern, American radio host
- January 13 – Trevor Rabin, South African–American musician
- January 14
- January 15 – Jose Dalisay, Jr., Filipino writer
- January 17 – Robert F. Kennedy, Jr., American socialite and environmental activist
- January 19
- January 21 - Thomas de Maizière, German politician
- January 22 – Peter Pilz, Austrian politician
- January 23
- January 28
- January 29
- February 1 – Bill Mumy, American child actor and musician
- February 2 – Christie Brinkley, American model
- February 7 – Dieter Bohlen, German music producer and singer-songwriter (Modern Talking, Blue System)
- February 9
- February 11 – Noriyuki Asakura, Japanese composer
- February 12 – Philip Zimmermann, American cryptographer
- February 13 – Donnie Moore, American baseball player (d. 1989)
- February 15 – Matt Groening, American cartoonist
- February 16 – Iain Banks, Scottish author (d. 2013)
- February 17
- February 18 – John Travolta, American actor (Saturday Night Fever)
- February 19 - Messaouda Boubaker, Tunisian writer
- February 20
- February 23 – Viktor Yushchenko, President of Ukraine
- February 25 – Gerardo Pelusso, Uruguayan football manager
- February 26 – Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, 12th President of Turkey
- March 1
- March 2
- March 4
- March 6 – Harald Schumacher, German football goalkeeper
- March 8
- March 9 – Bobby Sands, Irish republican hunger striker (d. 1981)
- March 13 – The Baroness Amos, British politician
- March 15
- March 16
- March 17 – Lesley-Anne Down, British actress
- March 18 – James F. Reilly, American astronaut
- March 19 – Indu Shahani, Indian educator and Sheriff of Mumbai
- March 20 – Louis Sachar, American author
- March 23
- March 24
- March 26
- March 29 – Karen Ann Quinlan, American right-to-die cause célèbre (d. 1985)
- April 1 – Dieter Müller, German soccer player
- April 2 – Susumu Hirasawa, Japanese musician
- April 5 – Guy Bertrand, Canadian linguist and radio/television personality
- April 6
- April 7
- April 8
- April 9
- April 10 – Anacani, Mexican-born American singer
- April 14 – Bruce Sterling, American science fiction writer
- April 16 – Ellen Barkin, American actress
- April 17
- April 22 – Jōji Nakata, Japanese voice actor
- April 23 – Michael Moore, American filmmaker/political activist
- April 27 – Herman Edwards, American football head coach
- April 28 – Michael Daugherty, American composer
- April 29
- May 1
- May 2 – Elliot Goldenthal, American composer
- May 6 – Angela Hernández Nuñez, Dominican writer
- May 7
- May 8
- May 13 – Johnny Logan, Australian-born Irish singer and composer, Eurovision Song Contest 1980, 1987 winner dubbed as "Mister Eurovision"
- May 19
- May 20 – David Paterson, American politician, Governor of New York
- May 22 – Shuji Nakamura, Japanese electronics engineer
- May 26 – Danny Rolling, American murderer (d. 2006)
- May 27
- June 2 – Chiyoko Kawashima, Retired Japanese voice actress
- June 4 – Kazuhiro Yamaji, Japanese actor and voice actor
- June 5 – Nancy Stafford, American actress and Christian author
- June 9
- June 14 – Will Patton, American actor
- June 15 – Jim Belushi, American actor (Saturday Night Live)
- June 16 – Sergey Kuryokhin, Russian pianist, composer, improvisor, performance artist and actor (d. 1996)
- June 19
- June 20
- June 21 - Anne Kirkbride, British Actress (Coronation Street) (d. 2015)
- June 22 – Freddie Prinze, American actor and comedian (d. 1977)
- June 25 – Sonia Sotomayor, American Associate Justice of the Supreme Court
- June 26 – Steve Barton, American actor (d. 2001)
- June 27 – Ron Kirk, Mayor of Dallas, Texas
- June 28 – Ava Barber, American country singer (The Lawrence Welk Show)
- June 29 – Rick Honeycutt, American baseball player and coach
- June 30 – Pierre Charles, Prime Minister of Dominica (d. 2004)
- July 2 – Peter Randall-Page, British artist
- July 5 – John Wright, New Zealand cricket captain
- July 6 – Willie Randolph, American baseball player, coach, manager
- July 10
- July 13 – Sezen Aksu, Turkish singer
- July 15
- July 16 – Jeanette Mott Oxford, American politician
- July 17
- July 20 – Wilson Casey, American syndicated columnist and entertainer
- July 22 – Pierre Lebeau, Canadian actor
- July 24 – Jorge Jesus, Portuguese football player and coach
- July 25 – Walter Payton, African-American football player (d. 1999)
- July 26 – Vitas Gerulaitis, American tennis player (d. 1994)
- July 27
- July 28 – Hugo Chávez, President of Venezuela (d. 2013)
- July 29 – Mark Gersmehl, American Christian musician
- August 1
- August 4
- August 9 – Pete Thomas, American longtime drummer for the Elvis Costello band
- August 11 – Joe Jackson, British rock 'n' roll singer (Steppin' Out)
- August 12
- August 13 – Nico Assumpção, Brazilian bass fiddle player
- August 14
- August 16 – James Cameron, Canadian-born film director
- August 17 – Anatoly Kudryavitsky, Russian-Irish writer
- August 20
- August 21
- August 23 – Charles Busch, American director, writer, and actor
- August 24 – Philippe Cataldo, French singer
- August 25 – Elvis Costello, English singer-songwriter
- August 29 – István Cserháti, Hungarian keyboardist (d. 2005)
- August 30 – Alexander Lukashenko, the President of Belarus
- August 31 – Caroline Cossey, British model
- September 1 – Dave Lumley, Canadian ice hockey player
- September 7 – Michael Emerson, American actor
- September 10 – Mark W. Everson, American businessman; 46th Commissioner of the Internal Revenue Service (2003-07)
- September 13 – Steve Kilbey, Australian musician
- September 17 – Joël-François Durand, French composer
- September 18 – Dennis Johnson, American basketball player (d. 2007)
- September 21
- September 24 – Lilian Mercedes Letona, Salvadoran guerrilla (d. 1983)
- September 26 – Kevin Kennedy, American baseball manager and television host
- September 28 – Steve Largent, American football player and congressman
- September 30 – Barry Williams, American actor
- October 1 – Martin Strel, Slovenian swimmer
- October 3
- October 5 – Wayne Watson, American Christian musician
- October 6 – Howard Hoffman, American voice actor
- October 7 – Robert A. Schuller, American televangelist and the son of Robert H. Schuller
- October 9
- October 10
- October 12 – Linval Thompson, Jamaican singer and producer
- October 13 – Mordechai Vanunu, a former Israeli nuclear technician who revealed secrets of its nuclear weapons program
- October 15
- October 18 - Yūji Mitsuya, Japanese voice actor
- October 23 – Ang Lee, Taiwanese film director
- October 24
- October 30
- November 2 – Angela Webber, Australian author, television writer, producer and comedienne (d. 2007)
- November 3
- November 7
- November 8
- November 12 – Rhonda Shear, American TV hostess, actress, and comedienne
- November 13 – Chris Noth, American actor
- November 14
- November 15 – Aleksander Kwaśniewski, President of Poland
- November 16 – Bruce Edwards, American golf caddy (d. 2004)
- November 18 – John Parr, English singer and musician
- November 19 – Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, President of Egypt
- November 23 – Bruce Hornsby, American rock singer
- November 26
- November 27
- November 29 – Joel Coen, American film director, producer, screenwriter, and editor
- December 1 – Bob Goen, American television personality and game show host
- December 2 – Stone Phillips, American television journalist
- December 3 – Grace Andreacchi, American author
- December 4 - Tony Todd, American actor and producer
- December 6 – Beat Furrer, Swiss-born Austrian composer and conductor
- December 7 – Mark Hofmann, American forger and murderer
- December 10 – Jack Hues, English singer and musician (Wang Chung)
- December 11
- December 13 – John Anderson, American country music singer-songwriter
- December 14
- December 18
- December 20 – Sandra Cisneros, American writer
- December 21 – Chris Evert, American tennis player
- December 24 – José María Figueres, Costa Rican politician, President 1994–1998
- December 25 – Annie Lennox, British rock singer (Eurythmics)
- December 26
- December 28
- December 29 – Albrecht Böttcher, German mathematician
- December 31 – Alex Salmond, Scottish politician
- Leonardo Daniel, Mexican actor and director
- January 5
- January 8 – Eduard Wiiralt, Estonian artist (b. 1898)
- January 11 – Oscar Straus, Austrian composer (b. 1870)
- January 12 – William H. P. Blandy, American admiral (b. 1890)
- January 18 – Sydney Greenstreet, English actor (b. 1879)
- January 20 – Fred Root, English cricketer (b. 1890)
- January 30
- January 31
- February 6 – Maxwell Bodenheim, American poet and novelist (murdered) (b. 1892)
- February 8 – Laurence Trimble, American actor (b. 1885)
- February 9 – Mabel Paige, American actress (b. 1880)
- February 11 – Thomas Pierrepoint, British executioner (b. 1870)
- February 12 – Dziga Vertov, Russian filmmaker (b. 1896)
- February 21 – William K. Howard, American film director (b. 1899)
- March 7
- March 9 – Vagn Walfrid Ekman, Swedish oceanographer (b. 1874)
- March 26 – Louis Silvers, American film composer (b. 1889)
- March 30 – Horatio Dresser, American writer (b. 1866)
- April 8 – Fritzi Scheff, actress & singer (b. 1879)
- April 10 – Auguste Lumière, French film pioneer (b. 1862)
- April 12 – Luis Cabrera Lobato, Mexican lawyer, politician and writer (b. 1876)
- April 13 – Angus L. Macdonald, Nova Scotia Premier (b. 1890)
- April 15 – Ülo Altermann, Estonian soldier and forest brother (b. 1923)
- April 17 – Lucrețiu Pătrășcanu, Romanian communist activist and sociologist (b. 1900)
- April 28 – Léon Jouhaux, French labor leader, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1879)
- April 29
- May 1 – Tom Tyler, American actor (b. 1903)
- May 3 – Józef Garbień, Polish footballer and physician (b. 1896)
- May 6 – B. C. Forbes, Scottish-born publisher (b. 1880)
- May 14 – Heinz Guderian, German World War II general (b. 1888)
- May 15 – William March, American writer and soldier (b. 1893)
- May 19 – Charles Ives, American composer (b. 1874)
- May 22 – Chief Bender, Native-American baseball player (Philadelphia Athletics) and a member of the MLB Hall of Fame (b. 1884)
- May 25 – Robert Capa, Hungarian-born photojournalist (b. 1913)
- June 7 – Alan Turing, British mathematician, cryptanalyst, and pioneer computer scientist (b. 1912)
- June 22 – Don Hollenbeck, American newscaster (b. 1905)
- July 1 – Thea von Harbou, German actress (b. 1888)
- July 3 – Reginald Marsh, American artist (b. 1898)
- July 6 – Gabriel Pascal, Hungarian producer and director (b. 1894)
- July 11 – Henry Valentine Knaggs, English physician and author (b. 1859)
- July 13
- July 14
- July 16 – Herms Niel, German composer (b. 1888)
- July 17 – Machine Gun Kelly, American gangster (b. 1895)
- July 28 – Sōjin Kamiyama or "Sojin", Japanese film star during the American silent film era, (b. 1884)
- July 29 – Coen de Koning, Dutch speed skater (b. 1879)
- August 3
- August 14 – Hugo Eckener, President of the Zeppelin Dirigible Company (b. 1868)
- August 24 – Getúlio Vargas, President of Brazil (b. 1882)
- August 31 – Elsa Barker, American writer (b. 1869)
- September 1 – Bert Acosta, American aviator (b. 1895)
- September 3 – Eugene Pallette, American actor (b. 1889)
- September 5 – Eugen Schiffer, German politician (b. 1860)
- September 6 – Edward C. Kalbfus, American admiral (b. 1877)
- September 7
- September 21 – Mikimoto Kōkichi, Japanese pearl farm pioneer (b. 1858)
- September 24 – Edward Pilgrim, British homeowner (suicide) (b. 1904)
- September 28 – Bert Lytell, American actor (b. 1885)
- October 9 – Robert H. Jackson, United States Supreme Court associate justice and chief prosecutor at the Nuremberg Trials (b. 1892)
- October 12 – George Welch, American aviator (b. 1918)
- October 19 – Hugh Duffy, American baseball player (Boston Braves) and a member of the MLB Hall of Fame (b. 1866)
- October 22 - Jibanananda Das, Indian poet, writer, novelist and essayist in Bengali (b. 1899)
- October 30 – Wilbur Shaw, American racing driver (b. 1902)
- November 3 – Henri Matisse, French painter (b. 1869)
- November 13 – Paul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist, German field marshal (b. 1881)
- November 15 – Lionel Barrymore, American actor (b. 1878)
- November 16 – Albert Francis Blakeslee, American botanist (b. 1874)
- November 17 – Yitzhak Lamdan, Russian-born Israeli poet and columnist (b. 1899)
- November 20 – Clyde Vernon Cessna, American pilot and aircraft designer, founded the Cessna Aircraft Corporation (b. 1879)
- November 22
- November 28 – Enrico Fermi, Italian physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1901)
- November 29 – Dink Johnson, American musician (b. 1892)
- November 30 – Wilhelm Furtwängler, German conductor (b. 1886)
- December 1 – Fred Rose, American songwriter (b. 1898)
- December 8
- December 20 – James Hilton, English novelist (b. 1900)
- December 23 – René Iché, French sculptor (b. 1897)
- December 27 – Adolph Otto Niedner, American cartridge designer (b. 1863)
- December 30 –
- Physics – Max Born, Walther Bothe
- Chemistry – Linus Pauling
- Medicine – John Franklin Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller, Frederick Chapman Robbins
- Literature – Ernest Hemingway
- Peace – The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
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