General, Governor and Senator from Mississippi
|30th Governor of Mississippi|
January 4, 1874 – March 29, 1876
|Preceded by||Ridgley C. Powers|
|Succeeded by||John M. Stone|
|27th Governor of Mississippi|
June 15, 1868 – March 10, 1870
|Preceded by||Benjamin G. Humphreys|
|Succeeded by||James L. Alcorn|
|United States Senator
February 23, 1870 – January 10, 1874
|Preceded by||Jefferson Davis
Secession (vacant until 1870)
|Succeeded by||Henry R. Pease|
October 31, 1835|
|Died||April 13, 1933
Ormond Beach, Florida
|Resting place||Hildreth Family Cemetery, Lowell, Massachusetts
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|Children||Butler, Edith, Sarah, Blanche, Adelbert, Jr., Jessie|
|Alma mater||United States Military Academy|
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/branch||United States Army
|Years of service||1861–1870
|Rank|| Brigadier General
Brevet Major General
|Unit||5th United States Artillery|
|Commands||20th Maine Volunteer Infantry
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XI Corps
2nd Division, X Corps
2nd Division, XXIV Corps
Fourth Military District
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, Fifth Army Corps
1st Division, Fifth Army Corps
|Battles/wars||American Civil War
|Awards||Medal of Honor|
Adelbert Ames (October 31, 1835 – April 13, 1933) was an American sailor, soldier, and politician. He served with distinction as a Union Army general during the American Civil War. As a Radical Republican, he was military governor, Senator and civilian governor in Reconstruction-era Mississippi. In 1898 he served as a United States Army general during the Spanish–American War. He was the last Republican to serve as the state governor of Mississippi in the 19th century; a Republican would not become governor of Mississippi again until 1992.
Early life and career
Adelbert (// ə-DEL-bərt) Ames was born in 1835 in the town of Rockland, located in Knox County, Maine. He was the son of a sea captain named Jesse Ames. Adelbert Ames also grew up to be a sailor, becoming a mate on a clipper ship, and also served briefly as a merchant seaman on his own father's ship.
American Civil War
Ames graduated from the United States Military Academy on May 6, 1861, standing fifth in his class of 45. On that same date he was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 2nd U.S. Artillery. Eight days later he was promoted to first lieutenant and was assigned to the 5th U.S. Artillery. During the First Battle of Bull Run that July, Ames was badly wounded in the right thigh but refused to leave his guns. He was brevetted to the rank of major on July 21 for his actions during the First Battle of Bull Run. In 1893 Ames would also receive the Medal of Honor for his performance there.
Returning to duty the following spring, Ames was part of the defenses of Washington, D.C.. He then fought in the Peninsula Campaign, and saw action at the Battle of Yorktown from April 5 to May 4, the Battle of Gaines' Mill on June 27, and the Battle of Malvern Hill that July. Ames was commended for his conduct at Malvern Hill by Col. Henry J. Hunt, chief of the artillery of the Army of the Potomac, and he received a brevet promotion to lieutenant colonel on July 1.
Although Ames was becoming an excellent artillery officer, he realized that significant promotions would be available only in the infantry. He returned to Maine and politicked to receive a commission as a regimental commander of infantry and was assigned to command the 20th Maine Volunteer Infantry Regiment on August 20, 1862. The 20th Maine fought in the Maryland Campaign, but saw little action at the Battle of Antietam on September 17, while in a reserve capacity. During the Union defeat at the Battle of Fredericksburg that winter, Ames led his regiment in one of the last charges on December 13 against Marye's Heights. During the Chancellorsville Campaign in May 1863, Ames volunteered as an aide-de-camp to Maj. Gen. George G. Meade, commander of the V Corps.
Probably as a result of this staff duty and his proximity to the influential Meade, Ames was promoted to brigadier general in the Union Army on May 20, 1863, two weeks following the Battle of Chancellorsville. Ames assumed brigade command in the XI Corps of the Army of the Potomac, relinquishing his command of the 20th Maine to Lt. Col. Joshua L. Chamberlain, who would soon lead the regiment to fame in the Battle of Gettysburg that July.
While his own experience at Gettysburg did not achieve the renown of Chamberlain's, Ames performed well under difficult circumstances. During the massive assault by Confederate Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell on July 1, 1863, Ames's division commander, Brig. Gen. Francis C. Barlow, moved his division well in front of other elements of the XI Corps to a slight rise that is now known as Barlow's Knoll. This salient position was quickly overrun, and Barlow was wounded and captured. Ames took command of the division and led it in retreat through the streets of Gettysburg to a position on Cemetery Hill. On July 2, the second day of battle, Ames's battered division bore the brunt of the assault on East Cemetery Hill by Maj. Gen. Jubal A. Early, but was able to hold the critical position with help from surrounding units. At one point Ames himself took part in the hand-to-hand fighting. After the battle, the men of the 20th Maine presented Ames with their battle flag as a token of their esteem.
After the battle, Ames reverted to brigade command with a brevet promotion to colonel in the regular army. His division, under the command of Brig. Gen. George H. Gordon, was transferred to the Department of the South, where it served in actions in South Carolina and Florida.
In 1864, Ames's division, now part of the X Corps of the Army of the James, served under Maj. Gen. Benjamin Franklin Butler in the Bermuda Hundred Campaign and the Siege of Petersburg. In the future, he would become Butler's son-in-law. That winter, the division was reassigned to the XXIV Corps and sent to North Carolina.
During the two years following his service in the Army of the Potomac, Ames shifted between brigade and division command (and even led his corps on two occasions), though he generally can be identified as a division commander. He led the successful assault in the Second Battle of Fort Fisher (commanding the 2nd Division, XXIV Corps), accompanying his men into the formidable coastal fortress as most of his staff were shot down by Confederate snipers. He received a brevet promotion to major general in the Union Army (and brigadier general in the Regular Army) on March 13, 1865, for his role in the battle.
Mississippian politics and the U.S. Senate
In 1868, Ames was appointed by Congress to be provisional Governor of Mississippi. His command soon extended to the Fourth Military District, which consisted of Mississippi and Arkansas. During his administration, he took several steps to advance the rights of freed slaves, appointing the first black office-holders in state history. White supremacist terrorism and violence was prevalent in the state, one of the last to comply with Reconstruction, but a general election was held during his tenure in 1869 and the legislature convened at the beginning of the following year.
About 1868 Ames became an original companion of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States, a military society of former Union officers and their descendants.
The Mississippi Legislature elected Ames to the U.S. Senate after the readmission of Mississippi to the Union; he served from February 24, 1870 to January 10, 1874, as a Republican. In Washington, Ames met and married Blanche Butler, daughter of his former commander, and now U.S. Representative, Benjamin Butler, on July 21, 1870. They had six children including Adelbert Ames Jr. and Butler Ames. As a Senator, Ames became a talented public speaker to the point where even some of his Democratic opponents acknowledged his ability.
Ames battled James Lusk Alcorn—a former Confederate general and now a Scalawag—for control of the Republican party, which comprised mostly black voters. Their struggle ripped apart the party. In 1873 they both sought a decision by running for governor. Ames was supported by the Radicals and most African Americans, while Alcorn won the votes of conservative whites and most of the scalawags. Ames won by a vote of 69,870 to 50,490.
As governor, Ames fought to cut spending and lower the tax rate, with moderate success. The state rate of 14 1/2 mills in 1874 was reduced to 9 1/2 in 1875 and 6 1/2 in 1876.
Even his enemies agreed that the governor had a rigorous integrity, incorruptible and sincere. His appointments included some Scalawags and a few former Confederates; but he was never happy in Mississippi, and much of the time his wife and family remained in the North, where the weather was cooler and the social atmosphere less unpleasant. Ames was proud of his record, and, to his own thinking considered himself one of the best Republican governors of any of the Reconstructed states—an opinion generally shared by historians since that time. At the same time, he had little success in winning over his enemies in the party and was quick to impute sinister motives to them.
His real problems came from the Democratic efforts to undo Reconstruction and gain control. Democrats in Vicksburg launched a coup in December 1874; when the sheriff called on his supporters to restore him to office, there was a battle that ended in a massacre of black Republicans. Ames had no forces to send, and depended on the national government for troops to reinstate the ousted officials. In the months that followed, he failed to mobilize a state militia to cope with renewed troubles. By that August, the Democratic Party had united to carry the legislative elections that fall, and carried out what came to be called the "Mississippi Plan." Under its terms, the systematic organization of all whites was combined with intimidation, violence, and the organizing of paramilitary forces, the so-called White Leagues to keep black voters home. A riot in Yazoo county drove out the Republican sheriff and resulted in some black people and party officers being lynched. Another at Clinton on September 4 ended with white Democratic paramilitaries riding over the county shooting any and every black person they chanced upon. With no other means of protection, Governor Ames appealed to the federal government for assistance. It was not refused, but authorities urged him to exhaust state resources first.
Unable to organize a state militia in time, Ames signed a peace treaty with Democratic leaders. In return for disarming the few militia units he had assembled, they promised to guarantee a full, free, fair election. These promises were not kept.
That November, Democrats terrorized a large part of the Republican vote to keep it home, drove voters from the polls with shotguns and cannon, and gained firm control of both houses of the legislature. The state legislature, convening in 1876, drew up articles of impeachment against him; with a five to one majority and deeply hostile feelings towards Ames, their investigations "failed to trace a dollar of unearned money to his pockets," one reporter noted. "Whatever Ames may be, he is not dishonest." Though insiders agreed that their case was a very weak one, removal was certain—particularly after his black lieutenant-governor had been removed and the line of succession led to a Democrat. Rather than face a trial that would entail great expense, Ames's lawyers made a deal: once the legislature had dropped all charges, he would resign his office. It did so, and he did so on the evening of March 29, 1876.
After leaving office, Ames settled briefly in Northfield, Minnesota, where he joined his father and brother in their flour-milling business. During his residence there, in September 1876, Jesse James and his gang of former Confederate guerrillas raided the town's bank, largely because of Ames's (and controversial Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler's) investment in it, but their attempt to rob it ended in catastrophic failure. Ames next headed to New York City, then later settled in Tewksbury, Massachusetts as an executive in a flour mill, along with other business interests in the nearby city of Lowell.
In 1898, he was appointed brigadier general of volunteers in the Spanish–American War and fought in Cuba. During the battle of San Juan Hill the 3rd Brigade of the 1st Division suffered particularly high casualties with its brigade commander killed and the next two ranking regimental commanders wounded. General Ames was assigned to command the brigade during the Siege of Santiago. He was in command of the 1st Division at the time the V Corps was mustered out in New York.
Several years afterward, he retired from business pursuits in Lowell but continued in real-estate and entertainment projects in Atlantic City, New Jersey, and Florida. Ames corresponded extensively with the historian James Wilford Garner during this period; Garner's dissertation viewed Reconstruction as "unwise," but absolved Ames of personal corruption. Ames's widow compiled a collection of her correspondence with Ames, Chronicles from the Nineteenth Century, published posthumously in 1957.
About 1900 Ames joined the Massachusetts Society of Colonial Wars.
Ames died in 1933 at the age of 97, at his winter home in Ormond Beach, Florida. At the time of his death, Ames was the last surviving full-rank general who had served in the Civil War. (The last Union general officer, Aaron S. Daggett, died at age 100 in 1938; he had been a brevet brigadier general of U.S. Volunteers in March 1865, while Ames had been promoted to the permanent rank of brigadier general in the Regular Army around the same period.)
Ames is buried in the Hildreth family cemetery—the family of his mother-in-law, Sarah Hildreth Butler—behind the main cemetery (also known as Hildreth Cemetery) on Hildreth Street in Lowell. Buried with him are his wife Blanche Butler Ames, their six children, and the spouses of his son Butler and his daughter Edith.
His daughter Blanche Ames Ames (she married into another Ames family) was a noted suffragist, inventor, artist, and writer. The mansion she designed and had built is now part of Borderland State Park in Massachusetts.
His son Adelbert Ames, Jr. was a noted scientist.
His son Butler Ames was a businessman and politician, who represented Massachusetts in Congress for ten years.
Adelbert Ames was also the great-grandfather of George Plimpton. John F. Kennedy, through George Plimpton, is indirectly responsible for a full-length biography of General Ames. In Profiles in Courage, Kennedy relied on Reconstruction-era historical texts to produce a brief but misleading, false, and devastating portrait of Ames's administration of Mississippi in his profile of Mississippi Senator Lucius Q.C. Lamar. Ames's daughter Blanche Ames Ames, a formidable figure in Massachusetts, bombarded the then-senator with letters complaining about the depiction, and continued her barrage after Kennedy entered the White House. President Kennedy then turned to his friend Plimpton to tell Blanche, Plimpton's grandmother, that she was "interfering with state business." Her response was to write her own book about her father, Adelbert Ames, in 1964.
A Medal of Honor plaque for Ames's gravesite was dedicated at a ceremony honoring Benjamin Butler's 191st birthday, held at the Hildreth family cemetery—the only time of the year it is open to the public—on November 1, 2009.
The United Spanish War Veterans established Camp 19, General Adelbert Ames Post, in Lowell, Massachusetts.
Ames Hill Castle
After settling in Massachusetts, Ames built a seventeen-room estate in Tewksbury known locally as "the Castle" on Prospect Hill, now called Ames Hill, in 1906. In 1986, the Ames Hill Castle was purchased by local developer John D. Sullivan; Sullivan then illegally converted the house into a multi-unit rental property. However, Sullivan has been subject to several court rulings for zoning violations on the property, including one in 1991 and again in 1999. In August 2010, Sullivan's attorney brought forth a proposal to Tewksbury's board of selectmen for modifications to the Ames Hill Castle, to fall under the Massachusetts Comprehensive Permit Act: Chapter 40B, which would allow him to legally maintain the property as a multi-unit rental. The board elected unanimously to table the proposal, citing several concerns - both with Sullivan's absence (as he had sent his attorney rather than present the proposal in person) and reluctance to meet with local residents, and his prior legal issues with the property.
In March 2012, the Ames Hill Castle was unanimously voted "preferably preserved" by the Tewksbury Historic Commission due to its unique architectural features, its current state of preservation, and its association with General Ames. This allowed the commission to invoke a nine-month delay in possible demolition of the property to pursue alternatives. In November, local developer Marc Ginsburg purchased the Castle and surrounding plot from Sullivan for $360,000, just as the delay expired. Ginsburg ultimately decided on the Castle's demolition, to make way for smaller single-family dwellings.
In popular culture
- Ames was portrayed by Matt Letscher in the movie adaptation of Jeffrey Shaara's Gods and Generals. He is a character in the alternate history novel Gettysburg, written by Newt Gingrich and William Forstchen. He is also the main focus of the 2006 historical book Redemption: The Last Battle of the Civil War by Nicholas Lemann.
Medal of Honor citation
Rank and Organization: First Lieutenant, 5th U.S. Artillery. Place and Date: At Bull Run, Va., July 21, 1861. Entered Service At: Rockland, Maine. Birth: East Thomaston, Maine. Date of Issue: June 22, 1894.
Remained upon the field in command of a section of Griffin's Battery, directing its fire after being severely wounded and refusing to leave the field until too weak to sit upon the caisson where he had been placed by men of his command.
- Warner, p. 6, "This last survivor of the full-rank general officers on either side of the conflict ..."; Eicher, p. 103, "... the last surviving substantive Civil War general officer."
- Quigley, p. 1.
- Encyclopedia of World Biography. Detroit: Gale. 1998.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Budiansky, pp. 64, 99.
- Warner, p. 5.
- Eicher, p. 102.
- Budiansky, p. 65.
- Eicher, p. 102; Warner, p. 5.
- Warner, p. 6.
- "Adelbert Ames". Claim to Fame: Medal of Honor recipients. Find a Grave. Retrieved 2009-01-12.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Eicher, p. 103.
- "Ames, Adelbert". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved 2009-04-11.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Cincinnati Daily Gazette, September 16, 1875
- Lemann, Redemption, 69.
- Ames,Adelbert Ames, 387–89.
- Lemann, Redemption, 75-92.
- Lemann, Redemption, 120–24.
- Lemann, Redemption, 128–47.
- Cincinnati Commercial, November 4, 1875, March 30, 1876;
- Ellem (1992); New York Times, March 30, 1876'
- "Our Gettysburg Hero".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Adelbert Ames • Cullum's Register • 1892".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Lemann, np.
- "Hildreth Family Cemetery". Find a Grave. Retrieved February 11, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Lowell, MA event Nov 1st". Find a Grave. Retrieved October 7, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "40B for Ames Hill Castle?". Homenewshere.com.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Ames Hill Castle wins 9-month reprieve". 20 March 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Bulldozers storm Ames Castle". 12 December 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Medal of Honor citations". American Medal of Honor recipients for the American Civil War (A-L). United States Army Center of Military History. June 8, 2009. Archived from the original on 19 June 2009. Retrieved June 8, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Army Center of Military History.
- Ames, Blanche. Adelbert Ames, 1835–1933. New York: Argosy-Antiquarian, 1964. OCLC 221717458.
- Budiansky, Stephen. The Bloody Shirt: Terror After Appomattox. New York: Viking, 2008. ISBN 978-0-670-01840-6.
- Current, Richard Nelson. Those Terrible Carpetbaggers: A Reinterpretation. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. ISBN 978-0-19-504872-8.
- Eicher, John H., and David J. Eicher. Civil War High Commands. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
- Ellem, Warren A. "The Overthrow of Reconstruction in Mississippi." Journal of Mississippi History 1992 54(2): 175-201.
- Garner, James Wilford. Reconstruction in Mississippi. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1968. First published in 1901.
- Harris, William C. The Day of the Carpetbagger: Republican Reconstruction in Mississippi. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1969. ISBN 978-0-8071-0366-1.
- Harris, William C. Presidential Reconstruction in Mississippi. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1967. OCLC 647759.
- Lemann, Nicholas. Redemption: The Last Battle of the Civil War. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2006. ISBN 978-0-374-53069-3.
- Lord, Stuart B. "Adelbert Ames, Soldier and Politician: a Reevaluation." Maine Historical Society Quarterly 13(2) (1973): 81–97.
- Quigley, Robert D. Civil War Spoken Here: A Dictionary of Mispronounced People, Places and Things of the 1860s. Collingswood, NJ: C. W. Historicals, 1993. ISBN 0-9637745-0-6.
- Stiles, T. J. Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. ISBN 978-0-375-40583-9.
- Tagg, Larry (1998). The Generals of Gettysburg. Campbell, CA: Savas Publishing. ISBN 1-882810-30-9. Retrieved October 5, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1964. ISBN 0-8071-0822-7.
- "Adelbert Ames". Claim to Fame: Medal of Honor recipients. Find a Grave. Retrieved March 17, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Benson, Harry King. "The Public Career of Adelbert Ames, 1861–1876." PhD U. Of Virginia. Dissertation Abstracts International; 1976 36(7): 4705-A, 342 pp.
- Wainwright, Charles S. A Diary of Battle: The Personal Journals of Colonel Charles S. Wainwright. Edited by Allan Nevins. New York: Da Capo Press, 1998. First published 1962 by Harcourt.
- Adelbert Ames at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress Retrieved on February 15, 2008
- "Maine state archives: 20th Maine Battle Flag". Archived from the original on 22 September 2010. Retrieved September 27, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "A photocopy of a published speech by Adelbert Ames is available at The University of Mississippi, Archives and Special Collections in the Small Manuscript Collection (MUM00400)". Retrieved March 17, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Adelbert Ames's account of his role during the James-Younger gang's raid on the First National Bank of Northfield, Minnesota, in 1876". Retrieved March 17, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Biography of Blanche Ames Ames". Retrieved March 17, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Home of Heroes". Retrieved March 17, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "History Central". Retrieved March 17, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Ames, Adelbert". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1900.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Ames, Adelbert". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Adelbert Ames at Find a Grave
Benjamin G. Humphreys
|Governor of Mississippi
James L. Alcorn
Ridgley C. Powers
|Governor of Mississippi
John M. Stone
|United States Senate|
|U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Mississippi
Served alongside: Hiram R. Revels, James L. Alcorn
Henry R. Pease
|Most Senior Living U.S. Senator
(Sitting or Former)
November 3, 1924 – April 12, 1933
Henry C. Hansbrough
|Oldest living U.S. Senator
January 24, 1930 – April 12, 1933
|Notes and references|
|1. Because Mississippi seceded from the Union in 1861, seat was declared vacant from 1861–1870 when Jefferson Davis withdrew from the Senate|