2015 Ramadan attacks

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"2015 Ramadan attacks"
Location Saint-Quentin-Fallavier, France
Kuwait City, Kuwait
Sousse, Tunisia
Kobanî, Syria
Al-Hasakah, Syria
Leego, Somalia
Date 25–29 June 2015
Deaths 403+
(not including attackers)
Non-fatal injuries
336+
Perpetrator Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

On 26 June 2015, attacks occurred in France, Kuwait, Syria, Somalia, and Tunisia, one day following a deadly massacre in Syria.[1] The day of attacks has been dubbed "Bloody Friday" by international media[2][3][4][5] and "Black Friday" (French: Vendredi Noir) among Francophone media in Europe and North Africa.[6][7][8][9][10]

One attack at a Tunisian beach resort killed 39; a bombing at a Shia mosque in Kuwait City killed 27 and injured several; while in Kobanî a large-scale massacre by ISIL resulted in more than 223 civilians murdered, in line with over 79 assailants (including 13 suicide bombers) and 23 Kurdish militiamen,[11] dubbed the second largest massacre by ISIL since summer 2014; a suicide bombing by ISIL in Al-Hasakeh, also in Syria, resulted in 20 fatalities; Al-Shabaab militants brutally killed 70 African Union soldiers from Burundi in Leego in Somalia; finally, one man was decapitated, while several were injured during the Saint-Quentin-Fallavier attack in France.

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant senior leader Abu Mohammad al-Adnani had released an audio message three days earlier encouraging militants everywhere to attack during the month of Ramadan.[12] ISIL also claimed responsibility for the attacks in Tunisia, Syria and Kuwait.[13]

According to The Guardian, there is no evidence that the attacks were coordinated among the perpetrators,[14] but their timing on a single day has received significant focused coverage. One security analyst said the attacks added up to "an unprecedented day for terrorism."[13] In total, more than 403 people have died and 336 injured (not including attackers), with the final numbers not yet determined.

Background

Three days before the attack, ISIL's Abu Mohammad al-Adnani called on jihadists to “make the month of Ramadan a calamity on the apostates” by initiating attacks and seeking “martyrdom.” The three attacks in France, Kuwait and Tunisia were launched early on Friday morning.[13][14]

Question of coordination of the attacks

The attacks took place three days before the one-year anniversary of ISIL declaring itself a caliphate on 29 June 2014.[15][16][17] Writing for The Guardian, journalist Kareem Shaheen wrote that, "There was no evidence that the near-simultaneous attacks were coordinated, but they highlighted the growing threat of attacks by jihadists, some of them inspired by Isis rhetoric, across Europe, Africa and the Middle East."[14] British professor Sajjan Gohel, the international security director for the Asia-Pacific Foundation think tank, said the attacks added up to "an unprecedented day for terrorism," and that while details of the planning were still unclear, it involved individuals "buying into the ... doctrine that groups like ISIS articulate."[13] They also occurred on Friday, during the Islamic holy month of Ramadan, following an ISIL leader’s call to make the month of Ramadan a time of "calamity for the infidels."[18]

Journalist Vivienne Walt wrote for Time that the attacks in France, Kuwait and Syria left "an impression that the group had adopted a new tactic of launching punitive external attacks rather than just focusing on state-building and territorial acquisition." The three attacks plus the killings in Kobanî "do not appear to have any military purpose and may suggest that ISIS has decided to pursue its war for territory in tandem with its war against the world of unbelievers, which includes almost everyone," Walt wrote.[19]

Long-term impact

On 27 June, Politico reported that U.S. intelligence agencies were reassessing their previous characterization of ISIL as a “regional threat.”[5] In a February 2015 report, Director of National Intelligence James R. Clapper classified ISIL as a "regional threat" and wrote: “In an attempt to strengthen its self-declared caliphate, ISIL probably plans to conduct operations against regional allies, Western facilities, and personnel in the Middle East.”[20] U.S. Congressman Ed Royce, the chairman of the U.S. House Committee on Foreign Affairs, told Politico, “These attacks show that the [ISIL] threat is spreading well beyond Iraq and Syria. A continued safe-haven there means more attacks across the region, Europe and even here at home.... We also must destroy the online messaging that attracts so many young people with the counter message that [ISIL] offers no peace, no community, and no future.”[5]

Attacks

Kobanî

On 25 June, ISIL fighters launched an attack on the Kurdish-held town of Kobanî, Syria, infiltrating the city en-masse and killing scores of civilians with guns and a series of suicide bombs.[21][22][23][24] The attacks resulted in over 230 civilians dead, as well as 79 ISIL assailants and 23 YPG militia men. It was named the second largest civilian massacre by ISIL since it declared itself a caliphate on 29 June 2014.[25]

Saint-Quentin-Fallavier

On 26 June 2015, Islamist delivery driver Yassine Salhi decapitated a man and rammed a company van into gas cylinders at a gas factory near Lyon, causing an explosion and injuring two others. Three other people, including Salhi's wife and sister, were later arrested.

Kuwait City

A suicide bombing took place on 26 June 2015 in Kuwait at a Shia mosque. The attack was claimed by ISIL. The Emir of Kuwait visited the location of the incident minutes after it happened.[26]

The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) has claimed responsibility for the attack, and called the perpetrator "Abu Sulaiman al-Muwahhid."

Sousse

The Sousse attacks occurred on 26 June 2015 in the Tunisian town of Sousse. At least 39 people, mostly European tourists, were killed when an armed gunman attacked two hotels on the beach. ISIL claimed responsibility for the attack.[13] Reports have since surfaced of alleged involvement and co-operation between the gunmen Seifeddine Rezgui and Ansar al-Sharia in Tunisia.[27]

Hasakeh

An ISIL suicide bomber killed at least 20 people in the city of Hasakeh.

Leego

Although not directly linked to the above attacks, Al Shabaab militants attack an African Union base in the Leego district of Somalia and kills more than 70 African Union soldiers and seizes control of their military base.[28]

See also

References

  1. "Saint-Quentin-Fallavier, Sousse, Kobané, Koweït, Somalie : vague d'attaques djihadistes". Le Monde. 27 June 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Dearden, Lizzie (27 June 2015). "Tunisia attack: At least 15 British tourists confirmed dead in aftermath of Bloody Friday - as it happened". The Independent. London. Retrieved 27 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. "US reassesses ISIS threat post 'Bloody Friday's' triple attacks". Asian News International. 27 June 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. "'Bloody friday': terreur op verschillende continenten". ed.nl. 26 June 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Bender, Brian (27 June 2015). "U.S. reassesses threat of ISIL after 'Bloody Friday'". Politico. Retrieved 27 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. "Isère, Tunisie, Koweït : vendredi noir". Liberation. 27 June 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. "Attentats islamistes: "L'horreur sur tous les fronts" (revue de presse)". Le Soir. 27 June 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. "Vendredi noir en Tunisie". El Watan. 27 June 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. "Le vendredi noir du terrorisme". l'Alsace. 26 June 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. Delmas, Benoît (27 June 2015). "Tunisie : 38 morts à Sousse, un vendredi noir à tous égards". LePoint Afrique. Retrieved 27 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. "79 IS killed in Ein al-Arab"Kobane", and an Egyptian captive reveals the mission details". SOHR. Retrieved 28 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. Terrorist Attacks in France, Tunisia and Kuwait Kill DozensThe New York Times – 26 June 2015
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 Botelho, Greg (27 June 2015). "Terror attacks on 3 continents; ISIS claims responsibility in Tunisia, Kuwait". CNN. Retrieved 27 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Shaheen, Kareem (27 June 2015). "Terrorist attacks in Tunisia, Kuwait and France stun three continents". The Guardian.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. Rebecca Collard / Beirut (25 June 2015). "ISIS: What We Have Learned Since the Declaration of a Caliphate". TIME.com.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. "Terror attacks: Dozens dead in vicious day as Isis marks one year of caliphate". International Business Times UK.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. Malia Zimmerman (27 June 2015). "ISIS marks anniversary of caliphate amid Ramadan calls for violence". Fox News.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. "Day of terror: Islamist attacks around world follow ISIS' Ramadan message". Fox News. 26 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. Walt, Vivienne (26 June 2015). "Terrorist Attacks Suggest a Change in ISIS Tactics". Time. Retrieved 28 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. Clapper, James R. (13 February 2015). "Worldwide Threat Assessment of the US Intelligence Community" (PDF). U.S. Senate Armed Services Committee. Retrieved 27 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. "Pro-Kurdish party says Kobani 'massacre' reflects Turkish support for ISIL". euronews.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. "Islamic State kills at least 145 civilians in Syria's Kobani". Reuters. 26 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. "Kobani 'massacre' reflects Turkish support for ISIS: Pro-Kurd party". The Daily Star Newspaper - Lebanon.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. Sly, Liz (26 June 2015). "Islamic State attacks Kobane 5 months after ouster; scores reported killed". Washington Post. Retrieved 28 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. CNN Staff (26 June 2015). "Rights group: ISIS attack on Kobani is 'second largest' - CNN.com". CNN.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. H.H The Emir arrives the incident's location – Arabic Kuwaiti al-Watan newspaper – 26 June 2015
  27. "Tunisia attack: UK links to Seifeddine Rezgui terror group Ansar al-Sharia emerge". International Business Times. 1 July 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. "Al-Shabab Attack Kills Scores of AU Soldiers". VOA. Retrieved 29 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>