2020 United States presidential election

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2020 United States presidential election

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538 members of the Electoral College
270 electoral votes needed to win

Template:2020 United States presidential election imagemap
The electoral map for the 2020 election, based on populations from the 2010 Census; the 2020 census may change the amount of electoral votes for each state

Incumbent President

Donald Trump
Republican



The 2020 United States presidential election, scheduled for Tuesday, November 3, 2020, will be the 59th quadrennial U.S. presidential election. Voters will select presidential electors who in turn will either elect a new president and vice president through the electoral college or reelect the incumbents. The series of presidential primary elections and caucuses are likely to be held during the first six months of 2020. This nominating process is also an indirect election, where voters cast ballots selecting a slate of delegates to a political party's nominating convention, who then in turn elect their party's presidential nominee.

President Donald Trump of the Republican Party, who was elected in 2016, is seeking reelection to a second term. The winner of the 2020 presidential election is scheduled to be inaugurated on January 20, 2021.

Background

Procedure

Article Two of the United States Constitution states that for a person to serve as President of the United States the individual must be a natural-born citizen of the United States, at least 35 years old and a United States resident for at least 14 years. Candidates for the presidency typically seek the nomination of one of the various political parties of the United States, in which case each party develops a method (such as a primary election) to choose the candidate the party deems best suited to run for the position. The primary elections are usually indirect elections where voters cast ballots for a slate of party delegates pledged to a particular candidate. The party's delegates then officially nominate a candidate to run on the party's behalf. The nominee then personally chooses a vice presidential running mate to form that party's presidential ticket (with the exception of the Libertarian Party, which nominates its vice presidential candidate by delegate vote regardless of the nominee's preference). The general election in November is also an indirect election, in which voters cast ballots for a slate of members of the Electoral College; these electors then directly elect the President and Vice President.[1]

In August 2018, the Democratic National Committee voted to disallow superdelegates from voting on the first ballot of the nominating process, beginning with the 2020 election. This would require a candidate to win a majority of pledged delegates from the assorted primary elections in order to win the party's nomination. The last time this did not occur was the nomination of Adlai Stevenson II at the 1952 Democratic National Convention.[2]

The Twenty-second Amendment to the Constitution states that an individual can not be elected to the presidency more than twice. This prohibits former Presidents Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama from being elected president again. Former president Jimmy Carter, having served a single term as president, is not constitutionally prohibited from being elected to another term in the 2020 election.

Demographic trends

The age group of what will then be people in the 18- to 45-year-old bracket is expected to represent just under 40 percent of the United States' eligible voters in 2020. It is expected that more than 30 percent of eligible American voters will be nonwhite.[3]

A bipartisan report indicates that changes in voter demographics since the 2016 election could impact the results of the 2020 election. African Americans, Hispanics, Asians and other ethnic minorities, as well as "whites with a college degree" are expected to all increase their percentage of national eligible voters by 2020, while "whites without a college degree" will decrease. This shift is potentially an advantage for the Democratic nominee; however, due to geographical differences, this could still lead to President Trump (or a different Republican nominee) winning the Electoral College while still losing the popular vote, possibly by an even larger margin than in 2016.[4]

Additionally, Washington, D.C. may lower its voting age from 18 to 16. Legislation was introduced by City Councilman Charles Allen in April 2018, with a public hearing in June, and a vote by the end of the year. Unlike other cities with a voting age of 16 such as Berkeley, California, this would allow 16- and 17-year-olds to vote for President of the United States for the first time in 2020. Allen said that he was inspired by the high school students that participated in the March for Our Lives, which occurred at the capital in March.[5]

Simultaneous elections

The presidential election will occur at the same time as elections to the Senate and the House of Representatives. Several states will also hold state gubernatorial and state legislative elections. Following the election, the United States House will redistribute the seats among the 50 states based on the results of the 2020 United States Census, and the states will conduct a redistricting of Congressional and state legislative districts. In most states, the governor and the state legislature conduct the redistricting (although some states have redistricting commissions), and often a party that wins a presidential election experiences a coattail effect that also helps other candidates of that party win elections.[6] Therefore, the party that wins the 2020 presidential election could also win a significant advantage in the drawing of new Congressional and state legislative districts that would stay in effect until the 2032 elections.[7]

General election polling

Nominations

Republican Party

Donald Trump is eligible to run for reelection and has signaled his intention to do so.[8] His reelection campaign has been ongoing since his victory in 2016, leading pundits to describe his tactic of holding rallies continuously throughout his presidency as a "never-ending campaign".[9] On January 20, 2017, at 5:11 p.m., he submitted a letter as a substitute of FEC Form 2, by which he reached the legal threshold for filing, in compliance with the Federal Election Campaign Act.[10]

Beginning in August 2017, reports arose that members of the Republican Party were preparing a "shadow campaign" against Trump, particularly from the moderate or establishment wings of the party. Then-Arizona Senator John McCain said that "[Republicans] see weakness in this president."[11] Maine Senator Susan Collins, Kentucky Senator Rand Paul, and former New Jersey Governor Chris Christie all expressed doubts in 2017 that Trump would be the 2020 nominee, with Collins stating "it's too difficult to say."[12][13] Senator Jeff Flake claimed in 2017 that Trump was "inviting" a primary challenger by the way he was governing.[14] Longtime political strategist Roger Stone, however, predicted in May 2018 that Trump might not seek a second term were he to succeed in keeping all of his campaign promises and "mak[ing] America great again".[15]

On January 25, 2019, the Republican National Committee unofficially endorsed Trump, and began coordinating with the campaign organization.

Declared major candidates and exploratory committees

Template:Transcluded section

Name Born Experience Home state Campaign
Announcement date
Bound
delegates[16]
Popular vote[16] Contests won[lower-alpha 1]
Soft count[lower-alpha 2] Hard count[lower-alpha 3]
TrumpDonald Trump official portrait (cropped).jpg
Donald Trump
June 14, 1946
(age 74)
Queens, New York
President of the United States (2017–Present) FLFlag of Florida.svg
Florida[19]
2017-02-17TrumpPenceKAG.png
Campaign
June 18, 2019[20]
144
(5.9%)
119
(4.88%)
160,925
(91.23%)
5
HI[21], IA[22], KS[23], NH[24]
NV[25]
Weldx160px
Bill Weld
July 31, 1945
(age 75)
Smithtown, New York
Governor of Massachusetts (1991–1997)
Libertarian nominee for Vice President in 2016
MAFlag of Massachusetts.svg
Massachusetts
2019-02-15100x100px
Campaign
April 15, 2019[26]
1
(0.04%)
0
(0%)
14,195
(8.05%)
0
De La Fuentex160px
Rocky De La Fuente
October 10, 1954
(age 65)
San Diego, California
Businessman and real estate developer
Reform nominee for President in 2016
CAFlag of California.svg
California
2019-05-16100x100px
Campaign
May 16, 2019[27]
0
(0%)
0
(0%)
131
(0.07%)
0

Individuals who have publicly expressed interest

Template:Transcluded section


Convention site

On July 20, 2018, the Republican National Convention chose Charlotte, North Carolina as the site for their 2020 national convention.[28] The convention will be held from August 24 until August 27, 2020.[29]

Endorsements

Democratic Party

After Hillary Clinton's loss in the previous election, the Democratic Party was seen largely as leaderless[32] and fractured between the centrist Clinton wing and the more progressive Sanders wing of the party, echoing the rift brought up in the 2016 primary election.[33][34]

This divide between the establishment and progressive wings of the party has been reflected in several elections leading up to the 2020 primaries, most notably in 2017 with the election for DNC Chair between Tom Perez and Sanders-backed progressive Keith Ellison:[35] Perez was elected Chairman, but Ellison was appointed the Deputy Chair, a largely ceremonial role. In 2018, several U.S. House districts that Democrats hoped to gain from the Republican majority had contentious primary elections. These clashes were described by Politico's Elena Schneider as a "Democratic civil war".[36] Meanwhile, there has been a general shift to the left in regards to college tuition, healthcare, and immigration among Democrats in the Senate, likely to build up credentials for the upcoming primary election.[37][38]

Perez has commented that the 2020 primary field will likely go into double-digits, rivaling the size of the 2016 GOP primary, which consisted of 17 major candidates.[39] In the wake of the Me Too movement, several female candidates are expected to enter the race, increasing the likelihood of the Democrats nominating a woman for the second time in a row.[40] Speculation also mounted that Democrats' best bet to defeat President Trump would be to nominate their own celebrity or businessperson with no government experience, most notably Oprah Winfrey after her memorable speech at the 75th Golden Globe Awards.[41]

The topic of age has been brought up among the most likely front-runners: former Vice President Joe Biden, Massachusetts Senator Elizabeth Warren, and Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders, who will be 78, 71, and 79 respectively on inauguration day. Former Senate Minority Leader Harry Reid (who will be 81 on inauguration day) described the trio as "an old folks' home", expressing a need for fresh faces to step up and lead the party.[42]

Declared major candidates and exploratory committees

Template:Transcluded section

Candidate Born Experience State Campaign announced Pledged delegates[43] Popular vote[44] Contests won Article Ref.
Biden155x155px
Joe Biden
November 20, 1942
(age 77)
Scranton, Pennsylvania
Vice President of the United States (2009–2017)
U.S. senator from Delaware (1973–2009)
Candidate for President in 1988 and 2008
DEFlag of Delaware.svg
Delaware
April 25, 2019 1,225 10,134,588
(40.73%)
19
(AL, AZ, AR, FL, ID, IL, ME, MA, MI, MN, MS, MO, NC, OK, SC, TN, TX, VA, WA)
2019-04-25100x100px
__________
Campaign
FEC filing
[45]

Withdrawn candidates

Template:Transcluded section

Candidate Born Experience State Campaign
announced
Campaign
suspended
Popular vote Article Ref.
Delaney90x90px
John Delaney
April 16, 1963
(age 57)
Wood-Ridge, New Jersey
U.S. representative from MD-06 (2013–2019) MD Maryland July 28, 2017 January 31, 2020
(endorsed Biden)[46]
15,682 90x90px
__________
Campaign
FEC filing
[47][48]
Booker90x90px
Cory Booker
April 27, 1969
(age 51)
Washington, D.C.
U.S. senator from New Jersey (2013–present)
Mayor of Newark, New Jersey (2006–2013)
NJ New Jersey February 1, 2019 January 13, 2020
(running for re-election)[49]
(endorsed Biden)[50]
29,190 90x90px
__________
Campaign
FEC filing
[51][52]
Williamson90x90px
Marianne Williamson
July 8, 1952
(age 68)
Houston, Texas
Author
Founder of Project Angel Food
Independent candidate for U.S. House from CA-33 in 2014
WV California January 28, 2019
Exploratory committee:
November 15, 2018
January 10, 2020
(endorsed Sanders)[53]
21,395 90x90px
__________
Campaign
FEC filing
[54][55]
Castro90x90px
Julián Castro
September 16, 1974
(age 45)
San Antonio, Texas
Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (2014–2017)
Mayor of San Antonio, Texas (2009–2014)
TX Texas January 12, 2019
Exploratory committee: December 12, 2018
January 2, 2020
(endorsed Warren)[56]
36,304 2019-01-12 90x90px
__________
Campaign
FEC filing
[57][58]
Harrisx100px
Kamala Harris
October 20, 1964
(age 55)
Oakland, California
U.S. senator from California (2017–present)
Attorney General of California (2011–2017)
CA California January 21, 2019 December 3, 2019
(endorsed Biden)[59]
844 90x90px
__________
Campaign
FEC filing
[60][61]
Bullockx100px
Steve Bullock
April 11, 1966
(age 54)
Missoula, Montana
Governor of Montana (2013–present)
Attorney General of Montana (2009–2013)
MT Montana May 14, 2019 December 2, 2019
(running for U.S. Senate)[62]
549 90px
__________
Campaign
FEC filing
[63][64]
Sestakx100px
Joe Sestak
December 12, 1951
(age 68)
Secane, Pennsylvania
U.S. representative from PA-07 (2007–2011)
Former Vice Admiral of the United States Navy
PA Pennsylvania June 23, 2019 December 1, 2019
(endorsed Klobuchar)[65]
5,226 Campaign
FEC filing
[66][67]
Messamx100px
Wayne Messam
June 7, 1974
(age 46)
South Bay, Florida
Mayor of Miramar, Florida (2015–present) FL Florida March 28, 2019
Exploratory committee: March 13, 2019
November 19, 2019 0[lower-alpha 4] 2019-03-2890x90px
__________
Campaign
FEC filing
[68][69]
O'Rourkex100px
Beto O'Rourke
September 26, 1972
(age 47)
El Paso, Texas
U.S. representative from TX-16 (2013–2019) TX Texas March 14, 2019 November 1, 2019
(endorsed Biden)[70]
1[lower-alpha 4][71] 2019-03-14 90x90px
__________
Campaign
FEC filing
[72][73]
Ryanx100px
Tim Ryan
July 16, 1973
(age 47)
Niles, Ohio
U.S. representative from OH-13 (2013–present)
U.S. representative from OH-17 (2003–2013)
OH Ohio April 4, 2019 October 24, 2019
(running for re-election)[74]
(endorsed Biden)
[75]
0[lower-alpha 4] 90x90px
__________
Campaign
FEC filing
[76][77]
De Blasiox100px
Bill de Blasio
May 8, 1961
(age 59)
Manhattan, New York
Mayor of New York City, New York (2014–present) NY New York May 16, 2019 September 20, 2019
(endorsed Sanders)[78]
0[lower-alpha 4] 2019-05-16 90x90px
__________
Campaign
FEC filing
[79][80]
Gillibrandx100px
Kirsten Gillibrand
December 9, 1966
(age 53)
Albany, New York
U.S. senator from New York (2009–present)
U.S. representative from NY-20 (2007–2009)
NY New York March 17, 2019
Exploratory committee: January 15, 2019
August 28, 2019
(endorsed Biden)[81]
0[lower-alpha 4] 90x90px
__________
Campaign
FEC filing
[82][83]
Moultonx100px
Seth Moulton
October 24, 1978
(age 41)
Salem, Massachusetts
U.S. representative from MA-06 (2015–present) MA Massachusetts April 22, 2019 August 23, 2019
(running for re-election)[84]
(endorsed Biden)[85]
0[lower-alpha 4] 60x60px
__________
Campaign
FEC filing
[86][87]
Insleex100px
Jay Inslee
February 9, 1951
(age 69)
Seattle, Washington
Governor of Washington (2013–present)
U.S. representative from WA-01 (1999–2012)
U.S. representative from WA-04 (1993–1995)
WA Washington March 1, 2019 August 21, 2019
(running for re-election)[88]
1[lower-alpha 4][89] 60x60px
__________
Campaign
FEC filing
[90][91]
Hickenlooperx100px
John Hickenlooper
February 7, 1952
(age 68)
Narberth, Pennsylvania
Governor of Colorado (2011–2019)
Mayor of Denver, Colorado (2003–2011)
CO Colorado March 4, 2019 August 15, 2019
(running for U.S. Senate)[92]
(endorsed Bennet)[93]
1[lower-alpha 4][89] 90x90px
__________
Campaign
FEC filing
[94][95]
Gravelx100px
Mike Gravel
May 13, 1930
(age 90)
Springfield, Massachusetts
U.S. senator from Alaska (1969–1981)
Candidate for President in 2008
Candidate for Vice President in 1972
CA California April 2, 2019
Exploratory committee: March 19, 2019
August 6, 2019
(endorsed Gabbard and Sanders)[96]
0[lower-alpha 4] 90x90px
__________
Campaign
FEC filing
[97][96]
Swalwellx100px
Eric Swalwell
November 16, 1980
(age 39)
Sac City, Iowa
U.S. representative from CA-15 (2013–present) CA California April 8, 2019 July 8, 2019
(running for re-election)[98]
0[lower-alpha 4] 90x90px
__________
Campaign
FEC filing
[99][100]
Ojedax100px
Richard Ojeda
September 25, 1970
(age 49)
Rochester, Minnesota
West Virginia state senator from WV-SD07 (2016–2019) WV West Virginia November 11, 2018 January 25, 2019
(running for U.S. Senate)[101]
0[lower-alpha 4]

Campaign
FEC filing

[102][103]

Individuals who have publicly expressed interest

Template:Transcluded section


Potential convention sites

Bids for the National Convention were solicited in the fall of 2017, with finalists being announced in June 2018. The winning bid was supposed to be revealed in the summer of 2018. The convention is scheduled to be held from July 13 to 16, 2020.[104]

Endorsements

Template:Transcluded section

Libertarian Party

Declared candidates

These candidates have established campaign websites.

  Formed exploratory committee but has not officially declared candidacy
Name Born Current or previous positions State Announced Ref
150x150px
Adam Kokesh
February 1, 1982
(age 38)
San Francisco, California
Libertarian and anti-war political activist
Candidate for U.S. Senate in 2018
Candidate for U.S. Representative from New Mexico in 2010
Flag map of Arizona.svg
Arizona
July 18, 2013
120px
(Website)
FEC Filing
[107]
x150px
John McAfee
September 18, 1945
(age 74)
Forest of Dean, Gloucestershire,
England
Founder and CEO of McAfee, Inc. 1987–1994
Candidate for President in 2016
105px
Tennessee
June 3, 2018
120px
(CampaignWebsite)
[108]
150x150px
Vermin Supreme
June 1961
(age 57)
Rockport, Massachusetts
Performance artist and activist
Candidate for President in 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012, and 2016
Candidate for Mayor of Detroit, Michigan in 1989
Candidate for Mayor of Baltimore, Maryland in 1987
Flag-map of Kansas.svg
Kansas
May 28, 2018
120px
(Website)
[109]
150x150px
Arvin Vohra
May 9, 1979
(age 41)
Silver Spring, Maryland
Vice Chair of the LNC 2014–2018
Libertarian nominee for U.S. Senate from Maryland in 2018
Libertarian nominee for U.S. Representative in 2012 and 2014
Candidate for U.S. Senate in 2016
Flag-map of Maryland.svg
Maryland
July 3, 2018
150px
(Website)
[110]

The following candidate has established an exploratory committee, but does not have a campaign website:

Withdrawn candidates

Candidate Born Experience State Campaign Ref
x160px
Zoltan Istvan
March 30, 1973
(aged 45)
Los Angeles, California
Transhumanist activist and futurist
Transhumanist nominee for President in 2016
Candidate for Governor of California in 2018
Flag-map of California.svg
California
Announced campaign:
November 25, 2017

Suspended campaign:
January 11, 2019 (publicly revealed)

[112][113]

Publicly expressed interest

Individuals in this section have expressed an interest in running for president within the last six months. Template:Transcluded section


Convention site

On December 10, 2017, the Libertarian National Committee chose Austin, Texas as the site of their 2020 national convention. The convention will be held between May 22–25, 2020.[114][115]

Green Party

  Formed exploratory committee but has not officially declared their candidacy

Declared major candidates and exploratory committees

Name Born Experience State Announced Ref
150x150px
Dario Hunter
1983
(age Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "{".)
New Jersey
Youngstown Board of Education (2016–present) 95px
Ohio
150px
(Website)

Exploratory committee:
January 21, 2019

Announced campaign: February 18, 2019
FEC Filing

[116]

Individuals who have publicly expressed interest

Individuals in this section have expressed an interest in running for president within the last six months.

American Solidarity Party

Declared candidates

Name Born Experience State Announced Ref

Joe Schriner
1955
(age Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "{".)
Ohio
Political activist and journalist
Candidate for President in 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012 and 2016 as Independent
95px
Ohio
October 13, 2017
(Website)
[120][121]

Independent or unaffiliated

Declared candidates

Name Born Current or previous positions State Announced Ref

Ronnie Kroell
February 1, 1983
(age 37)
Chicago, Illinois
Activist, model, actor and singer Flag map of Illinois.svg
Illinois
175px
February 12, 2019
(Website)
[122]

Notable people who have announced that they are running for President in 2020 as independent candidates but have not established campaign websites are:

Individuals who have publicly expressed interest

Individuals in this section have expressed an interest in running for president within the last six months.

Party conventions

The 2020 Democratic National Convention is scheduled from July 13–16 at a city to be announced,[104] while the 2020 Republican National Convention is planned to be held in Charlotte, North Carolina on August 24–27.[130] This will be the first time since 2004 that the two major party conventions will be held at least one month apart with the 2020 Summer Olympic Games in between[131] (in 2008 and 2012, the Democratic and Republican conventions were held in back-to-back weeks following the Summer Olympics, while in 2016 both were held before the Rio Games).

See also

Notes

  1. In bolded states and territories, the leading candidate won the support of an absolute majority of that state's delegation for the first ballot; according to Rule 40(b), eight such states are needed to be eligible.[17] In states and territories that are not bolded, the leading candidate won the support of a simple plurality of delegates.
  2. The soft count is the estimated number of presumed delegates, subject to change if candidates drop out of the race, leaving those delegates that were previously allocated to them "uncommitted".[18]
  3. The hard count is the number of the official allocated delegates.[18]
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 Candidate did not appear on any ballots.

References

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  2. Levy, Adam (August 25, 2018). "DNC changes superdelegate rules in presidential nomination process". CNN. Archived from the original on August 26, 2018. Retrieved August 27, 2018. Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Weeks, Linton (January 25, 2013). "Forget 2016. The Pivotal Year In Politics May Be 2020". NPR. Archived from the original on October 6, 2015. Retrieved October 30, 2015. Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Chinni, Dante (April 22, 2018). "Demographic shifts show 2020 presidential race could be close". NBC News. Archived from the original on April 23, 2018. Retrieved April 23, 2018. Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Fox, Peggy (April 17, 2018). "Washington, D.C., may allow 16-year-olds to vote for president in the 2020 election". USA Today. Archived from the original on April 20, 2018. Retrieved April 19, 2018. Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Campbell, James E. (March 1986). "Presidential Coattails and Midterm Losses in State Legislative Elections". The American Political Science Review. 80 (1): 45. JSTOR 1957083.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Sarlin, Benjy (August 26, 2014). "Forget 2016: Democrats already have a plan for 2020". MSNBC. Archived from the original on October 28, 2015. Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Westwood, Sarah (January 22, 2017). "Trump hints at re-election bid, vowing 'eight years' of 'great things'". Washington Examiner. Retrieved February 21, 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Bixby, Scott (February 18, 2017). "The Road to 2020: Donald Trump's Never-Ending Campaign". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on August 6, 2017. Retrieved January 20, 2018. Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. Morehouse, Lee (January 30, 2017). "Trump breaks precedent, files as candidate for re-election on first day". KTVK. Archived from the original on January 30, 2017. Retrieved February 21, 2017. Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Martin, Jonathan; Burns, Alexander (August 5, 2017). "Republican Shadow Campaign for 2020 Takes Shape as Trump Doubts Grow". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 21, 2017. Retrieved October 22, 2017. Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. "Sen. Susan Collins not sure Trump will be 2020 GOP nominee". CBS News. August 21, 2017. Archived from the original on October 23, 2017. Retrieved October 22, 2017. Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. Goodkind, Nicole (October 30, 2017). "TRUMP MAY NOT SEEK RE-ELECTION: RAND PAUL, CHRIS CHRISTIE". Newsweek. Archived from the original on November 4, 2017. Retrieved November 4, 2017. Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Kaczynski, Andrew (August 24, 2017). "Sen. Jeff Flake: Trump 'inviting' 2020 primary challenge by how he's governing". CNN. Archived from the original on October 23, 2017. Retrieved October 22, 2017. Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. Chaitin, Daniel (May 19, 2018). "Roger Stone says Trump may not run in 2020, pledges to line up challenger to Pence-Haley ticket". Washington Examiner. Archived from the original on June 12, 2018. Retrieved June 9, 2018. Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. 16.0 16.1 Berg-Andersson, Richard E. "Republican Convention". The Green Papers. Retrieved December 13, 2019.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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