From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
|Centuries:||8th century – 9th century – 10th century|
|Decades:||810s 820s 830s – 840s – 850s 860s 870s|
|Years:||840 841 842 843 844 845 846 847 848 849|
|Births – Deaths – By country
Establishments – Disestablishments
This is a list of events occurring in the 840s, ordered by year.
- June 20 – Emperor Louis the Pious falls ill and dies at his hunting lodge on an island in the Rhine near his imperial palace at Ingelheim, while suppressing a revolt. His eldest son Lothair I succeeds him as Holy Roman Emperor and tries to seize all the territories of the late Charlemagne. The 17-year-old Charles the Bald becomes king of the Franks and joins the fight with his half-brother Louis the German in resisting Lothair.
- King Wigstan of Mercia, grandson of former ruler Wiglaf (see 839), declines his kingship and prefers the religious life. He asks his widowed mother, princess Ælfflæd to act as regent. A nobleman of the line of the late king Beornred, named Berhtric, wishes to marry her but he is a relative. Wigstan refuses the match and is murdered by followers of Berhtric at Wistow. He is buried at Repton Abbey and later revered as a saint. The Mercian throne is seized by Berhtric's father, Beorhtwulf.
- Vikings make pernament settlements with their first 'wintering over' located at Lough Neagh in Northern Ireland (approximate date).
- Emperor Wen Zong (Li Ang) dies after a 13-year reign in which he has failed to break the power of his palace eunuchs. He is succeeded by his brother Wu Zong as Chinese ruler of the Tang Dynasty.
- The Yenisei Kirghiz settled along the Yenisei River, sack with a force of around 80,000 horsemen the Uyghur capital, Ordu-Baliq. Driving the Uyghurs out of Mongolia. End of the Uyghur Khaganate.
- June 25 – Battle of Fontenay: Frankish forces of emperor Lothair I and his nephew Pepin II of Aquitaine are defeated by allied forces of king Louis the German and his half-brother Charles the Bald at Fontenoy (Eastern France), in a civil war among the three surviving sons of the former emperor Louis the Pious. A total of 40,000 men are killed, including the Frankish nobles Gerard of Auvergne and Ricwin of Nantes fighting on the side of Charles.
- Summer – Vikings sail up the River Seine and devastate the city of Rouen in Normandy. They burn the Benedictine monastery of Jumièges Abbey, 68 captives are taken and returned on payment of a ransom by the monks of St. Denis.
- The town of Dyflin (meaning "Black Pool") or Dublin (modern Ireland) is founded by Norwegian Vikings on the south bank of the River Liffey. The settlement is fortified with a ditch and an earth rampart with a wooden palisade on top. The Norsemen establish a wool weaving industry and there is also a slave trade. An artificial hill is erected where the nobility meets to make laws and discuss policy.
- Constantine Kontomytes, Byzantine general (strategos) of the Thracesian Theme, inflicts a servere defeat on the Cretan Saracens. He leads an Byzantine expeditionary force to raid the monastic community near Mount Latros (modern Turkey).
- Venice sends an fleet of 60 galleys (each carryring 200 men) to assist the Byzantines in driving the Arabs from Crotone, but the attack fails. Muslim troops conquer the city of Brindisi (approximate date).
- Pro-Umayyad rebellion of Al-Mubarqa in Palestine against caliph Al-Mu'tasim of the Abbasid Caliphate (ending in 842).
- In the Chinese capital of Chang'an, the West Market (and East Market) are closed every night 1 hour and three quarters before dusk (by government-ordered), the curfew signals by the sound of 300 beats to a loud gong. After the official markets been closed for the night, small night markets in residential areas thrive with plenty of customers, despite government efforts to shut them down. With the decline of the government's authority (by mid 9th century), this edict (like many others) is largely ignored as urban dwellers keep attending the night markets regardless.
- January 20 – Emperor Theophilos dies of dysentery at Constantinople after a 12-year reign. He expends much effort defending the eastern frontier against the invading Muslim Arabs. Theophilos is succeeded by his 2-year-old son Michael III, with his mother Theodora, who becomes regent and the 'temporary' sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire.
- February 14 – Oaths of Strasbourg: King Louis the German, ruler of East Francia, and his half-brother Charles the Bald, ruler of West Francia, meet with their armies at Strasbourg. They agree to swear allegiance (recorded in vernacular languages) to each other and to support each other against their brother Lothair I. Nominally, emperor of all the Frankish kingdoms and the Holy Roman Empire.
- March 20 – King Alfonso II of Asturias (Northern Spain) dies after a 50-year reign. He has undertaken numerous campaigns against the Muslim armies of the Umayyad Emirate of Córdoba and allied himself with the late Charlemagne. The childless Alfonso chooses Ramiro I, son of former king Bermudo I, as his successor.
- Uurad of the Picts dies after a 3-year reign and is succeeded by his son Bridei VI, who contests his power with rival groups led by Bruide son of Fokel and Kenneth MacAlpin.
- January 5 – Caliph Al-Mu'tasim dies at Samarra (modern Iraq) after a 8-year reign. He is succeeded by his son Al-Wathiq as ruler of the Abbasid Caliphate.
- August – Treaty of Verdun: The Frankish Empire is divided into three kingdoms between the three surviving sons of the late emperor Louis the Pious. King Louis the German receives the eastern portion (everything east of the River Rhine) called the Eastern Frankish Realm which is the precursor to modern-day Germany. Emperor Lothair I receives the central portion (Low Countries, Alsace, Lorraine, Burgundy and northern half of Italy) called the Central Frankish Realm. King Charles the Bald receives the western portion (everything west of the River Rhône) called the Western Frankish Realm which later becomes modern-day France.
- Summer – Viking raiders attack Nantes, located on the River Loire, they kill the towns bishop along with many of the clergy, murdering men, women, and children. They plunder the western parts of Aquitaine, and reach an island north of the mounth of the River Garonne near what later will be La Rochelle. There the Vikings bring materials from the mainland, and build houses to spend the winter.
- Battle of Messac: Breton forces under Erispoe, count of Vannes, defeat the Franks led by Renaud d'Herbauges near the town of Messac at the River Vilaine. This battle marks a Breton war between Charles the Bald and Nominoe, duke of Brittany.
- Kenneth I (Cináed mac Ailpín), king of the Scots, also becomes king of the Picts, he is crowned (by the Stone of Destiny) as first monarch of the new nation of Scotland. The Alpin Dynasty of Scottish kings begins to reign.
- Summer – An Byzantine expedition under Theoktistos conquers Crete from the Saracens. After initial success, he is forced to abandon his army due to political intrigues in Constantinople. The troops are left behind and slaughtered by the Arabs.
- Al-Andalus: The city of Zaragossa (modern Spain) rises against the Umayyad Emirate of Córdoba.
- In the Chinese capital of Chang'an, a large fire consumes 4,000 homes, warehouses, and other buildings in the East Market, yet the rest of the city is at a safe distance from the blaze (which is largely quarantined in East Central Chang'an thanks to the large width of roads in Chang'an that produce fire breaks).
- Feast of Orthodoxy: Official end of Iconoclasm, empress Theodora II restores the veneration of icons in the Orthodox churches in the Byzantine Empire.
- Theodora II orders a persecution against the Paulicians throughout Anatolia, about 100,000 followers in the Byzantine Theme Armenia are massacred.
- Rhodri Mawr ('the Great') becomes king of Gwynedd.
- June 15 – Louis II is crowned King of Lombardy by Pope Sergius II.
- Nominoe, Count of Vannes, raids into Maine and plunders the territory.
- According to the Annales Bertiniani, Nominoe makes war on the Vikings.
- Dorestad is raided by the Vikings.
- First Viking attacks on the Muslim possessions of the Iberian Peninsula. After being defeated in Corunna, the Scandinavian raiders sack Seville, Niebla, Beja and Lisbon.
- March 28 or 29 (Easter) – Siege of Paris ends when Paris is sacked by a Viking raiding fleet, probably under Ragnar Lodbrok, who collect a huge ransom in exchange for leaving. The Vikings also sack Hamburg and Melun.
- November 22 – Count of Vannes, Nominoe, defeats the king of Francia Charles the Bald at the battle of Ballon near Redon. No more toll is taken on Brittany, and it becomes an independent state lasting for seven centuries.
- Persecution of Buddhists is started in China. More than 4,600 monasteries and 40,000 temples and shrines are destroyed. More than 260,000 Buddhist monks and nuns are forced to return to secular life.
- September 16: Prisoner exchange between the Byzantine Empire and the Abbasid Caliphate at the river Lamos.
- Nominoe occupies Nantes and Rennes, he makes raids in Anjou and threatens Bayeux. Charles the Bald recognizes him as Duke of Brittany after being defeated three times.
- The Moors recapture León.
- Máel Sechnaill mac Máele Ruanaid becomes the first High King of Ireland
- Pribina established Blatnohrad, capital of Balaton Principality and build several churches there.
- 11,000 Saracen Arab squadrons from Africa, with 500 horses, desecrate Christian shrines in Rome, including the tombs and basilicas of Sts. Peter and Paul.
- Xuanzong II succeeds Wuzong as emperor of China.
- Jang Bogo, a powerful maritime hegemon of Silla, is assassinated by aristocratic elements.
- Bari is captured by the Saracens.
- According to the Annales Bertiniani, Nominoe, king of Brittany, makes war on the Vikings.
- January – Pope Leo IV succeeds Pope Sergius II as the 103rd pope.
- Rabanus Maurus becomes Archbishop of Mainz.
- Chola Dynasty starts to rule (approximate date).
- The Saracens destroy Leontini.
- Charles the Bald, Louis the German and Lothar meet in Koblenz.
- Máel Sechnaill mac Maíl Ruanaid, King of Mide, defeats a Norse army at Sciath Nechtain, in Ireland.
- The Borobudur is completed (approximate date).
- Bagrat II Bagratuni, "Prince of Princes" of Arminiya, begins a rebellion against the Abbasid Caliphate.
- In the Tang dynasty Chinese capital city of Chang'an, an imperial prince is impeached from his position by officials at court for erecting a building that obstructs a street in the northwesternmost ward in South Central Chang'an.
- At the battle of Ostia, the Italian fleets of Naples, Amalfi and Gaeta repel the Saracen pirates and save Rome from plunder.
- Alfred the Great
- Louis the Pious
- Charles the Bald
- Ermentrude of Orléans
- Louis the Stammerer
- Louis the German
- Lothair I
- Kenneth I of Scotland
- Ragnar Lodbrok
- Michael III
- 845 – Charles of Provence
- 848 – Charles the Child
- 849 – Carloman, son of Charles the Bald
- 843 – Jia Dao
- 849 – Walafrid Strabo
- Zaluckyj & Zaluckyj, "Decline", pp. 238–239.
- History of Central Asia.
- Eric Joseph, Struggle for Empire, p. 103. Cornell University, 2006. ISBN 0-8014-3890-X. Joseph states this number, given by Agnellus of Ravenna, is probably exaggerated.
- Recorded in the Chronicle of Fontenelle Abbey.
- Treadgold 1988, pp. 324-325.
- J. Norwich, A History of Venice, p. 32.
- John Skylitzes, A Synopsis of Byzantine History, 811—1057: Translation and Notes, transl. John Wortley, 81note114.
- Pierre Riche, The Carolingians: The Family who forged Europe, transl. Michael Idomir Allen, (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1983), p. 162.
- Makrypoulias (2000), p. 351
- Treadgold (1997), p. 447
- Rucquoi, Adeline (1993). Histoire médiévale de la Péninsule ibérique. Paris: Seuil. p. 87. ISBN 2-02-012935-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Cite error: Invalid
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- Merriam-Webster (Jan 2000). Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, p. 231. ISBN 08-777-90-442
- Leon Arpee (1946). A History of Armenian Christianity. The Armenian Missionary Association of America, New York, p. 107.
- Benvenuti, Gino (1985). Le Repubbliche Marinare. Amalfi, Pisa, Genova e Venezia. Rome: Newton & Compton Editori. p. 15. ISBN 88-8289-529-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>