1955 in art
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- January 21 – O. Winston Link starts a 5-year personal project to document steam operations on the Norfolk and Western Railway in the United States using flash photography.
- March – A Photographer's Gallery established in New York City by Roy DeCarava.
- May 17 – Clark Art Institute opens to the public in Williamstown, Massachusetts.
- June 1 – Première of Billy Wilder's film of The Seven Year Itch featuring an iconic scene of Marilyn Monroe standing on a New York City Subway grating as her white dress (created by Travilla) is blown above her knees.
- June 27 – Sir Jacob Epstein marries Kathleen Garman.
- December - Iris Clert Gallery opens in the rue des Beaux-Arts, Paris, and its owner, Iris Clert, first meets Yves Klein.
- date unknown
- Marcel Duchamp becomes a citizen of the United States.
- Pablo Picasso finishes painting his Les Femmes d'Alger ("The Women of Algiers") series (inspired by Delacroix), concluding with "Version O" which in 2015 will sell at a world record price for a painting at auction.
- British studio potter Alan Caiger-Smith establishes Aldermaston Pottery in England.
- Enrique Tabara obtains an Ecuadorian government scholarship to study in Spain.
- Michael Andrews – Four People Sunbathing (Arts Council England)
- Girls on the Couch
- Nude Before a Mirror
- John Brack
- Edward Burra – Izzy Orts
- Lucien Clergue – Trio des Saltimbanques (photograph)
- Carroll Cloar – My Father Was Big as a Tree
- Salvador Dalí – The Sacrament of the Last Supper (National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.)
- Sir Jacob Epstein – Christ in Majesty (sculpture for Llandaff Cathedral)
- M. C. Escher – lithographs
- Alberto Giacometti
- Diego (approximate date)
- Grande tête mince
- Oswaldo Guayasamín – El ataúd blanco
- Edward Hopper – South Carolina Morning
- Jasper Johns
- Willem de Kooning – Composition
- Lee Krasner – Color Totem
- L. S. Lowry (Tate collection)
- René Magritte – The Mysteries of the Horizon
- Henry Moore
- Sidney Nolan – Ned Kelly
- Pablo Picasso – Don Quixote (sketch for Les Lettres Françaises, August)
- Robert Rauschenberg – Bantam
- Mark Rothko – Violet Center
- Hedda Sterne – New York, N.Y., 1955
- January – The Family of Man, a photography exhibition curated by Edward Steichen, opens at the Museum of Modern Art, New York.
- October – First public exhibition of Yves Klein's monochrome oil paintings, at Club des Solitaires, Paris.
- November 3–December 18 – Stanley Spencer: a Retrospective Exhibition at the Tate Gallery, London.
- Le Mouvement at Galerie Denise René, Paris, popularizing kinetic art.
- Exhibition by London members of Groupe Espace, organized by Paule Vézelay at the Royal Festival Hall.
- January 21 – Jeff Koons, American "kitsch" artist
- February 2 – Madi Phala, South African artist (d. 2007)
- March - Mark A. Landis, American painter and art forger
- March 24 – Beverly K. Effinger, American painter
- July 29 – Dave Stevens, American illustrator and comics artist (d. 2008)
- November 15 – Sergey Voychenko, Belarusian artist and designer (d. 2004)
- January 1 – Maria Bal, Polish model (b. 1879)
- January 7 – Lamorna Birch, English painter (b. 1869)
- February 11 – Olga Khokhlova, Russian-born ballet dancer and estranged wife of Picasso (b. 1891)
- March 16 – Nicolas de Staël, Russian-born French impasto painter (b. 1914)
- May 3 – Rudolf Schlichter, German painter (b. 1890)
- May 10 – John Radecki, Polish-born Australian stained glass artist (b. 1865)
- May 11 – Bradley Walker Tomlin, American painter (b. 1899)
- May 23 – Auguste Chabaud, French painter (b. 1882)
- June 1 – Antonio Dattilo Rubbo, Italian-born Australian painter and art teacher (b. 1870)
- June 29 – Max Pechstein, German Expressionist artist (b. 1881)
- August 17 – Fernand Léger, French artist (b. 1881)
- September 19 – Carl Milles, Swedish sculptor (b. 1875)
- September 27 – Leslie Garland Bolling, African American sculptor (b. 1898)
- November 5 – Maurice Utrillo, French painter (b. 1883)
- November 29 – Rene Paul Chambellan, American sculptor (b. 1893)
- December 19 – Alexander Lubimov, Russian artist (b. 1879)
- December 28 – Olive Edis, English photographer (b. 1876)
- Filmed on location September 1954. "The Seven Year Itch (1955)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 2012-05-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Picasso's Women of Algiers smashes auction record". BBC News. 2015-05-12. Retrieved 2015-05-12.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Stanley Spencer: a Retrospective Exhibition". Tate Britain. Retrieved 2012-04-10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>