9th millennium BC

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  • 90th century BC
  • 89th century BC
  • 88th century BC
  • 87th century BC
  • 86th century BC
  • 85th century BC
  • 84th century BC
  • 83rd century BC
  • 82nd century BC
  • 81st century BC
Europe and surrounding areas in the 9th millennium BC. Blue areas are covered in ice.
(1) Upper Palaeolithic cultures.
(2) Mesolithic cultures.
(3) Swiderian cultures.
(4) Pontic Tardenoisian cultures.
(5) Iberian Capsian cultures.
(6) Oranian cultures.
(7) Lower Capsian cultures.
(8) The Fertile Crescent.
The Stone Age

before Homo (Pliocene)


Lower Paleolithic
Early Stone Age
Control of fire
Stone tools
Middle Paleolithic
Middle Stone Age
Homo neanderthalensis
Homo sapiens
Recent African origin of modern humans
Upper Paleolithic
Late Stone Age
Behavioral modernity, Atlatl,
Origin of the domestic dog


Microliths, Bow, Canoe
Heavy Neolithic
Shepherd Neolithic
Trihedral Neolithic
Pre-Pottery Neolithic


Neolithic Revolution,
Pottery Neolithic

The 9th millennium BC marks the beginning of the Neolithic period.

Agriculture spread throughout the Fertile Crescent and use of pottery became more widespread. Larger settlements like Jericho arose along salt and flint trade routes. Northern Eurasia was resettled as the glaciers of the last glacial maximum retreated. World population was at a few million people, likely below 5 million.


Inventions and discoveries

  • c. 9000 BC—The first evidence of the keeping of sheep, in northern Iraq.[2]
  • c. 9000 BC—Discovery of copper in Middle East
  • c. 8500 BCNatufian culture of Western Mesopotamia is harvesting wild wheat with flint-edged sickles. (1967 McEvedy) About this time, boats are invented, and dogs domesticated in Europe. (1967 McEvedy)
  • c. 8500 BCAndean peoples domesticate chili peppers and two kinds of bean
  • c. 8000 BC—Mesopotamia—Agriculture in Mesopotamia
  • c. 8000 BCAsiaDomestication of the pig in China and Turkey
  • c. 8000 BC—Middle East—Domestication of goats
  • c. 8000 BC—Asia—Evidence of domestication of dogs from wolves
  • c. 8000 BC—Middle East—Ancient flint tools from north and central Arabia belong to hunter-gatherer societies
  • c. 8000 BC—Middle East—Clay vessels and modeled human and animal terracotta figurines are produced at Ganj Dareh in western Iran.
  • c. 8000 BC—People of Jericho were making bricks out of clay, then hardened them in the sun. The settlement had grown to 8–10 acres of houses and had substantial walls.[2]

Environmental changes

Subdivisions of the Quaternary System
Age (Ma)
Quaternary Holocene 0.0117–0
Pleistocene Tarantian 0.126–0.0117
Ionian 0.781–0.126
Calabrian 1.80–0.781
Gelasian 2.58–1.80
Neogene Pliocene Piacenzian older
In Europe and North America, the Holocene is subdivided into Preboreal, Boreal, Atlantic, Subboreal, and Subatlantic stages of the Blytt–Sernander time scale. There are many regional subdivisions for the Upper or Late Pleistocene; usually these represent locally recognized cold (glacial) and warm (interglacial) periods. The last glacial period ends with the cold Younger Dryas substage.
  • c. 9000 BC: Temporary global chilling, as the Gulf Stream pulls southward, and Europe ices over (1990 Rand McNally Atlas)


  1. Curry, Andrew (November 2008). "Gobekli Tepe: The World's First Temple?". Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on 17 March 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 Roberts, J: "History of the World." Penguin, 1994.

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