|This section does not cite any sources. (January 2016)|
Marshalling is one-on-one visual communication and a part of aircraft ground handling. It may be as an alternative to, or additional to, radio communications between the aircraft and air traffic control. The usual equipment of a marshaller is a reflecting safety vest, a helmet with acoustic earmuffs, and gloves or marshaling wands–handheld illuminated beacons.
At airports, the marshaller signals the pilot to keep turning, slow down, stop, and shut down engines, leading the aircraft to its parking stand or to the runway. Sometimes, the marshaller indicates directions to the pilot by driving a "Follow-Me" car (usually a yellow van or pick-up truck with a checkerboard pattern) prior to disembarking and resuming signalling, though this is not an industry standard.
At busier and better equipped airports, marshallers are replaced on some stands with a Visual Docking Guidance System (VDGS), of which there are many types.
On aircraft carriers or helipads, marshallers give take-off and landing clearances to aircraft and helicopters, where the very limited space and time between take-offs and landings makes radio communications a difficult alternative.
U.S Air Force procedures
Per the most recent U.S Air Force marshalling instructions from 2012, marshallers "must wear a sleeveless garment of fluorescent international orange. It covers the shoulders and extends to the waist in the front and back. [...] During daylight hours, marshallers may use high visibility paddles. Self-illuminating wands are required at night or during restricted visibility.":14
Marshallers like other ground personnel must use protective equipment like protective goggles or "an appropriate helmet with visor, when in rotor wash areas or in front of an aircraft that is being backed using the aircraft's engines." It also prescribes "earplugs, muff-type ear defenders, or headsets in the immediate area of aircraft that have engines, Auxiliary Power Unit, or Gas Turbine Compressor running."
Excessive noise can cause hearing loss in marshallers, either imperceptibly over years or after a one time acoustic trauma. In the United States noise limits at work are set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).
Aircraft signals vary slightly among the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Standardization Agreement 3117, Air Standardization Coordinating Committee Air Standard 44/42A, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) signals. the US Air Force generally follows ICAO guidance if its guidance conflicts with FAA, ICAO, or NATO documents.:15 The ICAO defines numerous important codes for use in international aviation.
Aircraft hand signal all clear.svg
Aircraft hand signal flagman directs.svg
Flagman directs pilot (stop)
Aircraft hand signal insert chocks.svg
Aircraft hand signal pull chocks.svg
Aircraft hand signal start engine.svg
Aircraft hand signal cut engines.svg
Aircraft hand signal proceed straight ahead.svg
Proceed straight ahead
Aircraft hand signal turn left.svg
Aircraft hand signal turn right.svg
Aircraft hand signal slow down.svg
Aircraft hand signal stop.svg
Stop (emergency stop)
Helicopter hand signal takeoff.svg
Helicopter hand signal land.svg
Helicopter hand signal move upward.svg
Helicopter hand signal move downward.svg
Helicopter hand signal move left.svg
Helicopter hand signal move right.svg
Helicopter hand signal move forward.svg
Helicopter hand signal move rearward.svg
Helicopter hand signal hold-hover.svg
Helicopter hand signal release load.svg
Release sling load
- U.S Air Force Flying Operations and Movement on the Ground Flight Rules and Procedures. AIR FORCE INSTRUCTION 11-218, 28 October 2011, Incorporating Change 1, 1 November 2012, 89 pp
- Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) FAA Webtraining Environment Human Factors Awareness Course, n.d., accessed 7 January 2015.
- CAP637 Visual Aids Handbook; CAA; Issue 2, May 2007; Chapter 6, page 10, Table E
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- PDF (1.82 MB), from the CAA.