2011 Libyan rape allegations
The 2011 Libyan rape allegations refer to allegations that arose in April 2011 that Gaddafi's forces in Libya were committing mass rape during the 2011 Libyan civil war. In 2014, the new Libyan government has said that compensation should be paid for the victims of rape during the war.
Allegations arose in 2011 that Viagra and other impotency drugs were being distributed by Gaddafi to sustain the rapes. The charges have been denied by Libyan diplomats as propaganda. In June 2011, the International Criminal Court began an investigation into the rape allegations seeking to add the rapes to Gaddafi's list of war crimes charges.Amnesty international, Human Rights Watch and Doctors Without Borders failed to find first-hand evidence that mass rapes were occurring, this was confirmed by the UN's investigator, M. Cherif Bassiouni.
United States secretary of state, Hillary Clinton, has noted that "rape, physical intimidation, sexual harassment, and even so-called 'virginity tests' have taken place in countries throughout the region." Secretary Clinton has also stated that "It is an affront to all people who are yearning to live in a society free from violence with respect for basic human rights. We urge all governments to conduct immediate, transparent investigations into these allegations, and to hold accountable those found responsible."
"Early in the Libyan conflict Secretary of State Clinton formally accused Gaddafi and his army of using mass rape as a tool of war. Though numerous international organizations, like Amnesty International, quickly debunked these claims, the charges were uncritically echoed by Western politicians and major media.
It seemed no matter how bizarre the conspiracy theory, as long as it painted Gaddafi and his supporters as monsters, and so long as it served the cause of prolonged military action in Libya, it was deemed credible by network news.
Two foremost examples are referenced in the latest batch of emails: the sensational claim that Gaddafi issued Viagra to his troops for mass rape, and the claim that bodies were “staged” by the Libyan government at NATO bombing sites to give the appearance of the Western coalition bombing civilians.
In a late March 2011 email, Blumenthal confesses to Hillary that,
I communicated more than a week ago on this story—Qaddafi placing bodies to create PR stunts about supposed civilian casualties as a result of Allied bombing—though underlining it was a rumor. But now, as you know, Robert gates gives credence to it. (See story below.)
Sources now say, again rumor (that is, this information comes from the rebel side and is unconfirmed independently by Western intelligence), that Qaddafi has adopted a rape policy and has even distributed Viagra to troops. The incident at the Tripoli press conference involving a woman claiming to be raped is likely to be part of a much larger outrage. Will seek further confirmation.
Not only did Defense Secretary Robert Gates promote his bizarre “staged bodies” theory on CBS News’ “Face The Nation,” but the even stranger Viagra rape fiction made international headlines as U.S. Ambassador to the UN Susan Rice made a formal charge against Libya in front of the UN Security Council.
What this new email confirms is that not only was the State Department aware of the spurious nature of what Blumenthal calls “rumors” originating solely with the rebels, but did nothing to stop false information from rising to top officials who then gave them “credence.”
It appears, furthermore, that the Viagra mass rape hoax likely originated with Sidney Blumenthal himself."
Ironically, in 2016 there were reports that African women were being raped by the same Libyan rebels who overthrew Gadhafi. This is part of a larger picture of abuse of black Africans in Libya that is emerging in the wake of the rebel victory, born of allegations that Gadhafi often hired sub-Saharan Africans to fight for him. 
In the 1970s and 1980s there were reports of Muammar Gaddafi making sexual advances toward female reporters and members of his entourage. After the civil war, more serious charges came to light. fr, a journalist for Le Monde, wrote in her book, Gaddafi's Harem that Gaddafi had raped, tortured, performed urolagnia, and imprisoned hundreds or thousands of women, usually very young. Another source—Libyan psychologist Seham Sergewa—reported that several of his female bodyguards claim to have been raped by Gaddafi and senior officials. After the civil war, Luis Moreno-Ocampo, prosecutor for the International Criminal Court, said there was evidence that Gaddafi told soldiers to rape women who had spoken out against his regime. In 2011 Amnesty questioned this and other claims used to justify Nato's war in Libya.
- "Libya Gaddafi rape victims to be compensated". BBC. 20 Feb 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- MacAskill, Ewen (29 April 2011). "Gaddafi 'supplies troops with Viagra to encourage mass rape', claims diplomat". London: Guardian.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Rice, Xan; Norton-Taylor, Richard; Pilkington, Ed; Stephen, Chris (9 June 2011). "Gaddafi faces new ICC charges for using rape as weapon in conflict". London: Guardian.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Gaddafi ordered mass rape as a weapon, International Criminal Court claims". London: The Telegraph. 9 Jun 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Cockburn, Patrick (June 24, 2011). "Amnesty questions claim that Gaddafi ordered rape as weapon of war". London: The Independent.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Krause-Jackson, Flavia; Alexander, Caroline (Jul 6, 2011). "Rape as Weapon of War Is UN Focus". Bloomberg.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Libya rape claims 'hysteria' - investigator". Herald Sun. June 10, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "ICC to investigate reports of Viagra-fueled gang-rapes in Libya". CNN. May 17, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Libya troops using rape as a weapon. CNN. May 17, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Clinton accuses Gaddafi of using rape as a tool". hindustantimes. June 17, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Clinton Condemns Sexual Violence In the Mideast". VOA. 2011-07-15. Retrieved 26 July 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Harris 1986, pp. 53–54; Blundy & Lycett 1987, pp. 22–23.
- Leyla Sanai (25 October 2013). "Book review: Gaddafi's Harem, By Annick Cojean, trans. Marjolijn de Jager". London: The Independent UK. Retrieved 25 October 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Tom Leonard (24 September 2009). "Muammar Gaddafi delivers 100 minute speech to UN general assembly". New York: The Telegraph. Retrieved 29 November 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Patrick Cockburn (June 25, 2011). "Amnesty questions Libyan mass rape". NZ Herald / The Independent. Retrieved January 27, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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