Abolition of slavery timeline

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
Proclamation of the Abolition of Slavery in the French Colonies 1849, by Francois Auguste Biard. Versailles Palace

The abolition of slavery occurred at different times in different countries, and sometimes occurred sequentially in more than one stage: for example, as abolition of the trade in slaves in a specific country, and then as abolition of slavery throughout empires. Each step was usually the result of a separate law or action. This timeline shows abolition laws or actions listed chronologically.

This article also covers the abolition of serfdom.

Although slavery is now abolished de jure in all countries, some practices akin to it continue today in many places throughout the world.

Ancient times

  • 3rd century BC: Ashoka abolishes slave trade and encourages people to treat slaves well but does not abolish slavery itself in the Maurya Empire, covering the majority of India, which was under his rule.[1]
  • 221-206 BC: The Qin Dynasty's measures to eliminate the landowning aristocracy include the abolition of slavery and the establishment of a free peasantry who owed taxes and labor to the state. They also discouraged serfdom.[2] The dynasty was overthrown in 206 BC and many of its laws were overturned.
  • 9-12 A.D.: Wang Mang, first and only emperor of the Xin Dynasty, usurped the Chinese throne and instituted a series of sweeping reforms, including the abolition of slavery and radical land reform from 9-12 A.D.[3][4]

Early timeline

N.B.: Many of the listed reforms were reversed over succeeding centuries.
  • ~500: Slavery (or at least slave trading) ends for a time in Ireland,[5] but resumes by the ninth century.[6]
  • 960: Doge of Venice Pietro IV Candiano reconvened the popular assembly and had it approve of a law prohibiting the slave trade in the Italian city-state the Republic of Venice.
  • 1080 William the Conqueror, French conqueror of England and Duke of Normandy, prohibited the sale of anyone to heathens.
  • 1102: Trade in slaves and serfdom is condemned by the church in London: Council of London (1102).
  • 1117: Slavery abolished in Iceland.[7] (reintroduced as Vistarband from 1490 to 1894 in various forms)
  • 1214: The Statute of the Town of Korčula (today in Croatia) abolishes slavery.[8]
  • 1215: Magna Carta signed. Clause 30, commonly known as Habeas Corpus, would form the basis of a law against slavery in English common law.
  • ~1220: The Sachsenspiegel, the most influential German code of law from the Middle Ages, condemns slavery as a violation of God's likeness to man.[9]
  • 1256: The Liber Paradisus is promulgated. The Comune di Bologna abolishes slavery and serfdom and releases all the serfs in its territories.
  • 1274: Landslov (Land's Law) in Norway mentions only former slaves, which indicates that slavery was abolished in Norway
  • 1290: Edward I of England passes Quia Emptores, breaking any indenture to an estate, on the sale or transfer of the estate.
  • 1315: Louis X, king of France, publishes a decree proclaiming that "France signifies freedom" and that any slave setting foot on the French ground should be freed.[10] However some cases of slavery continued till the 17th century in some France's Mediterranean harbours, in the Provence.[11]
  • 1335: Sweden (including Finland at the time) makes slavery illegal. An abolition of slaves setting foot on Swedish ground does not occur until 1813.[12] (In the 18th and 19th Centuries, slavery would be practiced in the Swedish ruled Caribbean island of Saint Barthélemy.)
  • 1347: non-free people were emancipated in Poland under the Statutes of Casimir the Great issued in Wiślica[13]
  • 1368: China's Hongwu Emperor establishes the Ming dynasty and would abolish all forms of slavery.[3] However, slavery continued in the Ming dynasty. Later Ming rulers, as a way of limiting slavery in the absence of a prohibition, passed a decree that limited the number of slaves that could be held per household and extracted a severe tax from slave owners.[14]
  • 1416: Republic of Ragusa (modern day Dubrovnik, Croatia) abolished slavery and slave trading
  • 1435: In Sicut Dudum, Pope Eugene IV banned enslavement of Christians in the Canary Islands on pain of excommunication.[15] However the non-Christian indigenous Guanches could be and were enslaved during the Spanish conquest.[11]

Slavery Timeline



  • 1706: In the case of Smith v. Browne & Cooper, Sir John Holt, Lord Chief Justice of England, rules that "as soon as a Negro comes into England, he becomes free. One may be a villein in England, but not a slave."[22][23]
  • 1723: Russia abolishes outright slavery but retains serfdom.[24]
  • 1723–1730: China's Yongzheng emancipation sought to free all slaves to strengthen the autocratic ruler through a kind of social leveling that created an undifferentiated class of free subjects under the throne. Although these new regulations freed the vast majority of slaves, wealthy families continued to use slave labor into the twentieth century.[14]
  • 1733-1750 The Province of Georgia in America is established without slavery in sharp contrast to neighboring Carolina. In 1738, James Oglethorpe warns against changing that policy, which would "occasion the misery of thousands in Africa."[25]
  • 1761, 12 February: Portugal abolishes slavery[26] in mainland Portugal and in Portuguese possessions in India through a decree by the Marquis of Pombal.
  • 1772: Somersett's case held that no slave could be forcibly removed from Britain. This case was generally taken at the time to have decided that the condition of slavery did not exist under English law in England and Wales, and emancipated the remaining ten to fourteen thousand slaves or possible slaves in England and Wales, who were mostly domestic servants.[27]
  • 1774: Laws of the Marquis of Pombal, prime minister of King José I, prohibiting the transport of black slaves to Portugal and the liberation of the children of slaves born in Portugal.[clarification needed]
  • 1775–83: Britain's rebellious North American Colonies ban or suspend the Atlantic slave trade.[28]
  • 1775: Pennsylvania Abolition Society formed in Philadelphia, the first abolition society within the territory that is now the United States of America.
  • 1777: Slavery abolished in Madeira, Portugal.[29]
  • 1777: Constitution of the Vermont Republic partially banned slavery,[29] freeing men over 21 and women older than 18 at the time of its passage.[30] The ban was not strongly enforced.[31]
  • 1778: Joseph Knight was successful in arguing that Scots law could not support the status of slavery.[32]
  • 1780: Pennsylvania passes An Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery, freeing future children of slaves. Those born prior to the Act remain enslaved for life. The Act becomes a model for other Northern states. Last slaves freed 1847.[33]
  • 1783: Russia abolishes slavery in Crimean Khanate.[34]
  • 1783: Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court rules slavery unconstitutional, a decision based on the 1780 Massachusetts constitution. All slaves are immediately freed.[35]
  • 1783: Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor issued an order abolishing slavery in Bukovina on 19 June 1783 in Czernowitz.[36]
  • 1783: New Hampshire begins a gradual abolition of slavery.
  • 1784: Connecticut begins a gradual aboliton of slavery, freeing future children of slaves, and later all slaves.[37]
  • 1784: Rhode Island begins a gradual abolition of slavery.
  • 1787: The United States in Congress Assembled passed the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, outlawing any new slavery in the Northwest Territories.
  • 1787: Sierra Leone founded by Britain as colony for emancipated slaves.[38]
  • 1787: Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade founded in Britain.[29]
  • 1788: Sir William Dolben's Act regulating the conditions on British slave ships enacted.
  • 1792: Denmark–Norway declares transatlantic slave trade illegal after 1803 (though slavery continues in Danish colonies to 1848).[39]
  • 1793 (August): French commissioner Leger-Felicite Sonthonax abolishes slavery in northern Saint-Domingue (Haiti). His colleague Etienne Polverel does the same in the rest of the colony in October.
  • 1793: Upper Canada (Ontario) abolishes import of slaves by Act Against Slavery.
  • 1794: France abolishes slavery in all its possessions. (However, slavery is restored by Napoleon in 1802.)[40]
  • 1794: The United States bans American ships from the trade and prohibits export by foreign ships in the Slave Trade Act.[28]
  • 1798: Slavery is abolished in Malta, while the islands were under French occupation.[41]
  • 1799: New York State passes gradual emancipation act freeing future children of slaves, and all slaves in 1827.[42]
  • 1799: The Colliers (Scotland) Act 1799 ends the legal slavery of Scottish coal miners that had been established in 1606.[43]


  • 1800: The United States bans its citizens' investment and employment in the international slave trade in an additional Slave Trade Act.
  • 1802: The First Consul Napoleon re-introduces slavery in French colonies growing sugarcane.[26]
  • 1802: Ohio writes a state constitution that abolishes slavery.
  • 1803: Denmark–Norway: abolition of transatlantic slave trade takes effect 1 January 1803.
  • 1804: New Jersey begins a gradual abolition of slavery, freeing future children of slaves.[37] Those born prior to the Act remain enslaved for life. The process later becomes complete with the ratification of the 13th Amendment in 1865.
  • 1804: Haiti declares independence and abolishes slavery.[29]
  • 1805: Great Britain: A bill for abolition passes in House of Commons but is rejected in the House of Lords.
  • 1806: In a message to Congress, US President Thomas Jefferson calls for criminalizing the international slave trade, asking Congress to "withdraw the citizens of the United States from all further participation in those violations of human rights … which the morality, the reputation, and the best of our country have long been eager to proscribe."
  • 1807, 2 March: The US makes international slave trade a felony in Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves; this act takes effect on 1 January 1808.[44]
  • 1807, 25 March: Abolition of the Slave Trade Act abolishes slave trading in British Empire. Captains fined £120 per slave transported.
  • 1807, 22 July: The constitution of the Duchy of Warsaw abolishes serfdom.[45]
  • 1807: The British begin patrols of African coast to arrest slaving vessels. The West Africa Squadron (Royal Navy) is established to suppress slave trading; by 1865, nearly 150,000 people freed by anti-slavery operations.[46]
  • 1807, November 11: Abolition of serfdom in Prussia through the Stein-Hardenberg Reforms.[45]
  • 1807: In Michigan Territory, Judge Augustus Woodward denies the return of two slaves owned by a man in Windsor, Upper Canada (present day Ontario). Woodward declares that any man "coming into this Territory is by law of the land a freeman."[47]
  • 1808: The US makes it a crime to import or export slaves.[48]
  • 1810: In Mexico, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla declares slavery abolished. In the following years, during the Mexican War of Independence, gradually comprehensive steps will end slavery in the new country.
  • 1811: Slave trading made a felony in the British Empire, punishable by transportation for British subjects and foreigners.
  • 1811: Spain abolishes slavery at home and in all colonies except Cuba,[26] Puerto Rico, and Santo Domingo.
  • 1811: The First National Congress of Chile approves a proposal drafted by Manuel de Salas that declares the Freedom of wombs, which sets free the sons of slaves born on Chilean territory, no matter the conditions of the parents; it prohibited the slave trade and recognized as freedmen those who, passing in transit through Chilean territory, stayed there for six months.
  • 1813: Mexico abolishes slavery in the documents Sentimientos de la Nación, by insurgent leader José María Morelos y Pavón.
  • 1813: In Argentina, the Law of Wombs was passed on 2 February, by the Assembly of Year XIII. The law stated that those born after 31 January 1813 would be granted freedom when contracting matrimony, or on their 16th birthday for women and 20th for men, and upon their manumission would be given land and tools to work it. Slavery finally ends in 1853.[49]
  • 1814: Uruguay, before its independence, declares all those born of slaves in their territories are free from that day forward.
  • 1814: The Netherlands outlaws slave trade.
  • 1815: British pay Portugal £750,000 to cease their trade north of the Equator.[50]
  • 1815: At the Congress of Vienna, Europe's powers declare their opposition to slavery.[51]
  • 1816: Serfdom abolished in the Governorate of Estonia of the Russian Empire.
  • 1816, 16 July: Simon Bolivar declares the emancipation of all the slaves in the Province of Venezuela.[52]
  • 1817: Serfdom abolished in the Governorate of Courland of the Russian Empire.
  • 1817: Spain paid £400,000 by British to cease trade to Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Santo Domingo.[50]
  • 1817: New York State sets a date of 4 July 1827 to free all its ex-slaves from indenture.[53]
  • 1818: Treaty between Britain and Spain to abolish slave trade.[54]
  • 1818: Treaty between Britain and Portugal to abolish slave trade.[54]
  • 1818: France abolishes slave trading.
  • 1818: Treaty between Britain and the Netherlands taking additional measures to enforce the 1814 ban on slave trading.[54]
  • 1819: Serfdom abolished in the Governorate of Livonia of the Russian Empire.
  • 1819: Upper Canada: Attorney-General John Robinson declares all black residents of Canada free.
  • 1819: The Kingdom of Hawaii abolished the ancient Hawaiian kapu system during the ʻAi Noa and with it the distinction between the kauwā slave class and the makaʻāinana (commoners).[55]
  • 1820: Mexico formally abolishes slavery with the Plan of Iguala, proposed by Agustín de Iturbide and ratified the following year by him and the Viceroy, Juan O'Donojú.
  • 1820: Compromise of 1820 in US prohibits slavery north of a line (36°30′).
  • 1820: In Polly v. Lasselle, Indiana supreme court orders almost all slaves in the state to be freed.
  • 1821: Gran Colombia (Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Panama) declares free the sons and daughters born to slave mothers, sets up program for compensated emancipation[56]
  • 1822: Liberia founded by American Colonization Society (USA) as a colony for emancipated slaves.
  • 1822: Greece abolishes slavery.
  • 1823: Chile abolishes slavery.[29]
  • 1823: Anti-Slavery Society founded in Britain.
  • 1824: Mexico's new constitution (1824 Constitution of Mexico) effectively frees existing slaves.
  • 1824: The Federal Republic of Central America abolishes slavery.
  • 1825: Uruguay declares independence from Brazil and prohibits the traffic of slaves from foreign countries.
Illustration from the book: The Black Man's Lament, Or, How to Make Sugar by Amelia Opie. (London, 1826)
  • 1827: Treaty between Britain and Sweden to abolish slave trade.[54]
  • 1827: New York State abolishes slavery. Children born between 1799 and 1827 are indentured until age 25 (females) or age 28 (males).[57]
  • 1828: The Illinois Supreme Court in Phoebe v. Jay rules that indentured servants in Illinois cannot be treated as chattel and bequeathing them by will is illegal. [58]
  • 1829: Last slaves are freed in Mexico. First black president of Mexico gets elected Vicente Guerrero[29]
  • 1830: Mexican president Anastasio Bustamante orders the abolition of slavery to be implemented also in Mexican Texas. To circumvent the law, Anglo colonists convert their slaves into "indentured servants for life".[59]
  • 1830: The first Constitution of Uruguay declares the abolition of slavery.
  • 1831: Bolivia abolishes slavery.[29]
  • 1831: Brazil adopts the Law of 7 November 1831, declaring the maritime slave trade abolished, prohibiting any form of importation of slaves, and granting freedom to slaves should they be illegally imported into Brazil. In spite of its adoption, the law was seldom enforced prior to 1850, when Brazil, under British pressure, adopted additional legislation to criminalize the importation of slaves.
  • 1834: The British Slavery Abolition Act comes into force, abolishing slavery throughout most of the British Empire. Legally frees 700,000 in West Indies, 20,000 in Mauritius, and 40,000 in South Africa. The exceptions, territories controlled by the East India Company and Ceylon, were liberated in 1843 when they became part of the British Empire.[60]
  • 1835: Serbia, an autonomous princedom vassal to the Ottoman Empire grants freedom to all foreign slaves that enter within its borders.[61] Since First Serbian Uprising slavery did not exist in Serbia.
  • 1835: Treaty between Britain and France to abolish slave trade.[54]
  • 1835: Treaty between Britain and Denmark to abolish slave trade.[54]
  • 1836: Portugal abolishes transatlantic slave trade.
  • 1836: Republic of Texas is established. Slavery is made legal again.
  • 1836, December: Viscount Sá da Bandeira, prime minister, prohibits the import and export of slaves from the Portuguese colonies south of the Equator.
  • 1838, 1 August: Enslaved men, women, and children in the British Empire finally became fully free after a period of forced apprenticeship following the passing of the Slavery Abolition Act in 1833.
  • 1839: British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society founded as a successor to the Anti-Slavery Society. (The British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society exists today as Anti-Slavery International.)
  • 1839: Indian indenture system made illegal in the territories controlled by the East India Company (reversed in 1842).
  • 1840: Treaty between Britain and Venezuela to abolish slave trade;[54] the first World Anti-Slavery Convention meets in London.
  • 1841: Quintuple Treaty is signed; Britain, France, Russia, Prussia, and Austria agree to suppress slave trade.[29]
  • 1842: Treaty between Britain and Portugal to extend the enforcement of the ban on slave trade to Portuguese ships sailing south of the Equator.
  • 1843: East India Company becomes increasingly controlled by Britain and abolishes slavery in the territories controlled by the company, through the Indian Slavery Act, 1843, Act V.
  • 1843: Treaty between Britain and Uruguay to suppress slave trade.[54]
  • 1843: Treaty between Britain and Mexico to suppress slave trade.[54]
  • 1843: Treaty between Britain and Chile to suppress slave trade.[54]
  • 1843: Treaty between Britain and Bolivia to abolish slave trade.[54]
  • 1845: 36 British Royal Navy ships are assigned to the Anti-Slavery Squadron, making it one of the largest fleets in the world.
An anti-slavery map with an unusual perspective centered on West Africa, which is in the light, and contrasting the U. S. and Europe in the dark. By Julius Rubens Ames, 1847
  • 1845: The Illinois Supreme Court in Jarrot v. Jarrot frees the last slaves in Illinois who were born after the Northwest Ordinance.[58]
  • 1846: Persuaded by Britain, the Bey of Tunisia outlawed the slave trade; the policy was reversed temporarily by his successor.[62]
  • 1847: The Ottoman Empire abolishes slave trade from Africa.[63]
  • 1847: The last slaves in the Swedish colony Saint Barthelemy are freed.[64]
  • 1847: Slavery is abolished in Pennsylvania, thus freeing the last remaining slaves, those born before 1780 (fewer than 100 in 1840 Census).[65]
  • 1848: In Austria, the reforms spurred by the Kraków Uprising of 1846 and the Spring of Nations in 1848 resulted in the abolishment of serfdom in 1848.[66][67][68]
  • 1848: Slavery abolished in all French and Danish colonies.[29][64]
  • 1848: France founds Gabon for settlement of emancipated slaves.
  • 1848: Treaty between Britain and Muscat to suppress slave trade.[54]
  • 1849: Treaty between Britain and Persian Gulf states to suppress slave trade.[54]
  • 1849: Harriet Tubman escapes from Slavery in Dorchester County, Maryland.


Medical examination photo of Gordon showing his scourged back, widely distributed by Abolitionists to expose the brutality of slavery.
  • 1863: In the United States, Abraham Lincoln issues the presidential order the Emancipation Proclamation declaring slaves in Confederate-controlled areas to be freed. Most slaves in "border states" are freed by state action; separate law freed the slaves in Washington, D.C.
  • 1864: Following the serfdom emancipation reform of 1861 of Western Krai and the January Uprising of 1863-1864, a serfdom reform was introduced in Russian-controlled Congress Poland[76]
  • 1865, December: US abolishes slavery with the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution; about 40,000 remaining slaves are affected.[77]
  • 1866: Slavery abolished in Indian Territory (now Oklahoma).[78]
  • 1869, February, 27th: Portugal: King Louis I signs a decree of the government, chaired by the Marquis Sá da Bandeira, abolishing slavery in all Portuguese territories. Accordingly, all slaves in the Portuguese colonies in Africa were set free, resulting in the total termination of slavery across the Portuguese Empire.
  • 1871: Brazil: Rio Branco Law (Law of Free Birth) declares free the sons and daughters born to slave mothers after 28 September 1871.[79]
  • 1873: Slavery abolished in the Spanish colony of Puerto Rico: March 22.
  • 1873: Treaty between Britain and Zanzibar and Madagascar to suppress slave trade.[54]
  • 1874: Britain abolishes slavery in the Gold Coast (now Ghana), following its annexation in 1874.[80]
  • 1877: Slavery had been abolished in Egypt in August 1877.
  • 1879: After spending 5 centuries as an Ottoman province the newly restored principality of Bulgaria abolished slavery with its new constitution declaring that any slave arriving on its territory is freed at once.
  • 1882: Ottoman firman abolishes all forms of slavery, white or black.[81]
  • 1884: France abolished slavery in its then Protectorate of Cambodia.
  • 1885: Brazil passes Sexagenarians Law (Saraiva-Cotegipe Act), freeing all slaves over the age of 60, and creating other measures for the gradual abolition of slavery, such as a Manumissions Fund administered by the State.
  • 1886: Slavery abolished in Cuba.[29]
  • 1888, 13 May: Brazil enacts the Golden Law, decreeing the total abolition of slavery with immediate effect, without indemnities to slaveowners, but the financial aid to the freed men and women planned by the monarchy never took place due to a military coup that established a Republic in the country.[82]
  • 1890: Brussels Conference Act – a collection of anti-slavery measures to put an end to the slave trade on land and sea, especially in the Congo Basin, the Ottoman Empire, and the East African coast.
  • 1894: Korea officially abolishes slavery, but it survives in practice until 1930.[83]
  • 1896: France abolishes slavery in its then colony of Madagascar.
  • 1897: Zanzibar abolishes slavery[84] following its becoming a British protectorate.
  • 1899: France abolishes slavery in Ndzuwani.


Although slavery is now abolished de jure in all countries,[98][99] de facto practices akin to it continue today in many places throughout the world.[100][101][102][103]

See also


  1. Clarence-Smith, William. "Religions and the abolition of slavery – a comparative approach" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-08-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History. Cengage Learning. 2009. p. 165. ISBN 9780618992386.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. 3.0 3.1 Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition. Greenwood Publishing Group. 2011. p. 155. ISBN 9780313331435.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Encyclopedia of Slave Resistance and Rebellion. Google Books. Retrieved 2013-08-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Cahill, Thomas (1995). How the Irish Saved Civilization. New York: Doubleday. p. 110,148. ISBN 0-385-41849-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Rodriguez, Junius P. (1997). The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 368. ISBN 0-87436-885-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. "Iceland - So Near yet So Remote". Iceland had a national assembly in the year 930 and abolished slavery in 1117.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. "Statute of Korcula from 1214 - Large Print". Korculainfo.com. Retrieved 2013-08-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Hans A. Frambach in Jürgen Georg Backhaus: "The Liberation of the Serfs". Google Books. 2012-05-31. p. 33. Retrieved 2013-08-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. Miller, Christopher L. The French Atlantic triangle: literature and culture of the slave trade. Google Books. p. 20. Retrieved 2013-08-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 David Eltis; Keith Bradley; Paul Cartledge (25 July 2011). The Cambridge World History of Slavery: Volume 3, AD 1420-AD 1804. Cambridge University Press. pp. 142–143–326–327–331–332–333–602. ISBN 978-0-521-84068-2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. John Roach; Jürgen Thomaneck (1985). Police and public order in Europe. Taylor & Francis. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-7099-2242-1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. Samuel Augustus Mitchell (1859). A general view of the world: comprising a physical, political, and statistical account of its grand divisions ... with their empires, kingdoms, republics, principalities, &c.: exhibiting the history of geographical science and the progress of discovery to the present time ... Illustrated by upwards of nine hundred engravings ... H. Cowperthwait & Co. p. 335. Retrieved 1 April 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. 14.0 14.1 Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition. Greenwood Publishing Group. 2011. p. 156. ISBN 9780313331435.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. http://www.papalencyclicals.net/Eugene04/eugene04sicut.htm
  16. Dembkowski, Harry E. (1982). The union of Lublin, Polish federalism in the golden age. East European Monographs, 1982. p. 271. ISBN 978-0-88033-009-1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. Maria Suzette Fernandes Dias (2007). Legacies of slavery: comparative perspectives. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 71. ISBN 1-84718-111-2. Retrieved 2010-07-14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. Lewis, James Bryant. (2003). Frontier Contact Between Choson Korea and Tokugawa Japan, p. 31-32.
  19. Gary João de Pina-Cabral (2002). Between China and Europe: person, culture and emotion in Macao. Berg Publishers. p. 114. ISBN 0-8264-5749-5. Retrieved 2010-07-14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. Gary João de Pina-Cabral (2002). Between China and Europe: person, culture and emotion in Macao. Berg Publishers. p. 115. ISBN 0-8264-5749-5. Retrieved 2010-07-14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. Valenzuela Márquez, Jaime (2009). "Esclavos mapuches. Para una historia del secuestro y deportación de indígenas en la colonia". In Gaune, Rafael; Lara, Martín. Historias de racismo y discriminación en Chile (in Spanish). pp. 234–236. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. Catterall, Helen Tunnicliff. Judicial Cases Concerning American Slavery and the Negro, Vol. I: Cases from the Courts of England, Virginia, West Virginia, and Kentucky. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1926. accessed 2 October 2013.
  23. V.C.D. Mtubani, African Slaves and English Law, PULA Botswana Journal of African Studies Vol 3 No 2 Nov 1983 retrieved 24 February 2011
  24. 24.0 24.1 "Historical survey > Ways of ending slavery". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2013-08-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. Wilson, Thomas D., The Oglethorpe Plan: Enlightenment Design in Savannah and Beyond, Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 2012. p. 130.
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 Hobhouse, Henry. Seeds of Change: Six Plants That Transformed Mankind, 2005. Page 111.
  27. Heward, Edmund (1979). Lord Mansfield: A Biography of William Murray 1st Earl of Mansfield 1705–1793 Lord Chief Justice for 32 years. p.141. Chichester: Barry Rose (publishers) Ltd. ISBN 0-85992-163-8
  28. 28.0 28.1 Finkelman, Paul (2007). "The Abolition of The Slave Trade". New York Public Library. Retrieved 25 June 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. 29.00 29.01 29.02 29.03 29.04 29.05 29.06 29.07 29.08 29.09 29.10 29.11 29.12 Robert William Fogel and Stanley L. Engerman. Time on the Cross: The Economics of American Negro Slavery, 1995. Pages 33–34.
  30. "Constitution of Vermont (1777)". Chapter I, Article I: State of Vermont. 1777. Retrieved 7 June 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. Lee Ann, Cox. "UVM historian examines Vermont's mixed history of slavery and abolition". University of Vermont. Retrieved 12 February 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  32. "Slavery, freedom or perpetual servitude? - the Joseph Knight case". The National Archives of Scotland. Retrieved 5 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. A Leon Higginbotham, Jr., In the Matter of Color: Race & the American Legal Process, Oxford University Press, 1978. p.310.
  34. "Historical survey > Slave societies". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2013-08-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  35. A. Leon Higginbotham, In the matter of color: race and the American legal process (1980) p. 91
  36. Viorel Achim, The Roma in Romanian History, Central European University Press, Budapest, 2004. ISBN 963-9241-84-9, p.128
  37. 37.0 37.1 Higginbotham, p.310.
  38. A. B. C. Sibthorpe, The history of Sierra Leone (1970) p. 8
  39. Rodriguez, Junius P. The Historical encyclopedia of world slavery, Volume 1. Google Books. Retrieved 2013-08-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  40. David B. Gaspar, David P. Geggus, A Turbulent time: the French Revolution and the Greater Caribbean (1997) p. 60
  41. Xuereb, Charles (10 April 2007). "Slavery in Malta". Times of Malta. Retrieved 12 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  42. David N. Gellman (2008). Emancipating New York: The Politics of Slavery and Freedom, 1777-1827. LSU Press. pp. 2, 215.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  43. May, Thomas Erskine (1895), "Last Relics of Slavery", The Constitutional History of England (1760–1860), II, New York: A. C. Armstrong and Son, pp. 274–275<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  44. Foner, Eric. "Forgotten step towards freedom," New York Times. 30 December 2007.
  45. 45.0 45.1 Kantowicz, Edward R. (1975). Polish-American politics in Chicago, 1888-1940. University of Chicago Press. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-226-42380-7. Retrieved 30 January 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  46. Sailing against slavery. By Jo Loosemore BBC
  47. Woodward, Augustus. "Slavery in the Northwest Territory". Leelanau Communications, Inc. Retrieved 10 September 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  48. Jean Allain (2012). The Legal Understanding of Slavery: From the Historical to the Contemporary. p. 121.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  49. Carole Elizabeth Boyce Davies (2008). Encyclopedia of the African Diaspora: vol 1. p. 95.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  50. 50.0 50.1 "Blacks in Latin America", Microsoft Encarta 98 Encyclopedia. Microsoft Corporation.
  51. Mark Jarrett (2014). The Congress of Vienna and its Legacy. p. 144.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  52. Darién J. Davis (2007). Beyond Slavery: The Multilayered Legacy of Africans in Latin America and the Caribbean. p. 31.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  53. Higginbotham, pp.146–47.
  54. 54.00 54.01 54.02 54.03 54.04 54.05 54.06 54.07 54.08 54.09 54.10 54.11 54.12 54.13 54.14 "Chronological Table of the Statutes" (1959 edition)
  55. Levin, Stephenie Seto (1968). "The Overthrow of the Kapu System in Hawaii". Journal of the Polynesian Society. Wellington, NZ: Polynesian Society. 77: 402–430.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  56. 56.0 56.1 56.2 Aguilera, Miguel (1965). La Legislacion y el derecho en Colombia. Historia extensa de Colombia. 14. Bogota: Lemer. pp. 428–442.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  57. David N. Gellman (2008). Emancipating New York: The Politics of Slavery and Freedom, 1777-1827. pp. 2, 215.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  58. 58.0 58.1 Dexter, Darrel (2004). "Slavery In Illinois: How and Why the Underground Railroad Existed". Freedom Trails: Legacies of Hope. Illinois Freedom Trail Commission. Retrieved 6 February 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  59. Alwyn Barr (1996). Black Texans: A History of African Americans in Texas, 1528-1995. p. 15.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  60. Finkelman and Miller, Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery 1:293
  61. Serbian: http://serbum.com/?p=1253
  62. Ismael M. Montana, The Abolition of Slavery in Ottoman Tunisia (2013)
  63. Ehûd R. Tôledānô (1998). Slavery and Abolition in the Ottoman Middle East. p. 11.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  64. 64.0 64.1 Cobb, Thomas Read Rootes. An Inquiry Into the Law of Negro Slavery in the United States of America: To which is Prefixed An Historical Sketch of Slavery, 1858. Page cxcii.
  65. 1840 US Census, Pennsylvania
  66. Anderson, Kevin (15 May 2010). Marx at the margins: on nationalism, ethnicity, and non-western societies. University of Chicago Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-226-01983-3. Retrieved 30 January 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  67. Smith, William Frank (November 2010). Catholic Church Milestones: People and Events That Shaped the Institutional Church. Dog Ear Publishing. p. 65. ISBN 978-1-60844-821-0. Retrieved 30 January 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  68. Kamusella, Tomasz (2007). Silesia and Central European nationalisms: the emergence of national and ethnic groups in Prussian Silesia and Austrian Silesia, 1848-1918. Purdue University Press. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-55753-371-5. Retrieved 30 January 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  69. http://acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu/~phalsall/texts/taiping.html
  70. http://factsanddetails.com/china/cat2/sub4/item54.html
  71. http://www.olemiss.edu/courses/inst203/taiping.txt
  72. Wong, Helen; Rayson, Ann (1987). Hawaii's Royal History. Honolulu: Bess Press. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-935848-48-9.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  73. Robert J. Cottrol (2013). The Long, Lingering Shadow: Slavery, Race, and Law in the American Hemisphere. University of Georgia Press. p. 121.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  74. Peter Kolchin, Unfree Labor (1987)
  75. Finkelman and Miller, Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery 2:637
  76. Juliusz Bardach, Boguslaw Lesnodorski, and Michal Pietrzak, Historia panstwa i prawa polskiego, >
    • Warsaw: Paristwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 1987, p.389-394
  77. Michael Vorenberg, Final Freedom: The Civil War, the Abolition of Slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment (2004)
  78. Hornsby, Jr., Alton (2008). A Companion to African-American History. Google Books. p. 127. Retrieved 2013-08-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  79. Robert E. Conrad, The destruction of Brazilian slavery, 1850–1888 (1972) p. 106
  80. Suzanne Miers and Richard L. Roberts, The End of slavery in Africa (1988) p. 79
  81. Y. Hakan Erdem, Slavery in the Ottoman Empire and Its Demise, 1800–1909 (1998).
  82. Finkelman and Miller, Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery 1:124
  83. Junius P. Rodriguez (1997). The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery. ABC-CLIO. p. xxiii.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  84. "Swahili Coast". National Geographic. 2002-10-17. Retrieved 2013-08-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  85. Baker, Chris and Pasuk Phongpaichit. A History of Thailand, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006, p. 61.
  86. Cheikh A. Babou. The Journal of African History, 48: 490–491, Cambridge University Press 2007
  87. "Afghan Constitution: 1923". Afghangovernment.com. Retrieved 2013-08-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  88. The slave trade: myths and preconceptions Archived 18 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  89. The Committee Office, House of Commons (2006-03-06). "House of Commons – International Development – Memoranda". Publications.parliament.uk. Retrieved 2013-08-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  90. Barker, A. J., The Rape of Ethiopia 1936, p. 36
  91. "The End of Slavery". BBC. Retrieved 2013-08-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  92. "Universal Declaration of Human Rights". United Nations. 10 December 1948. Retrieved 13 December 2007. Adopted and proclaimed by General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948 ... Article 4. No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  93. 93.0 93.1 Anti-Slavery International (28 October 2008). "Niger slavery: Background". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 7 October 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  94. Slavery in Mauritania
  95. "Disposable People". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2013-08-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  96. "Mauritanian MPs pass slavery law". BBC News. 9 August 2007. Retrieved 8 January 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  97. Slavery's last stronghold. CNN.com (16 March 2012). Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  98. Kevin Bales (2004). New Slavery: A Reference Handbook. ABC-CLIO. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-85109-815-6.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  99. Shelley K. White; Jonathan M. White; Kathleen Odell Korgen (27 May 2014). Sociologists in Action on Inequalities: Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality. SAGE Publications. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-4833-1147-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  100. Smith, Alexander (17 October 2013). "30 million people still live in slavery, human rights group says". NBC News. Retrieved 7 October 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  101. Kelly, Annie (3 April 2013). "Modern-day slavery: an explainer". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 7 October 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  102. "Ethics – Slavery: Modern Slavery". BBC. Retrieved 7 October 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  103. Aziz, Omer; Hussain, Murtaza (5 January 2014). "Qatar's Showcase of Shame". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 7 October 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Further reading

  • Bales, Kevin. "Disposable People" (University of California Press, 2012)
  • Campbell, Gwyn. The Structure of Slavery in Indian Ocean Africa and Asia (Frank Cass, 2004)
  • Drescher, Seymour. Abolition: A History of Slavery and Antislavery (Cambridge University Press, 2009)
  • Finkelman, Paul, and Joseph Miller, eds. Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery (2 vol 1998)
  • Gordon, M. Slavery in the Arab World (1989)
  • Hinks, Peter, and John McKivigan, eds. Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition (2 vol. 2007) 795pp; ISBN 978-0-313-33142-8
  • Lovejoy, Paul. Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in Africa (Cambridge UP, 1983)
  • Morgan, Kenneth. Slavery and the British Empire: From Africa to America (2008)
  • Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery (1997)
  • Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. Encyclopedia of Emancipation and Abolition in the Transatlantic World (2007)

External links