|Republic of Albania
Republika e Shqipërisë (Albanian)
|Motto: Ti Shqipëri, më jep nder, më jep emrin Shqipëtar
You Albania, give me honour, give me the name Albanian
|Anthem: Himni i Flamurit
"Albanian National Anthem"
and largest city
|Government||Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic|
|•||Prime Minister||Edi Rama|
|•||Principality of Arbanon||1190|
|•||Anjou Kingdom of Albania||February 1272|
|•||Princedom of Albania||1368|
|•||League of Lezhë||2 March 1444|
|•||Proclamation of independence from the Ottoman Empire||28 November 1912|
|•||Principality of Albania (Recognised)||29 July 1913|
|•||Albanian Republic (1st republic)||31 January 1925|
|•||Albanian Kingdom||1 September 1928|
|•||People's Republic of Albania (2nd republic)||11 January 1946|
|•||People's Socialist Republic of Albania (3rd republic)||28 December 1976|
|•||Republic of Albania (4th republic)
|29 April 1991
28 November 1998
|•||Total||28,748 km2 (143rd)
11,100 sq mi
|•||July 2016 estimate||3,038,594|
|GDP (PPP)||2017 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2017 estimate|
|HDI (2015)|| 0.764
high · 75th
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|•||Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||AL|
|a.||Aromanian, Greek, Macedonian and other regional languages are government-recognised minority languages.|
Albania (i/, /, a(w)l-BAY-nee-ə; Albanian: Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Gheg Albanian: Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Albanian: Republika e Shqipërisë, pronounced [ɾɛpuˈblika ɛ ʃcipəˈɾiːsə]), is a country in Southeastern Europe. Albania spans 28,748 square kilometres (11,100 square miles) and had a total population of almost 3 million people as of 2016[update]. Tirana is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Durrës and Vlorë. It is located in the south-western part of the Balkan peninsula, bordered by Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo[lower-alpha 1] to the northeast, the Republic of Macedonia to the east, and Greece to the south and southeast. The country has a coastline on the northern shore of the Mediterranean Sea, the Adriatic Sea to the west and the Ionian Sea to the southwest where the Albanian Riviera begins. Albania is less than 72 km (45 mi) from Italy, across the Strait of Otranto which connects the Adriatic Sea to the Ionian Sea.
During the classical times, the modern area of Albania was home to several Illyrian and Greek people, as well as several Greek colonies established on the Illyrian territory. After the Illyrian Wars, it was annexed by Rome and became part of the Roman provinces of Dalmatia, Macedonia and Moesia Superior. In 1190, the first Albanian state, the Principality of Arbanon was established by archon Progon in the region of Krujë, which became the capital. The territory of Albania was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century, of which it remained part of for the next five centuries. After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in Europe, following the Balkan Wars, Albania declared its independence in 1912 and was recognized the following year. The Kingdom of Albania was invaded by Italy in 1939, which formed Greater Albania, before becoming a Nazi German protectorate in 1943. The following year, a socialist People's Republic was established under the leadership of Enver Hoxha and the Party of Labour. Albania experienced widespread social and political transformations in the communist era, as well as isolation from much of the international community. In 1991, the Socialist Republic was dissolved and the Republic of Albania was established.
Albania is a democratic and developing country with an upper-middle income economy. The service sector dominates the country's economy, followed by the industrial and agriculture sector. After the fall of communism in Albania, Free-market reforms have opened the country to foreign investment, especially in the development of energy and transportation infrastructure. Albania has a high HDI and provides universal health care system and free primary and secondary education to its citizens.
Albania is a member of the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the Council of Europe, the OSCE, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. It is also an official candidate for membership in the European Union. Albania is one of the founding members of the Energy Community, Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation and the Union for the Mediterranean. It is home to the largest lake in Southern Europe and one of the oldest lakes in Europe.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Environment
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Politics
- 6 Economy
- 7 Culture
- 8 International rankings
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
Albania is the Medieval Latin name of the country. This name may be derived from the Illyrian tribe of the Albani recorded by Ptolemy, the geographer and astronomer from Alexandria who drafted a map in 150 AD that shows the city of Albanopolis located northeast of Durrës.
The name may have a continuation in the name of a medieval settlement called Albanon and Arbanon, although it is not certain that this was the same place. In his History written in 1079–1080, the Byzantine historian Michael Attaliates was the first to refer to Albanoi as having taken part in a revolt against Constantinople in 1043 and to the Arbanitai as subjects of the Duke of Dyrrachium. During the Middle Ages, the Albanians called their country Arbëri or Arbëni and referred to themselves as Arbëresh or Arbënesh.
Albanians today call their country Shqipëri (or Shqipëria in the definite form). As early as the 17th century the placename Shqipëria and the ethnic demonym Shqiptarë gradually replaced Arbëria and Arbëresh. The two terms are popularly interpreted as "Land of the Eagles" and "Children of the Eagles".
The history of Albania emerged from the prehistoric stage from the 4th century BC, with early records of Illyria in Greco-Roman historiography. The first traces of human presence in Albania, dating to the Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic eras, were found in the village of Xarrë, near Sarandë and Mount Dajt near Tiranë. The objects found in a cave near Xarrë include flint and jasper objects and fossilized animal bones, while those found at Mount Dajt comprise bone and stone tools similar to those of the Aurignacian culture. The Paleolithic finds of Albania show great similarities with objects of the same era found at Crvena Stijena in Montenegro and north-western Greece.
Several Bronze Age artefacts from tumulus burials have been unearthed in central and southern Albania that show close connection with sites in south-western Macedonia and Lefkada, Greece. Archaeologists have come to the conclusion that these regions were inhabited from the middle of the third millennium BC by Indo-European people who spoke a Proto-Greek language. A part of this population later moved to Mycenae around 1600 BC and founded the Mycenaean civilisation there. Another population group, the Illirii, probably the southernmost Illyrian tribe of that time that lived on the border of Albania and Montenegro, possibly neighbored the Greek tribes.
In ancient times, the territory of modern Albania was mainly inhabited by a number of Illyrian tribes. This territory was known as Illyria, corresponding roughly to the area east of the Adriatic sea to the mouth of the Vjosë river in the south. The first account of the Illyrian groups comes from Periplus of the Euxine Sea, an ancient Greek text written in the middle of the 4th century BC. The south was inhabited by the Greek tribe of the Chaonians, whose capital was at Phoenice, while numerous colonies, such as Apollonia, Epidamnos and Amantia, were established by Greek city-states on the coast by the 7th century BC.
One of the most powerful tribes that ruled over modern Albania was the Ardiaei. The Ardiaean Kingdom reached its greatest extent under Agron, son of Pleuratus II. Agron extended his rule over other neighboring tribes as well. After Agron's death in 230 BC, his wife Teuta inherited the Ardiaean kingdom. Teuta's forces extended their operations further southward into the Ionian Sea. In 229 BC, Rome declared war on Illyria for extensively plundering Roman ships. The war ended in Illyrian defeat in 227 BC. Teuta was eventually succeeded by Gentius in 181 BC. Gentius clashed with the Romans in 168 BC, initiating the Third Illyrian War. The conflict resulted in Roman victory and the end of Illyrian independence by 167 BC. After his defeat, the Roman split the region into three administrative divisions.
The territory now known as Albania remained under Roman (Byzantine) control until the Slavs began to overrun it from 7th century, and was captured by the Bulgarian Empire in the 9th century. After the weakening of the Byzantine Empire and the Bulgarian Empire in the middle and late 13th century, some of the territory of modern-day Albania was captured by the Serbian Principality. In general, the invaders destroyed or weakened Roman and Byzantine cultural centers in the lands that would become Albania.
The territorial nucleus of the Albanian state formed in the Middle Ages, as the Principality of Arbër and the Kingdom of Albania. The Principality of Arbër or Albanon (Albanian: Arbër or Arbëria), was the first Albanian state during the Middle Ages, it was established by archon Progon in the region of Kruja, in c. 1190. Progon, the founder, was succeeded by his sons Gjin and Dhimitri, the latter which attained the height of the realm. After the death of Dhimiter, the last of the Progon family, the principality came under the Greek Gregory Kamonas Lord or Prince (archon) of Krujë, and later Golem. The Principality was dissolved in 1255. Pipa and Repishti conclude that Arbanon was the first sketch of an "Albanian state", and that it retained semi-autonomous status as the western extremity of an empire (under the Doukai of Epirus or the Laskarids of Nicaea).
The Kingdom of Albania was established by Charles of Anjou in the Albanian territory he conquered from the Despotate of Epirus in 1271. He took the title of "King of Albania" in February 1272. The kingdom extended from the region of Durrës (then known as Dyrrhachium) south along the coast to Butrint. After the creation of the kingdom, a Catholic political structure was a good basis for the papal plans of spreading Catholicism in the Balkans. This plan found also the support of Helen of Anjou, a cousin of Charles of Anjou, who was at that time ruling territories in North Albania. Around 30 Catholic churches and monasteries were built during her rule in North Albania and in Serbia. During 1331–55, the Serbian Empire wrestled control over Albania. After the dissolution of the Serbian Empire, several Albanian principalities were created, and among the most powerful were the Balsha, Thopia, Kastrioti, Muzaka and Arianiti. In the first half of the 14th century, the Ottoman Empire invaded most of Albania. In 1444, the Albanian principalities were united under George Castrioti Skanderbeg (Albanian: Gjergj Kastrioti Skenderbeu) the national hero of Albania.
At the dawn of the establishment of the Ottoman Empire in Southeast Europe, the geopolitical landscape was marked by scattered kingdoms of small principalities. The Ottomans erected their garrisons throughout southern Albania by 1415 and occupied most of Albania by 1431. However, in 1443 a great and longstanding revolt broke out under the lead of the Albanian national hero Skanderbeg, which lasted until 1479, many times defeating major Ottoman armies led by the sultans Murad II and Mehmed II. Skanderbeg united initially the Albanian princes, and later on established a centralized authority over most of the non-conquered territories, becoming the ruling Lord of Albania. He also tried relentlessly but rather unsuccessfully to create a European coalition against the Ottomans. He thwarted every attempt by the Turks to regain Albania, which they envisioned as a springboard for the invasion of Italy and western Europe. His unequal fight against the mightiest power of the time won the esteem of Europe as well as some support in the form of money and military aid from Naples, the Papacy, Venice, and Ragusa. With the arrival of the Turks, Islam was introduced in Albania as a third religion. This conversion caused a massive emigration of Albanians to the Christian European countries. Along with the Bosniaks, Muslim Albanians occupied an outstanding position in the Ottoman Empire, and were the main pillars of Ottoman Porte's policy in the Balkans.
Enjoying this privileged position in the empire, Muslim Albanians held various high administrative positions, with over two dozen Grand Viziers of Albanian origin, such as Gen. Köprülü Mehmed Pasha, who commanded the Ottoman forces during the Ottoman-Persian Wars; Gen. Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed, who led the Ottoman armies during the Austro-Turkish War; and, later, Muhammad Ali Pasha of Egypt.
In the 15th century, when the Ottomans were gaining a firm foothold in the region, Albanian towns were organised into four principal sanjaks. The government fostered trade by settling a sizeable Jewish colony of refugees fleeing persecution in Spain (at the end of the 15th century). Vlorë saw passing through its ports imported merchandise from Europe such as velvets, cotton goods, mohairs, carpets, spices and leather from Bursa and Constantinople. Some citizens of Vlorë even had business associates throughout Europe.
Albanians could also be found throughout the empire in Iraq, Egypt, Algeria and across the Maghreb, as vital military and administrative retainers. This was partly due to the Devşirme system. The process of Islamization was an incremental one, commencing from the arrival of the Ottomans in the 14th century (to this day, a minority of Albanians are Catholic or Orthodox Christians, though the vast majority became Muslim). Timar holders, the bedrock of early Ottoman control in Southeast Europe, were not necessarily converts to Islam, and occasionally rebelled; the most famous of these rebels is Skanderbeg (his figure would rise up later on, in the 19th century, as a central component of the Albanian national identity). The most significant impact on the Albanians was the gradual Islamisation process of a large majority of the population, although it became widespread only in the 17th century.
Mainly Catholics converted in the 17th century, while the Orthodox Albanians followed suit mainly in the following century. Initially confined to the main city centres of Elbasan and Shkoder, by this period the countryside was also embracing the new religion. The motives for conversion according to some scholars were diverse, depending on the context. The lack of source material does not help when investigating such issues. Albania remained under Ottoman control as part of the Rumelia province until 1912, when independent Albania was declared.
Albanian National Awakening
The National Awakening (Albanian: Rilindja Kombëtare) began in the 1870s and lasted until 1912, when the Albanians declared the creation of an independent nation. The League of Prizren (Albanian: Lidhja e Prizrenit) was formed on 1 June 1878, in Prizren, Kosovo Vilayet of Ottoman Empire. At first the Ottoman authorities supported the League of Prizren, whose initial position was based on the religious solidarity of Muslim landlords and people connected with the Ottoman administration. The Ottomans favoured and protected Muslim solidarity, and called for defense of Muslim lands, including present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina. This was the reason for naming the league The Committee of the Real Muslims (Albanian: Komiteti i Myslimanëve të Vërtetë). The League issued a decree known as Kararname. Its text contained a proclamation that the people from "northern Albania, Epirus and Bosnia" are willing to defend the "territorial integrity" of the Ottoman Empire "by all possible means" against the troops of the Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro.
It was signed by 47 Muslim deputies of the League on 18 June 1878. Around 300 Muslims participated in the assembly, including delegates from Bosnia and mutasarrif (sanjakbey) of the Sanjak of Prizren as representatives of the central authorities, and no delegates from Scutari Vilayet.
The Ottomans cancelled their support when the League, under the influence of Abdyl bey Frashëri, became focused on working toward Albanian autonomy and requested merging of four Ottoman vilayets (Kosovo, Scutari, Monastir and Ioannina) into a new vilayet of the Ottoman Empire (the Albanian Vilayet). The League used military force to prevent the annexing areas of Plav and Gusinje assigned to Montenegro by the Congress of Berlin. After several successful battles with Montenegrin troops such as in Novsice, under the pressure of the great powers, the League of Prizren was forced to retreat from their contested regions of Plav and Gusinje and later on, the league was defeated by the Ottoman army sent by the Sultan. The Albanian uprising of 1912, the Ottoman defeat in the Balkan Wars and the advance of Montenegrin, Serbian and Greek forces into territories claimed as Albanian, led to the proclamation of independence by Ismail Qemali in Vlora, on 28 November 1912.
At the All-Albanian Congress in Vlorë on 28 November 1912 Congress participants constituted the Assembly of Vlorë. The assembly of eighty-three leaders meeting in Vlorë in November 1912 declared Albania an independent country and set up a provisional government. The Provisional Government of Albania was established on the second session of the assembly held on 4 December 1912. It was a government of ten members, led by Ismail Qemali until his resignation on 22 January 1914. The Assembly also established the Senate (Albanian: Pleqësi) with an advisory role to the government, consisting of 18 members of the Assembly.
Albania's independence was recognized by the Conference of London on 29 July 1913, but the drawing of the borders of the newly established Principality of Albania ignored the demographic realities of the time. The International Commission of Control was established on 15 October 1913 to take care of the administration of newly established Albania until its own political institutions were in order. Its headquarters were in Vlorë. The International Gendarmerie was established as the first law enforcement agency of the Principality of Albania. At the beginning of November the first gendarmerie members arrived in Albania. Wilhelm of Wied was selected as the first prince.
In November 1913 the Albanian pro-Ottoman forces had offered the throne of Albania to the Ottoman war minister of Albanian origin, Izzet Pasha. The pro-Ottoman peasants believed that the new regime of the Principality of Albania was a tool of the six Christian Great Powers and local landowners that owned half of the arable land.
On 28 February 1914, the Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus was proclaimed in Gjirokastër by the local Greek population against incorporation to Albania. This initiative was short lived and in 1921 the southern provinces were finally incorporated to the Albanian Principality. Meanwhile, the revolt of Albanian peasants against the new Albanian regime erupted under the leadership of the group of Muslim clerics gathered around Essad Pasha Toptani, who proclaimed himself the savior of Albania and Islam. In order to gain support of the Mirdita Catholic volunteers from the northern mountains, Prince of Wied appointed their leader, Prênk Bibë Doda, to be the foreign minister of the Principality of Albania. In May and June 1914 the International Gendarmerie joined by Isa Boletini and his men, mostly from Kosovo, and northern Mirdita Catholics were defeated by the rebels who captured most of Central Albania by the end of August 1914. The regime of Prince of Wied collapsed and he left the country on 3 September 1914.
Republic and Monarchy
The short-lived principality (1914–1925) was succeeded by the first Albanian Republic (1925–1928). In 1925 the four-member Regency was abolished and Ahmed Zogu was elected president of the newly declared republic. Tirana was endorsed officially as the country's permanent capital. Zogu led an authoritarian and conservative regime, the primary aim of which was the maintenance of stability and order. Zogu was forced to adopt a policy of cooperation with Italy. A pact had been signed between Italy and Albania on 20 January 1925 whereby Italy gained a monopoly on shipping and trade concessions.
The Albanian republic was eventually replaced by another monarchy in 1928. In order to extend his direct control throughout the entire country, Zogu placed great emphasis on the construction of roads. Every male Albanian over the age of 16 years was legally bound to give ten days of free labor each year to the state. King Zogu remained a conservative, but initiated reforms. For example, in an attempt at social modernization, the custom of adding one's region to one's name was dropped. Zogu also made donations of land to international organisations for the building of schools and hospitals. The armed forces were trained and supervised by Italian instructors. As a counterweight, Zogu kept British officers in the Gendarmerie despite strong Italian pressure to remove them. The kingdom was supported by the fascist regime in Italy and the two countries maintained close relations until Italy's sudden invasion of the country in 1939. Albania was occupied by Fascist Italy and then by Nazi Germany during World War II.
World War II
After being militarily occupied by Italy, from 1939 until 1943 the Albanian Kingdom was a protectorate and a dependency of Italy governed by the Italian King Victor Emmanuel III and his government. After the Axis' invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, territories of Yugoslavia with substantial Albanian population were annexed to Albania: most of Kosovo,[lower-alpha 1] as well as Western Macedonia, the town of Tutin in Central Serbia and a strip of Eastern Montenegro. In November 1941, the small Albanian Communist groups established an Albanian Communist Party in Tirana of 130 members under the leadership of Enver Hoxha and an eleven-man Central Committee. The party at first had little mass appeal, and even its youth organization netted few recruits.
After the capitulation of Italy in 1943, Nazi Germany occupied Albania too. The nationalist Balli Kombetar, which had fought against Italy, formed a "neutral" government in Tirana, and side by side with the Germans fought against the communist-led National Liberation Movement of Albania. The Center for Relief to Civilian Populations (Geneva) reported that Albania was one of the most devastated countries in Europe. 60,000 houses were destroyed and about 10% of the population was left homeless.The communist partisans had regrouped and gained control of much of southern Albania in January 1944. However, they were subject to German attacks driving them out of certain areas. In the Congress of Përmet, the NLF formed an Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation to act as Albania's administration and legislature. By the last year in World War II Albania fell into a civil war-like state between the communists and nationalists. The communist partisans however defeated the last Balli Kombëtar forces in southern Albania by mid-summer 1944. Before the end of November, the main German troops had withdrawn from Tirana, and the communists took control by attacking it. The partisans entirely liberated Albania from German occupation on 29 November 1944. A provisional government, which the communists had formed at Berat in October, administered Albania with Enver Hoxha as prime minister.
By the end of the second World War, the main military and political force of the nation, the Communist party sent forces to northern Albania against the nationalists to eliminate its rivals. They faced open resistance in Nikaj-Mërtur, Dukagjin and Kelmend led by Prek Cali. On 15 January 1945, a clash took place between partisans of the first Brigade and nationalist forces at the Tamara Bridge, resulting in the defeat of the nationalist forces. About 150 Kelmendi people were killed or tortured. This event was the starting point of many other issues which took place during Enver Hoxha's dictatorship. Class struggle was strictly applied, human freedom and human rights were denied. The Kelmend region was almost isolated by both the border and by a lack of roads for another 20 years, the institution of agricultural cooperatives brought about economic decline. Many Kelmendi people fled, some were executed trying to cross the border.
After the liberation of Albania from the Nazi occupation, the country became a Communist state. Afterwards, the People's Republic of Albania (renamed "People's Socialist Republic of Albania" in 1976) was founded, which was led by Enver Hoxha and the Labour Party of Albania. The socialist reconstruction of Albania was launched immediately after the annulling of the monarchy and the establishment of a People's Republic. However, in 1947, Albania's first railway line was completed, with the second one being completed eight months later. New land reform laws were passed granting ownership of the land to the workers and peasants who tilled it. Agriculture became cooperative, and production increased significantly, leading to Albania's becoming agriculturally self-sufficient. By 1955, illiteracy was eliminated among Albania's adult population.
During this period, Albania became industrialized and saw rapid economic growth, as well as unprecedented progress in the areas of education and health care. The average annual increase in Albania's national income was 29% higher than the world average and 56% higher than the European average.[not in citation given]. The nation incurred large debts, first with Yugoslavia until 1948, then the Soviet Union until 1961, and China from the middle of the 1950s. The communist constitution did not allowed taxes on individuals; instead, taxes were imposed on cooperatives and other organizations, with much the same effect.
Religious freedoms were severely curtailed during the communist regime, with all forms of worship being outlawed. In August 1945, the Agrarian Reform Law meant that large swaths of property owned by religious groups (mostly Islamic waqfs) were nationalized, along with the estates of monasteries and dioceses. Many believers, along with the ulema and many priests, were arrested and executed. In 1949, a new Decree on Religious Communities required that all their activities be sanctioned by the state alone.
After hundreds of mosques and dozens of Islamic libraries, containing priceless manuscripts, were destroyed, Enver Hoxha proclaimed Albania the "World's first atheist state" in 1967. The churches had not been spared either, and many were converted into cultural centers for young people. A 1967 law banned all "fascist, religious, warmongerish, antisocialist activity and propaganda". Preaching religion carried a three to ten-year prison sentence. Nonetheless, many Albanians continued to practice their beliefs secretly. The Hoxha dictatorship's anti-religious crusade attained its most fundamental legal and political expression a decade later: "The state recognizes no religion," declared Communist Albania's 1976 constitution, "and supports and carries out atheistic propaganda in order to implant a scientific materialistic world outlook in people." Enver Hoxha's political successor, Ramiz Alia oversaw the dismemberment of the "Hoxhaist" state during the collapse of the Eastern Bloc in the late 1980s.
After protests beginning in 1989 and reforms made by the communist government in 1990, the People's Republic was dissolved in 1991–92 and the Republic of Albania was founded. The communists retained a stronghold in parliament after popular support in the elections of 1991. However, in March 1992, amid liberalization policies resulting in economic collapse and social unrest, a new front led by the new Democratic Party took power.
In the following years, much of the accumulated wealth of the country was invested in Ponzi pyramid banking schemes, which were widely supported by government officials. The schemes swept up somewhere between one-sixth to one-third of the country's population. Despite IMF warnings in late 1996, then president Sali Berisha defended the schemes as large investment firms, leading more people to redirect their remittances and sell their homes and cattle for cash to deposit in the schemes.
The schemes began to collapse in late 1996, leading many of the investors into initially peaceful protests against the government, requesting their money back. The protests turned violent in February as government forces responded with fire. In March the police and Republican Guard deserted, leaving their armories open. They were promptly emptied by militias and criminal gangs. The resulting crisis caused a wave of evacuations of foreign nationals and of refugees.
The crisis led Prime Minister Aleksandër Meksi to resign on 11 March 1997, followed by President Sali Berisha in July in the wake of the June General Election. In April 1997, Operation Alba, a UN peacekeeping force led by Italy, entered the country with two goals: assistance in evacuation of expatriates and to secure the ground for international organizations. This was primarily WEU MAPE, who worked with the government in restructuring the judicial system and police. The Socialist Party won the elections in 1997, and a degree of political stabilization followed. In 1999, the country was affected by the Kosovo War, when a great number of Albanians from Kosovo found refuge in Albania.
After the collapsing of the Eastern Bloc, Albania has started to develope closer ties with Western Europe and other nations. At the 2008 Bucharest summit, the NATO invited Albania as well as Croatia, to join the alliance. In April 2009, the nation became a full member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Albania has also applied to join the European Union. In June 2014, it became an official candidate for the accession to the European Union.
Although Albania had received candidate status for European Union membership in 2014 (based on their 2009 application), the European Union has twice rejected full membership. The European Parliament warned the government leaders in early 2017, that the parliamentary elections in June must be "free and fair" before negotiations could begin to admit the country into the Union. The MEPs also expressed concern about the country's selective justice, corruption, the overall length of judicial proceedings and political interference in investigations and court cases but the EU Press Release expressed some optimism: It is important for Albania to maintain today's reform momentum and we must be ready to support it as much as possible in this process.
Albania has a total area of 28,748 square kilometres (11,100 square miles). The country is located in Southern Europe, bordering Montenegro to the north-west, Kosovo to the north-east, Macedonia to the east and Greece to the south. It lies between latitudes 42° and 39° N (Vermosh-Konispol) and between longitudes 21° and 19° E (Sazan-Vernik). Albania's coastline length is 476 km (296 mi):240 and extends along the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. The lowlands of the west face the Adriatic Sea.
The 70% of the country that is mountainous is rugged and often inaccessible from the outside. The highest mountain is Korab situated in Dibër County, reaching up to 2,764 metres (9,068 ft). It is located around the border triangle of Albania, Kosovo and Macedonia. The climate on the coast is typically Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and warm, sunny, and rather dry summers.
Inland conditions vary depending on elevation, but the higher areas above 5,000 feet (1,500 metres) are rather cold and frequently snowy in winter; here cold conditions with snow may linger into spring. Besides the capital city of Tirana, which has more than 700.000 inhabitants, the principal cities are Durrës, Korçë, Elbasan, Shkodër, Gjirokastër, Vlorë and Kukës. In Albanian grammar, a word can have indefinite and definite forms, and this also applies to city names: both Tiranë and Tirana, Shkodër and Shkodra are used.
The three largest and deepest tectonic lakes of the Balkan Peninsula are partly located in Albania. The Lake Shkodër in the country's northwest has a surface which can vary between 370 km2 (140 sq mi) and 530 km2, out of which one third belongs to Albania and the rest to Montenegro. The Albanian shoreline of the lake is 57 km (35 mi). Ohrid Lake is situated in the country's southeast and is shared between Albania and Republic of Macedonia. It has a maximal depth of 289 metres (948 feet) and a variety of unique flora and fauna can be found there, including "living fossils" and many endemic species. Because of its natural and historical value, Ohrid Lake is under the protection of UNESCO. There is also Lake Butrint which is a small tectonic lake. It is located in the National Park of Butrint. Albania has also a total of 13 islands. The majority of them are small in size with only two being larger than a square kilometer such as Sazan and Kunë.
With its coastline facing the Adriatic and Ionian seas, its highlands backed upon the elevated Balkan landmass, and the entire country lying at a latitude subject to a variety of weather patterns during the winter and summer seasons, Albania has a high number of climatic regions relative to its landmass. The coastal lowlands have typically Mediterranean climate; the highlands have a Mediterranean continental climate. In both the lowlands and the interior, the weather varies markedly from north to south. The lowlands have mild winters, averaging about 7 °C (45 °F). Summer temperatures average 24 °C (75 °F). In the southern lowlands, temperatures average about 5 °C (9 °F) higher throughout the year. The difference is greater than 5 °C (9 °F) during the summer and somewhat less during the winter.
Inland temperatures are affected more by differences in elevation than by latitude or any other factor. Low winter temperatures in the mountains are caused by the continental air mass that dominates the weather in south-eastern Europe. Northerly and northeasterly winds blow much of the time. Average summer temperatures are lower than in the coastal areas and much lower at higher elevations, but daily fluctuations are greater. Daytime maximum temperatures in the interior basins and river valleys are very high, but the nights are almost always cool. Average precipitation is heavy, a result of the convergence of the prevailing airflow from the Mediterranean Sea and the continental air mass.
Because they usually meet at the point where the terrain rises, the heaviest rain falls in the central uplands. Vertical currents initiated when the Mediterranean air is uplifted also cause frequent thunderstorms. Many of these storms are accompanied by high local winds and torrential downpours. When the continental air mass is weak, Mediterranean winds drop their moisture farther inland. When there is a dominant continental air mass, cold air spills onto the lowland areas, which occurs most frequently in the winter. Because the season's lower temperatures damage olive trees and citrus fruits, groves and orchards are restricted to sheltered places with southern and western exposures, even in areas with high average winter temperatures. Lowland rainfall averages from 1,000 millimeters (39.4 in) to more than 1,500 millimeters (59.1 in) annually, with the higher levels in the north. Nearly 95% of the rain falls in the winter.
Rainfall in the upland mountain ranges is heavier. Adequate records are not available, and estimates vary widely, but annual averages are probably about 1,800 millimeters (70.9 in) and are as high as 2,550 millimeters (100.4 in) in some northern areas. The western Albanian Alps (valley of Boga) are among the wettest areas in Europe, receiving some 3,100 mm (122.0 in) of rain annually. The seasonal variation is not quite as great in the coastal area. The higher inland mountains receive less precipitation than the intermediate uplands. Terrain differences cause wide local variations, but the seasonal distribution is the most consistent of any area. In 2009, an expedition from the University of Colorado discovered four small glaciers in the Cursed mountains in Northern Albania. The glaciers are at the relatively low level of 2,000 metres (6,600 ft), almost unique for such a southerly latitude.
Although a small country, Albania is distinguished for its rich biological diversity. The variation of geomorphology, climate and terrain create favorable conditions for a number of endemic and sub-endemic species with 27 endemic and 160 subendemic vascular plants present in the country. The total number of plants is over 3250 species, approximately 30% of the entire flora species found in Europe.
Over a third of the territory of Albania – about 10,000 square kilometres (3,861 square miles);– is forested and the country is very rich in flora. About 3,000 different species of plants grow in Albania, many of which are used for medicinal purposes. Phytogeographically, Albania belongs to the Boreal Kingdom, the Mediterranean Region and the Illyrian province of the Circumboreal Region. Coastal regions and lowlands have typical Mediterranean macchia vegetation, whereas oak forests and vegetation are found on higher elevations. Vast forests of black pine, beech and fir are found on higher mountains and alpine grasslands grow at elevations above 1,800 metres (5,900 feet).
According to the World Wide Fund for Nature and Digital Map of European Ecological Regions by the European Environment Agency, the territory of Albania can be subdivided into three ecoregions: the Illyrian deciduous forests, Pindus Mountains mixed forests and Dinaric Alpine mixed forests. The forests are home to a wide range of mammals, including wolves, bears, wild boars and chamois. Lynx, wildcats, pine martens and polecats are rare, but survive in some parts of the country. There are around 760 vertebrate species found so far in Albania. Among these there are over 350 bird species, 330 freshwater and marine fish and 80 mammal species. There are some 91 globally threatened species found within the country, among which the Dalmatian pelican, pygmy cormorant, and the European sea sturgeon. Rocky coastal regions in the south provide good habitats for the endangered Mediterranean monk seal. Some of the most significant bird species found in the country include the golden eagle – known as the national symbol of Albania – vulture species, capercaillie and numerous waterfowl. The Albanian forests still maintain significant communities of large mammals such as the brown bear, gray wolf, chamois and wild boar. The north and eastern mountains of the country are home to the last remaining Balkan lynx – a critically endangered population of the Eurasian lynx.
According to the Institute of Statistics (INSTAT) Census of 2011, the total population of Albania was approximately 2,821,977 with a low Fertility rate of 1.49 children born per woman. The last census, was conducted in 1989. The population of Albania declared the following ethnic affiliation: Albanians 2,312,356 (82.6% of the total), Greeks 24,243 (0.9%), Macedonians 5,512 (0.2%), Montenegrins 366 (0.01%), Aromanians 8,266 (0.30%), Romani 8,301 (0.3%), Balkan Egyptians 3,368 (0.1%), other ethnicities 2,644 (0.1%), no declared ethnicity 390,938 (14.0%), and not relevant 44,144 (1.6%).
The fall of the Communist regime in 1990, Albania was accompanied with massive migration. External migration was prohibited outright in Communist Albania while internal migration was quite limited, hence this was a new phenomenon. Between 1991 and 2004, roughly 900,000 people have migrated out of Albania, about 600,000 of them settling in Greece. Migration greatly affected Albania's internal population distribution. Population decreased mainly in the North and South of the country while it increased in Tirana and Durrës center districts. According to the Institute of Statistics (INSTAT) as of 1 January 2015, the population of Albania is 2,893,005.
Issues of ethnicity are a delicate topic and subject to debate. "Although official statistics have suggested that Albania is one of the most homogenous countries in the region (with an over 97 per cent Albanian majority) minority groups (such as Greeks, Macedonians, Montenegrins, Roma and Aromanians) have often questioned the official data, claiming a larger share in the country's population.
Albania recognizes almost three national minorities, Greeks, Macedonians and Montenegrins, and two cultural minorities: Aromanians and Romani people. Other Albanian minorities are Bulgarians, Gorani, Serbs, Balkan Egyptians, Bosniaks and Jews. Regarding the Greeks, "it is difficult to know how many Greeks there are in Albania. The Greek government, it is typically claimed, says that there are around 300,000 ethnic Greeks in Albania, but most western estimates are around 200,000 mark (although EEN puts the number at a probable 100,000)." The Albanian government puts the number at only 24,243." The CIA World Factbook estimates the Greek minority at 0.9% of the total population and the US State Department uses 1.17% for Greeks and 0.23% for other minorities. However, the latter questions the validity of the data about the Greek minority, due to the fact that measurements have been affected by boycott.
Macedonian and some Greek minority groups have sharply criticized Article 20 of the Census law, according to which a $1,000 fine will be imposed on anyone who will declare an ethnicity other than what is stated on his or her birth certificate. This is claimed to be an attempt to intimidate minorities into declaring Albanian ethnicity, according to them the Albanian government has stated that it will jail anyone who does not participate in the census or refuse to declare his or her ethnicity. Genc Pollo, the minister in charge has declared that: "Albanian citizens will be able to freely express their ethnic and religious affiliation and mother tongue. However, they are not forced to answer these sensitive questions". The amendments criticized do not include jailing or forced declaration of ethnicity or religion; only a fine is envisioned which can be overthrown by court.
Greek representatives form part of the Albanian parliament and the government has invited Albanian Greeks to register, as the only way to improve their status. On the other hand, nationalists, various intellectuals organizations and political parties in Albania have expressed their concern that the census might artificially increase the number of Greek minority, which might be then exploited by Greece to threaten Albania's territorial integrity.
About 53.4% of Albania's population living in cities. According the Institute of Statistics (INSTAT), the three largest counties account for half of the population. Over 1 million people lives in the Tirana and Durrës, making it the largest urban area in Albania. The capital Tirana, is one of largest cities in the Balkan Peninsula and ranks 7th with a population about 800,000. The second largest is the port city of Durrës, with a population of 201.110, followed by Vlorë, the largest city in southern Albania, with 141.513 inhabitants.
Albanian is the official language of the Republic of Albania. Its standard spoken and written form is revised and merged from the two main dialects, Gheg and Tosk, though it is notably based more on the Tosk dialect. The Shkumbin river is the rough dividing line between the two dialects. Also a dialect of Greek that preserves features now lost in standard modern Greek is spoken in areas inhabited by the Greek minority. Other languages spoken by ethnic minorities in Albania include Aromanian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Gorani, and Roma. Macedonian is official in the Pustec Municipality in East Albania.
Albanians are considered a polyglot nation and people. Due to immigration and past colonialism, Albanians generally speak more than 2 languages. English, Italian and Greek are by far the most widely spoken foreign languages, which are increasing due to migration return, and new Greek and Italian communities in the country. Greek is the second most-spoken language in the country, with two thirds of families having at least one member that speaks Greek. La Francophonie states 320,000 French speakers can be found in Albania. Other spoken languages include Serbian, Romanian, German, Turkish and Aromanian. Albanians in neighbouring Kosovo and Macedonia are often fluent in Albanian and Serbian, Turkish, Slavic Macedonian, and other former Yugoslav languages. In Italy, the Arbëresh language derives from the Tosk dialect (spoken in southern of Albania), and is spoken in Southern Italy in the regions of Calabria, Molise, Apulia, Basilicata, Campania, Abruzzi, and Sicily. All dialects of Arbëresh are closely related to each other but are not entirely mutually intelligible.
According to the 2011 population census, 2,765,610 or 98.767% of the population declared Albanian as their mother tongue (mother tongue is defined as the first or main language spoken at home during childhood).
According to the Institute of Statistics (INSTAT) Census of 2011, 58.79% of Albanians adhere to Islam, making it the largest religion in the country; Christianity is practiced by 17.06% of the population, and 24.29% of the total population is either non-religious, belongs to other religious groups, or are 'undeclared'. Both the Albanian Orthodox church and the Bektashi Sufi order refused to recognize the 2011 census results regarding faith, with the Orthodox claiming that 24% of the total population are Albanian Orthodox Christians rather than just 6.75%. Before World War II, 70% of the population were Muslims, 20% Eastern Orthodox, and 10% Roman Catholics. According to a 2010 survey, religion today plays an important role in the lives of only 39% of Albanians, and Albania is ranked among the least religious countries in the world. A 2012 Pew Research Center study found that 65% of Albanian Muslims are non-denominational Muslims.
Albania is one of the most ancient countries of Christianity. There are thought to have been about seventy Christian families in the port town of Durrës as early as the time of the Apostles. The Archbishopric of Durrës having been founded by the apostle Paul while preaching in Illyria and Epirus.
The Albanians first appeared in the historical record in Byzantine sources of the late 11th century. At this point, they were already fully Christianized. Islam came for the first time in the 9th century to the region which is known as Albania today. It later emerged as the majority religion during the centuries of Ottoman rule, though a significant Christian minority remained. After independence (1912) from the Ottoman Empire, the Albanian republican, monarchic and later Communist regimes followed a systematic policy of separating religion from official functions and cultural life. Albania never had an official state religion either as a republic or as a kingdom. In the 20th century, the clergy of all faiths was weakened under the monarchy, and ultimately eradicated during the 1950s and 1960s, under the state policy of obliterating all organized religion from Albanian territories.
The Communist regime that took control of Albania after World War II persecuted and suppressed religious observance and institutions and entirely banned religion to the point where Albania was officially declared to be the world's first atheist state. Religious freedom has returned to Albania since the regime's change in 1992. Albania joined the Organisation of the Islamic Conference in 1992, following the fall of the communist government, but will not be attending the 2014 conference due a dispute regarding the fact that its parliament never ratified the country's membership. Albanian Muslim populations (mainly secular and of the Sunni branch) are found throughout the country whereas Albanian Orthodox Christians as well as Bektashis are concentrated in the south and Roman Catholics are found in the north of the country.
The first recorded Albanian Protestant was Said Toptani, who traveled around Europe, and in 1853 returned to Tirana and preached Protestantism. He was arrested and imprisoned by the Ottoman authorities in 1864. Mainline evangelical Protestants date back to the work of Congregational and later Methodist missionaries and the work of the British and Foreign Bible Society in the 19th century. The Evangelical Alliance, which is known as VUSh, was founded in 1892. Today VUSh has about 160 member congregations from different Protestant denominations. VUSh organizes marches in Tirana including one against blood feuds in 2010. Bibles are provided by the Interconfessional Bible Society of Albania. The first full Albanian Bible to be printed was the Filipaj translation printed in 1990. Seventh-day Adventist Church, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and Jehovah's Witnesses also have a number of adherents in Albania.
Albania was the only country in Europe where Jewish population experienced growth during the Holocaust. After the mass emigration to Israel since the fall of Communist regime, only 200 Albanian Jews are left in the country today.
According to 2008 statistics from the religious communities in Albania, there are 1119 churches and 638 mosques in the country. The Roman Catholic mission declared 694 Catholic churches. The Christian Orthodox community, 425 Orthodox churches. The Muslim community, 568 mosques and 70 Bektashi tekkes.
Before the establishment of the People's Socialist Republic, Albania's illiteracy rate was as high as 85%. Schools were scarce between the World War I and World War II. When the People's Republic was established in 1945, the Party of Labour gave high priority to wiping out illiteracy. As part of a vast social campaign, anyone between the ages of 12 and 40 who could not read or write was mandated to attend classes to learn. By 1955, illiteracy was virtually eliminated among Albania's adult population. After the fall of communism in Albania, a reorganization plan was announced in 1990, that would extend the compulsory education program from eight to ten years. The following year, major economic and political crisis in Albania, and the ensuing breakdown of public order, plunged the school system into chaos. Widespread vandalism and extreme shortages of textbooks and supplies had a devastating effect on school operations, prompting Italy and other countries to provide material assistance. In the late 1990, many schools were rebuilt or reconstructed, to improve learning conditions. Most of the improvements have happened in the larger cities of the country especially in Tirana, Durrës and Shkodër.
Education for primary, secondary, and tertiary levels is mostly supported by the state. The academic year is much similar to that as in the United States, clases starts in September or October and end in June or July. Albanian is the language of instruction in all public schools. Education takes place in three stages: primary, secondary, and pre-university education. The primary education is compulsory from grade 1 to 9. Students must pass graduation exams at the end of the 9th grade in order to continue their education. After the primary school, general education is provided at secondary schools. Students get prepared for the Matura examination, allowing them to obtain their matura diploma, which grants admission to higher education. The country follows the Bologna model in accordance with the 2007 Law on Higher Education. These institutions can be public or private, and may offer one, two or three levels of higher education depending on the institution.
The School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) of Albania is 16 years. The nation ranks 25th out of 167 countries. In 2015, the overall literacy rate in Albania was 98.7%; the male literacy rate was 99.2% and female literacy rate was 98.3%. With large population movements in the 1990s to urban areas, the provision of education has undergone transformation as well.
Health care in Albania is used to be run by the Ministry of Health. It has been in a steep decline since the fall of socialism in the country, but a process of modernization has been taking place since 2000. In the 2000s, there were 51 hospitals in the country, including a military hospital and specialist facilities. The most common causes of death are circulatory diseases followed by cancerous illnesses. Demographic and Health Surveys completed a survey in April 2009, detailing various health statistics in Albania, including male circumcision, abortion and more. Albania has successfully eradicated diseases such as malaria.
The life expectancy is estimated at 77,8 years, ranking 37th worldwide, and outperforming a number of European Union countries, such as Slovenia, Estonia, Poland, Hungary and Slovakia. In 2000, average life expectancy was estimated at 74 years, compared to 38 years at the end of World War II. Albania's infant mortality rate, estimated at 20 per 1,000 live births in 2000, has also declined over the years since the high rate of 151 per 1,000 live births in 1960. There were 69,802 births in 1999 and the fertility rate in 1999 was 2.5 while the maternal mortality rate was 65 per 100,000 live births in 1993. In addition, in 1997, Albania had high immunization rates for children up to one year old: tuberculosis at 94%; diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus, 99%; measles, 95%; and polio, 99.5%. In 1996, the incidence of tuberculosis was 23 in 100,000 people. In 1995 there were two reported cases of AIDS and seven cases in 1996. In 2000 the number of people living with HIV/AIDS was estimated at less than 100. The leading causes of death are cardiovascular disease, trauma, cancer, and respiratory disease.
The Albanian Republic is a parliamentary democracy established under a constitution renewed in 1998. Elections are held every four years to the 140-seat unicameral Assembly. The head of state is the President of the Albanian Republic. The President (Presidenti) is elected to a 5-year term by the National Assembly in a secret ballot, requiring a 50%+1 majority of the votes of all deputies. The current President of the nation is Bujar Nishani, elected in July 2012. The President has the power to guarantee observation of the constitution and all laws, act as commander in chief of the armed forces, exercise the duties of the parliament, when the parliament is not in session, and appoint the Prime Minister. Executive power rests with the Cabinet.
The Prime Minister (Kryeministri) serves as the head of the government and is appointed by the president. The head of government exercises executive power of the country. Ministers are nominated as well as by the President on the basis of the Prime Minister's recommendation. The parliament must give final approval of the composition of the Council. The prime minister is responsible for carrying out both foreign and domestic policies. It directs and controls the activities of the ministries and other state organs.
The Parliament of Albania (Kuvendi i Republikës së Shqipërisë) is the lawmaking body in Albania. There are 140 deputies in the parliament, which are elected through a party-list proportional representation system. The President of the Parliament (or Chairperson), who has two deputies, chairs the parliament. There are 15 permanent commissions, or committees. Parliamentary elections are held at least every four years. The parliament has the power to decide the direction of domestic and foreign policy; approve or amend the constitution; declare war on another state; ratify or annul international treaties; elect the President of the Republic, the Supreme Court, and the Attorney General and his or her deputies; and control the activity of state radio and television, state news agency and other official information media.
Albania has a multi-party system. The last Albanian parliamentary election took place on 23 June 2013. This parliamentary election was the 8th since the 1991 first multi-party election. The result was a victory for the Alliance for a European Albania led by the Socialist Party (PS) and its leader Edi Rama. The 140 members of National Assembly (Kuvendi i Shqipërisë) were elected in twelve multi-member constituencies analogous to the country's twelve counties. The 2017 election will be held on 18 June 2017.
Since the collapse of Communism in 1990, Albania has extended its responsibilities and position in European and international affairs, supporting and establishing friendly relations with other nations around the world. Foreign relations are conducted through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Tirana. The current minister is Ditmir Bushati.
The main objectives of the Albanian foreign policy are; the Accession of Albania to the European Union, the International recognition of Kosovo, the recognition of Expulsion of Cham Albanians, helping and protecting of the rights the Albanians in Montenegro, Macedonia, Greece, southern Serbia, Italy and the Albanian diaspora. Albania has a network of 40 foreign embassies and 46 diplomatic missions abroad. Albania was among the first eastern European countries to join the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Major Albanian politicians considered admission to NATO as a top priority for the country. Since 1992, it has been extensively engaged with NATO, and has maintained its position as a stability factor and a strong ally of the United States and European Union in the troubled and divided region of the Balkans. At the April 2008 summit in Bucharest, NATO agreed to the accession of Albania and Croatia. One year later in April 2009, both countries joined the alliance.
Albania is a member of numerous international organizations, including the United Nations, Council of Europe, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), International Organization for Migration, World Health Organization (WHO), Union for the Mediterranean, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization and La Francophonie.
The judicial system of Albania is a civil law system divided between courts with regular civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts. Major institutions of the branch include the Supreme Court of Albania (Gjykata e Lartë), the Constitutional Court of Albania (Gjykata Kushtetuese), the Court of Appeal of Albania (Gjykatat e Apelit), the Administrative Court of Albania (Gjykata Administrative) and all located in the capital city of Tirana.
Law enforcement in Albania is primarily the responsibility of the Albanian Police (Policia e Shtetit). It is the main and largest state law enforcement agency in the country. It carries nearly all general police duties. In 2014, the Ministry of Internal Affairs started a modernization process of the Albanian police, to modernize it's equipment and methods. The first step was the acquisition of new police vans and cruisers, the next one was the installment of body cameras on police officers to improve their service and to be analysed after an operation. Uniforms of the every uniformed department of the police were overhauled and the logo was changed also. The agency are organised under the authority of the Ministry of Internal Affairs which consist primarily of the national police force. RENEA is the main counter-terrorist and critical incident response unit. The responsibilities of the unit are rescue operations, hostage situations, counter-terrorism and response to particularly violent forms of crime.
The Albanian Armed Forces (Forcat e Armatosura të Shqipërisë) are the military and paramilitary forces of Albania, under the president as supreme commander. The armed forces consist the General staff (Shtabi i Përgjithshëm), the Albanian Land Force (Forca Tokësore), the Albanian Air Force (Forca Ajrore) and the Albanian Naval Force (Forca Detare). The Military were first formed after the country declared its independence in 1912. Albania reduced the number of active troops from 65,000 in 1988 to 14,500 in 2009. The military now consists mainly of a small fleet of aircraft and sea vessels. In the 1990s, the country scrapped enormous amounts of obsolete hardware from China, such as tanks and SAM systems.
Increasing the military budget was one of the most important conditions for NATO integration. Military spending has generally been lower than 1.5% since 1996, only to peak in 2009 at 2% and fall again to 1.5%. Since February 2008, Albania has participated officially in NATO's Operation Active Endeavor in the Mediterranean Sea. It was invited to join NATO on 3 April 2008, and it became a full member on 2 April 2009. The Global Peace Index ranked Albania 54th out of 163 countries in 2016.
Albania is divided into 12 administrative counties (Qark or Prefekturë). Since June 2015, these counties are divided into 61 municipalities (Bashkia). These counties were further divided in 36 districts (Rrethe), that became defunct in 2000. The government introduced a new administrative division to be implemented in 2015, whereby municipalities are reduced to 61 in total, while rural ones called Komuna are abolished. The defunct municipalities will be known as Neighborhoods or Villages (Lagje or Fshat). There are overall 2980 villages (or communities) in all Albania, formerly known as localities (lokalitete). The municipalities are the first level of local governance, responsible for local needs and law enforcement. As part of the reform, major town centers in Albania are being physically redesigned and façades painted to reflect a more Mediterranean look.
Albania's transition from a socialist centrally planned economy to a capitalist mixed economy has been largely successful. "Formal non-agricultural employment in the private sector more than doubled between 1999 and 2013," notes the World Bank, with much of this expansion powered by foreign investment. With 14.7% (2016) Albania has the 4th lowest unemployment rate in the Balkans. Albania's largest trading partners are Italy, Greece, China, Spain, Kosovo and the United States.
In 2012, Albania's GDP per capita (expressed in purchasing power parity) stood at 30% of the EU average, while AIC (Actual Individual Consumption) was 35%. Albania, Cyprus, and Poland were the only countries in Europe to record an economic growth in the first quarter of 2010. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) predicted 2.6% growth for Albania in 2010 and 3.2% in 2011.
Tirana and Durrës build both the financial and business heart of the country. However, Tirana is the major centre for trade, real estate, banking and finance, retailing, transportation, new media as well as traditional media, advertising, legal services, accountancy, insurance, and fashion. Many roads and railways pass through Tirana and Durrës connecting the northern part of the country to the south and the west with the east.
Well-known companies include the petroleum Taçi Oil, Albpetrol, ARMO and Kastrati, the mineral AlbChrome, cement Antea, the investment BALFIN Group (among the largest in southeastern Europe) and the technology Albtelecom, Vodafone, Telekom Albania and more other companies. According to the Forbes as of December 2016, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was growing at 2.8%. The country had a trade balance of -9.7% and unemployment rate of 14.7%. The Foreign direct investment has increased significantly in recent years as the government has embarked on an ambitious program to improve the business climate through fiscal and legislative reforms. The Government is focused on the simplification of licensing requirements and tax codes, and it entered into a new arrangement with the International Monetary Fund for additional financial and technical support.
The Economy is expected to expand in the near term, driven by a recovery in consumption and robust investments. Growth is projected to be 3.2% in 2016, 3.5% in 2017, and 3.8% in 2018. The medium-term outlook depends on the pace and depth of the structural reforms and on additional fiscal consolidation measures to reduce debt, sustained reforms in the energy and financial sectors, improvements in the management of public investments, and the recently approved reform of the judiciary, which has implications for the investment climate and credit growth."
Agriculture in the country is based on small to medium-sized family-owned dispersed units. It remains a significant sector of the Economy of Albania. It employs 47.8% of the population, and about 24.31% of the land is used for agricultural purposes. As part of the pre-accession process of Albania to the European Union, farmers are being aided through IPA 2011 funds to improve Albanian agriculture standards. Albania produces significant amounts of tobacco, olives (17th), wheat, maize, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, sugar beets, grapes (36th), meat, honey, dairy products, and traditional medicine and aromatic plants, figs (11th) and sour cherries (22th largest producer in the World). Albania's proximity to the Ionian Sea and the Adriatic Sea give the underdeveloped fishing industry great potential. The World Bank and European Community economists report that, Albania's fishing industry has good potential to generate export earnings because prices in the nearby Greek and Italian markets are many times higher than those in the Albanian market. The fish available off the coasts of Albania are carp, trout, sea bream, mussels, and crustaceans.
Albania has one of Europe's longest histories of viticulture. The today's region was one of the few places where vine was naturally grown during the ice age. The oldest found seeds in the region are 4,000 to 6,000 years old. In 2009, the nation produced an estimated 17,500 tonnes of wine During the communism, the production area expanded to some 20,000 hectares (49,000 acres).
The secondary sector of Albania have undergone many changes and diversification, since the collapse of the communist regime in the country. It is very diversified, from electronics, manufacturing, textiles, to food, cement, mining, and energy. The Antea Cement plant in Fushë-Krujë is considered as one of the largest industrial greenfield investments in the country. Albanian oil and gas is represents of the most promising albeit strictly regulated sectors of its economy. Albania has the second largest oil deposits in the Balkan peninsula after Romania, and the largest oil reserves in Europe. The Albpetrol company is owned by the Albanian state and monitors the state petroleum agreements in the country. The textile industry has seen an extensive expansion by approaching companies from the European Union (EU) in Albania. According to the Institute of Statistics (INSTAT) as of 2016[update], the textile production marked an annual growth of 5,3% and an annual turnover of around 1,5 billion euros.
Albania is a significant minerals producer and is ranked among the world's leading chromium producers and exporters. The nation is also a notable producer of copper, nickel and coal. The Batra mine, Bulqizë mine, and Thekna mine are among the most recognised Albanian mines that are still in operation.
The service industry represents the fastest growing sector of the Albanian economy. A significant part of Albania's national income derives from tourism. In 2014, it directly accounted for 6% of GDP, though including indirect contributions pushes the proportion to just over 20%. Albania welcomed around 4.2 million visitors in 2012, mostly from neighbouring countries and the European Union. In 2011, Albania was recommended as a top travel destination, by Lonely Planet. In 2014, Albania was nominated number 4 global touristic destination by the New York Times. The number of tourists has increased by 20% for 2014 as well. With a total of 3.8 million visitors, Albania is the 25th (out of 47 countries) most visited country in Europe.
The bulk of the tourist industry is concentrated along the Adriatic and the Ionian Sea coast. The latter has the most beautiful and pristine beaches, and is often called the Albanian Riviera. The Albanian coastline has a considerable length of 360 kilometres (220 miles). The coast has a particular character because it is rich in varieties of sandy beaches, capes, coves, covered bays, lagoons, small gravel beaches, sea caves and others.
Some parts of this seaside are very clean ecologically, which represent in this prospective unexplored areas, very rare in Mediterranean area. The Albanian Alps, part of the Prokletije or Accursed Mountains range in Northern Albania bearing the highest mountain peak. The southernmost glaciers in Europe were recently discovered in the Albanian part of the range. The most beautiful mountainous regions that can be easily visited by tourists are Dajti Mountain, Thethi, Tropojë, Voskopoja, Valbona, Kelmend, Prespa, Lake Koman, Dukat and Shkrel.
The increase in foreign visitors has been dramatic. Albania had only 500,000 visitors in 2005, while in 2012 had an estimated 4.2 million – an increase of 740% in only 7 years. Tourism in the summer of 2015 increased by 25 percent in contrast the previous year, accouring to the country's tourism agency. A USAid agency report indicated that the direct contribution of tourism is becoming a significant part of the country's Gross Domestic Product, a full 4.8 percent of it in 2013. The total contribution to the GDP was about 17 percent including wider effects from investment and the supply chain. This is expected to increase in the future.
After the fall of communism in Albania, the transportation has undergone significant changes in the past two decades, vastly modernizing the country's infrastructure. Improvements to the road infrastructure, urban transport, and air travel have all led to a vast improvement in transportation.
Currently, there are three main motorways in Albania: the dual carriageway connecting Durrës with Vlorë, the A1 Motorway, and the A3 Motorway. The A1 Motorway connects the port city of Durrës on the Adriatic Sea to Kosovos capital Pristina. Near future, the motorway will link with the Pan-European Corridor X near Niš in Serbia. The project was the biggest and most expensive infrastructure road project ever undertaken in the country. Two additional highways are currently under construction: the A3 Motorway will connect Tirana with the Pan-European Corridor VIII, which will link Albania with the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria to the east of the Balkans, and the north-south highway, which corresponds to the Albanian side of the Adriatic–Ionian motorway, a larger regional highway connecting Croatia with Greece along the Adriatic and Ionian coasts. When all three corridors are completed Albania will have an estimated 759 kilometers of highway linking it with all its neighboring countries: Kosovo, the Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro and Greece.
The major Albanian port is the Port of Durrës. As of 2014[update], the port ranks as one of the largest passenger ports in Albania and the Adriatic Sea, with annual passenger volume of approximately 1.5 million. Passenger transport mainly takes place with Italy and Croatia. Albania's main seaports are Durrës, Vlorë, Sarandë, and Shëngjin.
Albania's only international airport is the Tirana International Airport Nënë Tereza. It is the only port of entry for air travelers to the country. The airport offers international connections among many major European cities. In 2016, the Government of Albania reached an agreement with Tirana International Airport on ending its monopoly on flights, opening the way for an airport at Kukës in the north to open.
The Railways in Albania are administered by the national railway company Hekurudha Shqiptare. The railway system was extensively promoted by the totalitarian communist regime of dictator Enver Hoxha, during which time the use of private transport was effectively prohibited. Since the collapse of the former regime, there has been a considerable increase in car ownership and bus usage. The new railway line from the capital Tirana via Rinas (Tirana International Airport) to the port city of Durrës, is currently planned to be built. The location of this railway, as the most populated urban areas in Albania, makes it an important economic development project. The opening will take place in 2019.
Science and technology
Until 1990, after the fall of Communism in Albania, the country was one of the world's most isolated and controlled countries, and installation and maintenance of a modern system of international and domestic telecommunications was precluded. Callers previously needed operator assistance even to make domestic long-distance calls. Internet in Albania is fast and inexpensive in comparison to the rest of Europe. For example, an ISP known as ABcom, offers a 30mbit download package for 306.999 lekë ($2.39579 USD) per month. In the mobile network industry, providers such as Vodafone, Telekom, Albanian Mobile Communications and Eagle Mobile provide both 3G and 4G data plans. From 1993 human resources in sciences and technology have drastically decreased. Various surveys show that during 1991–2005, approximately 50% of the professors and research scientists of the universities and science institutions in the country have emigrated.
However, in 2009 the government approved the "National Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation in Albania" covering the period 2009–15. It aims to triple public spending on research and development (R&D) to 0.6% of GDP and augment the share of gross domestic expenditure on R&D from foreign sources, including via the European Union's Framework Programmes for Research, to the point where it covers 40% of research spending, among others.
Energy in Albania is dependent on Hydroelectricity. Albania is the largest producer of Hydroelectricity in the World, with a percentage of 100%. It is host to five Hydroelectric power stations and a plant. Almost four Hydroelectric power stations: Fierza, Koman, Skavica and Vau i Dejës are situated on the Drin river, the longest in the country with a total length of 335 km (208 mi). Its location, plays a significant role for the production of electricity in Albania.
Albania and Croatia have discussed the possibility of jointly building a nuclear power plant at Lake Shkoder, close to the border with Montenegro, a plan that has gathered criticism from Montenegro due to seismicity in the area. In February 2009 Italian company Enel announced plans to build an 800 MW coal-fired power plant in Albania, to diversify electricity sources.
The Albanian Devoll Hydropower company, owned and operated by Norwegian Statkraft, is currently building two hydroelectricity plants on the Devoll river near Banjë and Moglicë. The Moglicë Hydro Power Plant is anticipated to be the world's highest of its kind upon completion. The Devoll Hydropower Project is one of the largest hydropower investments in the Balkan peninsula. The two plants are expected to be completed in 2016 and 2018. After its completion, it will produce 729 GWh annually, increasing the electricity production in Albania by almost 17%.
Due to its long history, Albania is home to many valuable cultural and historical landmarks. From antiquity to the modern period, major cities in the country have evolved from within the castle to include dwellings, religious, and commercial structures, with constant redesigning of town squares and evolution of building techniques.
The country hosts two UNESCO World Heritage Sites such as the ancient city of Butrint south of Sarandë and the medieval Historic Centres of Berat and Gjirokastër. Five other landmarks, such as the Gashi and Rrajca River (part of Shebenik Jabllanice National Park), the Roman Amphitheatre of Durrës, the Royal Illyrian Tombs of Selca e Poshtme, the Natural and Cultural Heritage of the Ohrid Region and the ancient city of Apollonia are on the tentative list.
Many ancient architectural treasures from the Illyrians such as Byllis, Amantia, Phoenice and Shkodër can be found in Albania. Due to the long period of rule of the Byzantine Empire, Albania is home to many Byzantine churches, castles, and monasteries. Albania also has many surviving monuments from the five centuries of Ottoman rule. In the 19th century, Albanian medieval towns underwent urban transformations by Austro-Hungarian and Italian architects, giving them the appearance of European cities. During the Communism, many socialist-styled complexes, wide roads, and factories were constructed, while town squares were redesigned and a number of historic buildings demolished.
The Albanian folk music falls into two major groups, the northern Ghegs and southern Labs and Tosks. The northern and southern traditions are contrasted by the rugged and heroic tone of the north and the relaxed form of the south. The Ghegs are known for a distinctive variety of sung epic poetry. Many of the songs are about the ancient history of the Albanians but also the Albanian medieval hero Skanderbeg, who led the struggle against the Turks, and the constant Albanian themes of honour, hospitality, treachery and revenge. Tosk music is soft and gentle, and polyphonic in nature. South Albania is also known for funeral laments with a chorus and one to two soloists with overlapping, mournful voices. Its instrumental music includes the sedate kaba, an ensemble-driven by a clarinet or violin alongside accordions and lahutës. The kaba is an improvised and melancholic style with melodies that Kim Burton describes as "both fresh and ancient", "ornamented with swoops, glides and growls of an almost vocal quality", exemplifying the "combination of passion with restraint that is the hallmark of Albanian culture."
These disparate styles are unified by the intensity that both performers and listeners give to their music as a medium for patriotic expression and as a vehicle carrying the narrative of oral history, as well as certain characteristics like the use of rhythms such as 3/8, 5/8 and 10/8. The first compilation of Albanian folk music was made by two Himariots song artists such as Neço Muka and Koço Çakali in 1929 and 1931 in Paris, during their interpretations with the Albanian song diva Tefta Tashko Koço. Several gramophone compilations were recorded in those years by this genial trio of Albanian artists which eventually led to the recognition of the Himariot Isopolyphonic Music as an UNESCO World Heritage.
The contemporary music artists Ermonela Jaho, Inva Mula, Bebe Rexha and Era Istrefi, have achieved international recognition for their music. Sporano Ermonela Jaho has been described by The Economist as "the world’s most acclaimed soprano". One widely recognised musician from Elbasan is Saimir Pirgu, an Albanian international opera singer. He was nominated for the 2017 Grammy Award in the category of Best Opera Recording.
Albania's visual arts tradition has been shaped by the many cultures that have flourished on its territory. The Ottoman Empire ruled over Albania for nearly five centuries, which greatly affected the country's artwork and artistic forms. After Albania's joining with the Ottoman Empire in 1478, Ottoman influenced art forms such as mosaics and mural paintings became prevalent, and no real artistic change occurred until Albanian Liberation in 1912.
Following mosaics and murals from antiquity and the Middle Ages, the first paintings were icons Byzantine Orthodox tradition. Albanian earliest icons date from the late thirteenth century and generally estimated that their artistic peak reached in the eighteenth century. Among the most prominent representatives of the Albanian iconographic art were Onufri and David Selenica. The museums of Berat, Korçë and Tirana houses good collections remaining icons. By the end of the Ottoman period, the painting was limited mostly to folk art and ornate mosques. Paintings and sculpture arose in the first half of the twentieth century and reached a modest peak in the 1930s and 1940s, when the first organized art exhibitions at national level. Contemporary Albanian artwork captures the struggle of everyday Albanians, however new artists are utilizing different artistic styles to convey this message. Albanian artists continue to move art forward, while their art still remains distinctively Albanian in content. Though among Albanian artist post-modernism was fairly recently introduced, there is a number of artists and works known internationally. Among most famous Albanian post-modernist are considered Anri Sala, Sislej Xhafa, and Helidon Gjergji.
The Albanian language comprises its own branch of the Indo-European language family. The language is considered an isolate within the Indo-European. The only other languages that are the sole surviving member of a branch of Indo-European are Armenian and Greek. It was proved to be an Indo-European language in 1854 by the German philologist Franz Bopp.
Albanian is often held to be related to the Illyrian languages, a language spoken in the Balkans during classical times. Scholars argue that Albanian derives from Illyrian while some others claim that it derives from Daco-Thracian. (Illyrian and Daco-Thracian, however, might have been closely related languages; see Thraco-Illyrian.)
The cultural renaissance was first of all expressed through the development of the Albanian language in the area of church texts and publications, mainly of the Catholic region in the northern of Albania, but also of the Orthodox in the south. The Protestant reforms invigorated hopes for the development of the local language and literary tradition, when cleric Gjon Buzuku brought into the Albanian language the Catholic liturgy, trying to do for the Albanian language, what Martin Luther did for the German language.
Meshari (The Missal) written by Gjon Buzuku was published in 1555 and is considered as one of the first literary work of written Albanian during the Middle Ages. The refined level of the language and the stabilised orthography must be the result of an earlier tradition of written Albanian, a tradition that is not well understood. However, there is some fragmented evidence, pre-dating Buzuku, which indicates that Albanian was written from at least the 14th century. The earliest evidence dates from 1332 AD with a Latin report from the French Dominican Guillelmus Adae, Archbishop of Antivari, who wrote that Albanians used Latin letters in their books although their language was quite different from Latin. Other significant examples include: a baptism formula (Unte paghesont premenit Atit et Birit et spertit senit) from 1462, written in Albanian within a Latin text by the Bishop of Durrës, Pal Engjëlli; a glossary of Albanian words of 1497 by Arnold von Harff, a German who had travelled through Albania, and a 15th-century fragment of the Bible from the Gospel of Matthew, also in Albanian, but written in Greek letters.
Albanian writings from these centuries must not have been religious texts only, but historical chronicles too. They are mentioned by the humanist Marin Barleti, who in his book Siege of Shkodër (Rrethimi i Shkodrës) from 1504, confirms that he leafed through such chronicles written in the language of the people (in vernacula lingua) as well as his famous biography of Skanderbeg Historia de vita et gestis Scanderbegi Epirotarum principis (History of Skanderbeg) from 1508. The History of Skanderbeg is still the foundation of Skanderbeg studies and is considered an Albanian cultural treasure, vital to the formation of Albanian national self-consciousness.
During the 16th and the 17th centuries, the catechism (E mbësuame krishterë) (Christian Teachings) from 1592 written by Lekë Matrënga, (Doktrina e krishterë) (The Christian Doctrine) from 1618 and (Rituale romanum) 1621 by Pjetër Budi, the first writer of original Albanian prose and poetry, an apology for George Castriot (1636) by Frang Bardhi, who also published a dictionary and folklore creations, the theological-philosophical treaty Cuneus Prophetarum (The Band of Prophets) (1685) by Pjetër Bogdani, the most universal personality of Albanian Middle Ages, were published in Albanian. The most famous Albanian writer in the 20th and 21th century is probably Ismail Kadare. He has been mentioned as a possible recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature several times.
Albanian mythology consist of myths, legends, folks, fairy tales and gods of the Albanian people. Many characters in its mythology are included in the Songs of the Frontier Warriors (Albanian: Këngë Kreshnikësh or Cikli i Kreshnikëve). The Albanian mythology is divided into two major groups such as legends of metamorphosis and historical legends. The Albanian mythology has its origin to the ancient Illyrians, that inhabited the modern area of Albania during the classical time. Some of the legends, songs and characters include Bardha, Baloz, E Bukura e Dheut, E Bukura e Qiellit, En, Perëndi, Prende, Tomor and Zana e malit.
Albanian folk tales, were first recorded in the middle of the 19th century by scholars including Johann Georg von Hahn, Karl H. Reinhold, Giuseppe Pitrè and other scholars among them well-known Indo-European linguists such as Auguste Dozon, Jan Jarnik, Gustav Meyer, Holger Pedersen, Gustav Weigand and August Leskien.
Albania's recorded history of clothing goes back to the classical times. The traditional clothing includes more than 200 different kinds of clothings in all Albania and all Albanian-speaking territories (including Arbëreshë, Arvanites and Arbanasi). Almost each cultural and geographical region has its own specific variety of costume that vary in style, material, color, shape, detail and form. It is one of the factors that has differentiated this nation from other European countries, dating back to the Illyrian period. The dress is often decorated with symbolic elements of Illyrian antique pagan origin, like suns, eagles, moons, stars, and snakes. Presently, the national costumes are most often worn with connection to special events and celebrations, mostly at ethnic festivals, religious holidays, weddings, and by dancing groups. Some conservative old men and women mainly from the high Northern as well as Southern Lands and wear traditional clothing in their daily lives.
The clothing was made mainly of products from the local agriculture and livestock such as leather, wool, linen, hemp fiber and silk. Today, the Albanian traditional textiles are still embroidered in very claborate ancient patterns. Among the most important parts of clothing includes the Qeleshe (Plis), the Albanian hat, the Qylafë, the Fustanella, the Xhubleta, the Xhamadan, the Brez, the Çorape, the Opinga and others.
The Cuisine of Albania – as with most Mediterranean and Balkan nations – is strongly influenced by its long history. At different times, the territory which is now Albania has been claimed or occupied by Ancient Greece, Romans, Byzantine and the Ottoman Turks and each group has left its mark on Albanian cuisine.
The main meal of Albanians is the midday meal, which is usually accompanied by a salad of fresh vegetables such as tomatoes, cucumbers, green peppers and olives with olive oil, vinegar and salt. It also includes a main dish of vegetables and meat. Though it is used in several dishes, pumpkins are more commonly displayed and traditionally given as gifts throughout Albania, especially in the region of Berat. Seafood specialties are also common in the coastal cities of Durrës, Sarandë and Vlorë. In high elevation localities, smoked meat and pickled preserves are common.
The history of Cinema in Albania dates back to 1911 and 1912 with the first showings of foreign films and few documentaries in the pre-war and inter-war period. The first public showing to occur in Albania was a little-known title, Paddy the Reliable, a comical story. The publication of foreign films began in the cities of Shkodër and Korçë. The first Albanian films were mostly documentaries; the first was about the Monastir Congress that sanctioned the Albanian alphabet in 1908. During the communism in the country, the Albanian Film Institute that later became known as Kinostudio Shqipëria e Re was founded with Soviet assistance, focusing mostly on propaganda of wartime struggles. By 1990, about 200 movies had been produced, and Albania had over 450 theaters. With the economic transition after the collapse of communism in the 1990s, the Kinostudio was broken up and privatised. A new National Center of Cinematography was established, while cities built modern cinema theatres showing mostly American movies.
After 1945, the communist government founded the Kinostudio Shqipëria e Re in 1952. This was followed by the first Albanian epic film, Skënderbeu, a cooperation with Soviet artists chronicling the life and fight of the Albanian national hero Skanderbeg. The film was awarded from the Cannes Film Festival. Notable Albanian film directors include Andamion Murataj, Besim Sahatçiu, Xhanfize Keko, Dhimitër Anagnosti, Kujtim Çashku, Luljeta Hoxha, Saim Kokona, Saimir Kumbaro, Kristaq Mitro, Leon Qafzezi and Gjergj Xhuvani. Famous actors in Albania: Nik Xhelilaj, Klement Tinaj, Masiela Lusha, Blerim Destani, Aleksandër Moisiu, Tinka Kurti, Pjetër Malota, Sandër Prosi and Margarita Xhepa.
The Tirana International Film Festival was established in 2003 and has become the premier and largest film festival in the country as well as in the Balkans. Durrës hosts the International Film Summerfest of Durrës, the second largest international film festival in the country which takes place every year in late August or early September in Durrës Amphitheatre.
There are also internationally renowned actors in the Albanian diaspora, such as the Albanian-Americans Eliza Dushku, Jim and John Belushi, Kosovo-Albanians Bekim Fehmiu and Arta Dobroshi and Turkish-Albanian Barish Arduç.
Albania participated at the Olympic Games in 1972 for the first time. The country made their Winter Olympic Games debut in 2006. Albania missed the next four games, two of them due to the 1980 and 1984 boycotts, but returned for the 1992 games in Barcelona. Since then, Albania have participated in all games. Albania normally competes in events that include swimming, athletics, weightlifting, shooting and wrestling. The country have been represented by the National Olympic Committee of Albania since 1972. The nation has participated at the Mediterranean Games since the games of 1987 in Syria. The Albanian athletes have won a total of 43 (8 gold, 17 silver and 18 bronze) medals from 1987 to 2013.
Popular sports in Albania include Football, Weightlifting, Basketball, Volleyball, Tennis, Swimming, Rugby, and Gymnastics. Football is by far the most popular sport in Albania. It is governed by the Football Association of Albania (Albanian: Federata Shqiptare e Futbollit, F.SH.F.), which was created in 1930 and has membership in FIFA and UEFA. Football arrived in Albania early in the 20th century when the inhabitants of the northern city of Shkodër were surprised to see a strange game being played by students at a Christian mission.
The Albania national football team, ranking 51th in the World in 2017 (highest 22nd in August 22, 2015) have won the 1946 Balkan Cup and the Malta Rothmans International Tournament 2000, but had never participated in any major UEFA or FIFA tournament, until UEFA Euro 2016, Albania's first ever appearance at the continental tournament and at a major men's football tournament. Albania scored their first ever goal in a major tournament and secured their first ever win in European Championship when they beat Romania by 1–0 in a UEFA Euro 2016 match on 19 June 2016. The most successful football clubs in the country are Skënderbeu, KF Tirana, Dinamo Tirana, Partizani and Vllaznia.
Weightlifting is one of the most successful individual sport for the Albanians, with the national team winning medals at the European Weightlifting Championships and the rest international competitions. Albanian weightlifters have won a total of 16 medals at the European Championships with 1 of them being gold, 7 silver and 8 bronze. In the World Weightlifting Championships, the Albanian weightlifting team has won in 1972 a gold in 2002 a silver and in 2011 a bronze medal.
Since antiquity, Albanians have established communities in many regions throughout southern Europe. The modern Albanian diaspora was formed largely in the 15th century, when many Albanians emigrated to southern Italy, especially in Sicily and Calabria also to Greece, to escape either various socio-political difficulties and the Ottoman conquest. Other destinations includes Turkey, United States, Argentina and Chile. After the fall of communism in 1991, many Albanians have migrated out of Albania to Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Scandinavia, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
Notable people of Albanian origin includes Mother Teresa, Ferid Murad, Rita Ora, Bebe Rexha, Dua Lipa, Tony Dovolani, Fadil Berisha, Shkodran Mustafi, Granit Xhaka, Xherdan Shaqiri, Mateo Musacchio, Ernesto Sabato, Cecilia Bolocco and many others. (See also: List of Albanians)
RTSH is Albania's public broadcaster founded in 1938 as Radio Tirana. Almost 4 regional radio stations serve in the four extremities of Albania. The international service broadcasts radio programmes in Albanian and seven other languages via medium wave (AM) and short wave (SW). The international service has used the theme from the song "Keputa një gjethe dafine" as its signature tune. The international television service via satellite was launched since 1993 and aims at Albanian communities in Kosovo, Serbia, Macedonia, Montenegro and northern Greece, plus the Albanian diaspora in the rest of Europe. According to the Albanian Media Authority, Albania has an estimated 257 media outlets, including 66 radio stations and 67 television stations, with three national, 62 local and more than 50 cable TV stations. In Llast years, Albania has organized several shows as a part of worldwide series like Dancing with the Stars, Big Brother, Got Talent, The Voice, and X Factor.
The following are international rankings of Albania, including those measuring life quality, health care quality, stability, press freedom, and income.
Index Rank Countries reviewed Literacy Rate 2011 6 183 Ease of Protecting Minority Investors 2015 8 128 Trade Freedom Index 2016 10 179 ILGA-Europe LGBT rights 2015 19 50 Fiscal Freedom Index 2016 35 179 Life Expectancy 2015 37 190 Monetary Freedom Index 2016 49 181 Social Progress Index 2015 52 150 Global Peace Index 2015 52 163 Fragile States Index 2016 54 178 Inequality adjusted Human Development Index 2015 55 151 Ease of doing Business Index 2017 58 190
- Outline of Albania
- Index of Albania-related articles
- Bibliography of Albania
- Albania – Wikipedia book
- Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo has been recognised as an independent state by 108 out of 193 United Nations member states.
- "World Factbook: Albania". CIA (Central Intelligence Agency.
- "Population and Housing Census 2011". INSTAT (Albanian Institute of Statistics).
- "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". Imf.org.
- "Income Gini coefficient". World Bank. UNDP. Archived from the original on 23 July 2010. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
- "Human Development Report 2015". United Nations. 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
- Giacomo Jungg (1 January 1895). "Fialuur i voghel scc...p e ltinisct mle...un prei P. Jak Junkut t' Scocniis ...". N'Sckoder t' Scc...pniis. Retrieved 23 July 2016 – via Internet Archive.
- "The World Factbook: Albania". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Zolo, D. (27 August 2002). "Invoking Humanity: War, Law and Global Order". Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 180 – via Google Books.
- "The world bank". Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- Reports: Poverty Decreases In Albania After Years Of Growth. Dow Jones Newswires, 201-938-5500 201-938-5500 201-938-5500.Nasdaq.com
- Albania plans to build three hydropower plants. People's Daily
- Strong GDP growth reduces poverty in Albania-study. Reuters.Forbes.com January 2012/https://web.archive.org/web/20120117160122/http://www.forbes.com/feeds/afx/2009/04/23/afx6330798.html Archived January 17, 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- "Albania applies for EU membership". BBC News. 28 April 2009. Archived from the original on 30 April 2009. Retrieved 29 April 2009.
- Madrugearu A, Gordon M. The wars of the Balkan Peninsula. Rowman & Littlefield, 2007. p. 146.
- Richard Talbert, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, (ISBN 0-691-03169-X), Map 49 & notes.
- The Illyrians by J. J. Wilkes, 1992, ISBN 978-0-631-19807-9, page 279,"We cannot be certain that the Arbanon of Anna Comnena is the same as Albanopolis of the Albani, a place located on the map of Ptolemy (3.12)"
- Robert Elsei. The Albanian lexicon of Dion Von Kirkman. Earliest reference to the existence of the Albanian language, pp. 113–122.
- Pinocacozza.it (Albanian) (Italian)
- Casanova. "Radio-Arberesh.eu". Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- Kristo Frasheri. History of Albania (A Brief Overview). Tirana, 1964.
- Lloshi, Xhevat. "The Albanian Language" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 9 November 2010.
- F. Prendi, "The Prehistory of Albania", The Cambridge Ancient History, 2nd edn., vol. 3, part 1: The Prehistory of the Balkans; and the Middle East and the Aegean World, Tenth to Eighth Centuries B.C., ed. John Boardman et al. (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1982), 189–90.
- Hammond, N. G. L. (1974). "Grave circles in Albania and Macedonia". Bronze Age migrations in the Aegean: archaeological and linguistic problems in Greek prehistory. British Association for Mycenaean Studies. 4: 189–198. ISBN 978-0-7156-0580-6. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond, Guy Thompson Griffith A History of Macedonia: Historical geography and prehistory. Clarendon Press, 1972, p. 290
- Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond. Studies: Further studies on various topics. A.M. Hakkert, 1993, p. 231: "The leading dans of both groups buried their dead under a circular tumulus of soil in the second millennium BC The main reservoir of the Greek speakers was central Albania and Epirus, and it was from there that the founders of Mycenaean civilization came to Mycenae, c. 1600 BC, and buried their nobles in Grave Circle B. Further waves of immigrants passing through and from Epirus people the Greek peninsula and islands the last wave, called Dorians, settling from 1100 onwards. The lands they left in central Albania were occupied during the so-called Dark Age (U10-800BC) by Illyrians, whose main habitat was in the area now called Bosnia,"
- John Boardman. The prehistory of the Balkans and the Middle East and the Aegean world. Cambridge University Press, 1982. ISBN 978-0-521-22496-3, p. 629: "...the southernmost outliers of the tribes which held the Zeta valley, as such they may have been the immediate neighbours of Greek-speaking tribes in the Bronze Age."
- Wilkes John. The Illyrians. Wiley-Blackwell, 1995, ISBN 978-0-631-19807-9, p. 92: "Illyrii was once no more than the name of a single people... astride the modern frontier between Albania and Yugoslav Montenegro"
- The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes, 1996, ISBN 978-0-631-19807-9, page 92, "Appian's description of the Illyrian territories records a southern boundary with Chaonia and Thesprotia, where ancient Epirus began south of river Aoous (Vjose)" also map
- Cambridge University Press. The Cambridge ancient history. 2000. ISBN 0-521-23447-6, page 261,"... down to the mouth of Aous"
- The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes, 1996, page 94
- Hammond 1998; Lewis & Boardman 1994, pp. 430, 434; Boardman & Hammond 1982, p. 284; Wilkes 1995, p. 104; Encyclopædia Britannica ("Epirus") 2013
- Wilkes 1995, p. 96; Wilson 2006, p. 594; Chamoux 2003, p. 97
- Hammond, Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière; Walbank, Frank William (1 January 1972). A History of Macedonia: 336–167 B.C. Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-814815-9.
- Jackson-Laufer, Guida Myrl (1 January 1999). Women Rulers Throughout the Ages: An Illustrated Guide. ABC-CLIO. pp. 382–383. ISBN 978-1-57607-091-8.
- The History of Rome. D. Appleton & Company. 1 January 1846. p. 259.
- Wilkes, John (9 January 1996). The Illyrians. Wiley. p. 189. ISBN 978-0-631-19807-9.
- Marjeta Šašel Kos, "The Illyrian King Ballaeus – Some Historical Aspects", Épire, Illyrie, Macédoine: Mélanges offerts au professeur Pierre Cabanes, ed. Danièle Berranger (Clermont-Ferrand: Presses Universitaires Blaise Pascal, 2007), 127.
- Bideleux, Robert; Jeffries, Ian (24 January 2007). Balkans: A Post-Communist History. Routledge. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-134-58328-7.
From AD 548 onward, the lands now known as Albania began to be overrun from the north by ever-increasing ...
- Zickel, Raymond; Iwaskiw, Walter R., eds. (1994). ""The Barbarian Invasions and the Middle Ages," Albania: A Country Study". Retrieved 9 April 2008.
- Jireček, Konstantin; Thopia (1916). Illyrisch-albanische Forschungen. p. 239.
Griechen Gregorios Kamonas
- Abulafia, David; McKitterick (21 October 1999). The New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 5, C.1198-c.1300. p. 786. ISBN 978-0-521-36289-4.
Greco-Albanian lord Gregorios Kamonas
- The Genealogist. 1980. p. 40.
- Clements, John (1992), Clements encyclopedia of world governments, Vol. 10. Political Research, Inc. p. 31: "By 1190, Byzantium's power had so receded that the archon Progon succeeded in establishing the first Albanian state of the Middle Ages, a principality"
- Pickard, Rob; Çeliku, Florent (2008). Analysis and Reform of Cultural Heritage Policies in South-East Europe. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing. p. 16. ISBN 978-92-871-6265-6.
- Norris, H. T. (1993). Islam in the Balkans: religion and society between Europe and the Arab world. University of South Carolina Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-87249-977-5.
- Pipa, Arshi; Repishti, Sami (1984). Studies on Kosova. East European Monographs #155. pp. 7–8. ISBN 0-88033-047-3.
- Etleva, Lala (2008). Regnum Albaniae, the Papal Curia, and the Western Visions of a Borderline Nobility (PDF). Cambridge University Press.
- Licursi, Emiddio Pietro (2011). "Empire of Nations: The Consolidation of Albanian and Turkish National Identities in the Late Ottoman Empire, 1878–1913". New York: Columbia University: 19.
By 1415, after a chaotic interregnum, Sultan Mehmet I sent the military to erect the first Ottoman garrisons throughout southern Albania, establishing direct military authority in the region ... l jurisdiction over most of Albania ...
- "Albania :: The decline of Byzantium". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- Gjonça, Arjan (2001). Communism, Health and Lifestyle: The Paradox of Mortality Transition in Albania, 1950–1990. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 7–. ISBN 978-0-313-31586-2.
- Clayer, Nathalie (2012). "Albania" in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, Rokovet, John Nawas, Everett Rowson (eds.). Brill Online.
- "Arnawutluḳ." inEncyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Brill Online, 2012.
- Norris, H. T. (1993). Islam in the Balkans: religion and society between Europe and the Arab world. University of South Carolina Press. p. 196. ISBN 978-0-87249-977-5.
- Kopecek, Michal; Ersoy, Ahmed; Gorni, Maciej; Kechriotis, Vangelis; Manchev, Boyan; Trencsenyi, Balazs; Turda, Marius (2006), Discourses of collective identity in Central and Southeast Europe (1770–1945), 1, Budapest, Hungary: Central European University Press, p. 348, ISBN 963-7326-52-9, retrieved 18 January 2011,
The position of the League in the beginning was based on religious solidarity. It was even called Komiteti i Myslimanëve të Vërtetë (The Committee of the Real Muslims) ... decisions are taken and supported mostly by landlords and people closely connected with Ottoman administration and religious authorities..
- Elsie, Robert. "1878 The Resolutions of the League of Prizren". Archived from the original on 20 February 2011. Retrieved 20 February 2011.
On 10 June 1878, ... The League of Prizren, Alb. Lidhja e Prizrenit, ... On 13 June 1878, the League submitted an eighteen-page memorandum to Benjamin Disraeli, the British representative at the Congress of Berlin
- Kopeček, Michal; Ersoy, Ahmed; Gorni, Maciej; Kechriotis, Vangelis; Manchev, Boyan; Trencsenyi, Balazs; Turda, Marius (2006), "Program of the Albanian League of Prizren", Discourses of collective identity in Central and Southeast Europe (1770–1945), 1, Budapest, Hungary: Central European University Press, p. 347, ISBN 963-7326-52-9, retrieved 18 January 2011,
there were no delegates from Shkodra villayet and a few Bosnian delegates also participated. Present was also mutasarrif (administrator of sandjak) of Prizren as representative of the central authorities
- "Albanian League". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- Qemali, Ismail. "Ismail Kemal bey Vlora: Memoirs". Archived from the original on 17 June 2010. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
... November 15th–28th, 1912 ...
- Qemali, Ismail. "Ismail Kemal bey Vlora: Memoirs". Archived from the original on 17 June 2010. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
... On the resumption of the sitting, I was elected President of the Provisional Government, with a mandate to form a Cabinet ...
- Giaro, Tomasz (2007). "The Albanian legal and constitutional system between the World Wars". Modernisierung durch Transfer zwischen den Weltkriegen. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Vittorio Klosterman GmbH. p. 185. ISBN 978-3-465-04017-0. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
... a provisional government, consisting of ten members and led by Vlora, was formed on 4 December.
- Giaro, Tomasz (2007). "The Albanian legal and constitutional system between the World Wars". Modernisierung durch Transfer zwischen den Weltkriegen. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Vittorio Klosterman GmbH. p. 185. ISBN 978-3-465-04017-0. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
From its own members congress elected a senate (Pleqësi), composed of 18 members, which assumed advisory role to the government.
- Zaharia, Perikli (24 March 2003). "The post – 1989 constitutional course of south east Europe". Athens: Centre for European Constitutional Law. Archived from the original on 22 January 2011. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- Jelavich, Barbara (1999) , "The end of Ottoman rule in Europe", History of the Balkans: Twentieth century, 2, Cambridge, United Kingdom: The Press Syndicate of University of Cambridge, p. 101, ISBN 0-521-27459-1, retrieved 21 January 2011,
the International Commission ... had headquarters in Vlorë
- Seton-Watson, R.W.; J. Dover Wilson; Alfred E. Zimmern; Arthur Greenwood (10 January 2004) , "III Germany", The War and Democracy, London: MacMillan And Co. Ltd.; 1st Edition, archived from the original on 2012-11-13,
Prince William of Wied, the first Prince of Albania
- Elsie, Robert. "Albania under prince Wied". Archived from the original on 25 January 2011. Retrieved 25 January 2011.
pro-Ottoman forces ... were opposed to the increasing Western influence ... In November 1913, these forces, ... , had offered the vacant Albanian throne to General Izzet Pasha ... War Minister who was of Albanian origin.
- Jelavich, Barbara (1999) , History of the Balkans: Twentieth century, 2, Cambridge, United Kingdom: The Press Syndicate of University of Cambridge, p. 103, ISBN 0-521-27459-1, retrieved 25 January 2011,
peasants..willing listeners to Ottoman propaganda ... attached the new regime as a tool of the beys and Christian powers
- Bowden, William (2003). Epirus Vetus : the archaeology of a late antique province. London: Duckworth. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-7156-3116-4.
the Greek Epirote population of the area refused to be incorporated into the new Albanian state and in February 1914 declared the Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus ... in 1921 Albania was recognised as an independent sovereign state, with its borders established on their present lines.
- ed, Gregory C. Ference, (1994). Chronology of 20th century eastern European history. Detroit [u.a.]: Gale Research. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-8103-8879-6.
February 28 George Zographos, a former foreign minister of Greece, proclaims at Gjirokaster the establishment of the Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus, with Zographos as president. He notifies the International Commission that his government has been established because the Great Powers have not provided the Greeks in southern Albania any guarantees for the protection of the life, property and religious freedom, and ethnic existence.
- "The Efforts to settle amputated Albania state". albaniainbrief.com. Archived from the original on 28 January 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2011.
Thousands of muslim peasants, ... were exploited by their leaders Haxhi Qamili, Arif Hiqmeti, Musa Qazimi and Mustafa Ndroqi, ... to rebel
- Vickers, Miranda (1999). The Albanians: a modern history. I.B.Tauris. p. 81. ISBN 978-1-86064-541-9.
He gathered round him a group of discontented Muslim priests ... and proclaimed himself the savior of Albania and the Champion of Islam.
- Elsie, Robert. "Albania under prince Wied". Archived from the original on 25 January 2011. Retrieved 25 January 2011.
... mostly volunteers from Kosova under their leader Isa Boletini
- Elsie, Robert. "Albania under prince Wied". Archived from the original on 25 January 2011. Retrieved 25 January 2011.
Panic broke out in Durrës, and the royal family sought refuge on an Italian vessel ...
- Springer, Elisabeth; Leopold Kammerhofer (1993). Archiv und Forschung. Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag. p. 346. ISBN 3-486-55989-3.
- Vickers, Miranda (1 January 1999). The Albanians: A Modern History. I.B.Tauris. p. 118. ISBN 978-1-86064-541-9.
- Vickers, Miranda (1 January 1999). The Albanians: A Modern History. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1-86064-541-9.
- Bogdani, Mirela; Loughlin, John (15 March 2007). Albania and the European Union: The Tumultuous Journey Towards Integration and Accession. I.B.Tauris. p. 230. ISBN 978-1-84511-308-7.
- Morrock, Richard (11 October 2010). The Psychology of Genocide and Violent Oppression: A Study of Mass Cruelty from Nazi Germany to Rwanda. McFarland. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-7864-5628-4.
The nationalist Balli Kombetar, which had fought against Italy, made a deal with the German invaders, and formed a "neutral" government in Tirana which ...
- The Albanians: An Ethnic History from Prehistoric Times to the Present – Edwin E. Jacques – Google Books. Books.google.me. 28 November 1912. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
- Live to Tell: A True Story of Religious Persecution in Communist Albania – Zef Pllumi – Google Books. Books.google.me. 28 November 1948. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
- "Albanian Nationalism". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved November 22, 2016.
- "Envery Hoxha". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved November 22, 2016.
- 40 Years of Socialist Albania, Dhimiter Picani
- Dalakoglou, Dimitris. "The Road from Capitalism to Capitalism". Retrieved 11 November 2012.
- Prybyla, Jan S. (1969-01-01). Comparative Economic Systems. Ardent Media. pp. 294–. ISBN 9780390719003.
- Pano, Aristotel. "Panorama of the Economic-Social Development of Socialist Albania". Retrieved 11 April 2012.
- Hapet dosja, ja harta e bunkerëve dhe tuneleve sekretë
- Library of Congress Country Studies, Albania: Hoxha's Antireligious Campaign
- Kombësia dhe feja në Shqipëri, 1920–1944 / Roberto Morocco dela Roka ; e përktheu nga origjinali Luan Omari.
- Elsie, Robert (2010). Historical Dictionary of Albania. Historical Dictionaries of Europe, No. 75 (2nd ed.). Lanham, MD, and Plymouth: The Scarecrow Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-8108-6188-6.
- Jarvis, Christopher (2000). "The Rise and Fall of the Albanian Pyramid Schemes". Finance and Development. 37 (1): 1.
- Bezemer, Dirk (2001). "Post-socialist Financial Fragility: The Case of Albania". Cambridge Journal of Economics. 25: 1–25. JSTOR 23599718. doi:10.1093/cje/25.1.1. hdl: .
- Musaraj, Smoki (2011). "Tales from Albarado: The Materiality of Pyramid Schemes in Post-socialist Albania". Cultural Anthropology. 26 (1): 84–110. doi:10.1111/j.1548-1360.2010.01081.x.
- The mass emigration of Albanians was mostly to Italy, Greece, Switzerland, Germany and North America.
- "Albania country profile". BBC News. BBC. December 15, 2016. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
The  election was closely monitored by the European Union, which has twice rejected Albania's membership application and warned that the poll would be a crucial test for its further progress towards integration in the bloc.
- "Foreign affairs MEPs assess reform efforts in Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina". European Parliament. European Parliament. January 31, 2017. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
Albania needs to implement EU-related reforms credibly, and ensure that its June parliamentary elections are free and fair, if it is to start EU accession negotiations
- Culbertson, Alix (February 1, 2017). "Albania and Bosnia fail to impress at EU membership meeting over democratic value concerns". Express. Express Newspapers Ltd., UK. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
Albania and Bosnia have stumbled at the first hurdle of becoming fully-fledged European Union (EU) members after MEPs questioned the credibility of their democratic values.
- Eftimi, R. "SOME CONSIDERATIONS ON SEAWATER-FRESHWATER RELATIONSHIP IN ALBANIAN COASTAL AREA" (PDF). ITA Consult.
- "Tiparet e pergjithshme te klimes". Qendrim.forumotion.net. 20 December 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
- "Twenty-first Century Glaciers and Climate in the Prokletije Mountains, Albania Journal Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research Publisher Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado ISSN 1523-0430 (Print) 1938–4246 (Online) Issue Volume 41, Number 4 / November 2009 DOI 10.1657/1938-4246-41.4.455 Pages 455–459 Online Date: 30 November 2009". Instaar.metapress.com. 30 November 2009. Retrieved 27 August 2010.
- Streissguth, Thomas (2010). Albania in Pictures. Twenty-First Century Books. ISBN 978-0-7613-4629-6.
- Bego, Ferdinand and Koni, Mynyr (1999) "Albania" in Blodlverslty Strategy and Action Plan. The National Environmental Agency
- "Conservation of the Critically Endangered Balkan Lynx" (PDF). Catsg.org. Retrieved 5 January 2011.
- "The Balkan Lynx Conservation Compendium". Catsg.org. Retrieved 29 December 2009.
- Albania: People, CIA World Factbook, 2012. Retrieved on 6 April 2012
- Women, Men and shefit's in Albania 2006, Instat, Tirana, 2007 March 2012/https://web.archive.org/web/20120321061241/http://www.instat.gov.al/graphics/doc/downloads/publikime/femrameshkuj2006.pdf Archived March 21, 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- Kosta Barjarba. "Migration and Ethnicity in Albania: Synergies and Interdependencies" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 November 2012.
- "The politics of numbers and identity in Albania". EUDO Observatory on Citizenship.
- "Albania: Looking Beyond Borders". Migration Policy Institute.
- "Population of Albania 1 January 2016". Republic of Albania Institute of Statistics.
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (11 May 2005). "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Albania : Overview". Unhcr.org. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
- RFE/RL Research Report: Weekly Analyses from the RFE/RL Research Institute. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Incorporated. 1993. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
Albanian officials alleged that the priest was promoting irredentist sentiments among Albania's Greek minority – estimated at between 60,000 and 300,000.
- Robert Bideleux; Ian Jeffries (15 November 2006). The Balkans: A Post-Communist History. Routledge. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-203-96911-3. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
The Albanian government claimed that there were only 60,000, based on the biased 1989 census, whereas the Greek government claimed that there were upwards of 300,000. Most Western estimates were around the 200,000 mark ...
- Sabrina P. Ramet (1998). Nihil Obstat: Religion, Politics, and Social Change in East-Central Europe and Russia. Duke University Press. p. 222. ISBN 978-0-8223-2070-8. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
that between 250,000 and 300,000 Orthodox Greeks reside in Albania
- Ian Jeffries (2002). Eastern Europe at the Turn of the Twenty-first Century: A Guide to the Economies in Transition. Routledge. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-415-23671-3. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
It is difficult to know how many ethnic Greeks there are in Albania. The Greek government, it is typically claimed, says that there are around 300,000 ethnic Greeks in Albania, but most Western estimates are around the 200,000 mark.
- Europa Publications (24 June 2008). The Europa World Year Book 2008. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-85743-452-1. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
... and Greece formally annulled claims to North Epirus (southern Albania), where there is a sizeable Greek minority. ... strained by concerns relating to the treatment of ethnic Greeks residing in Albania (numbering an estimated 300,000) ...
- "Census 2011 Data: Resident population by ethnic and cultural affiliation". The Institute of Statistics of Republic of Albania. Retrieved 5 April 2014.
- "Albania". Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Albania". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "International Religious Freedom Report for 2014: Albania" (PDF). www.state.gov. United States, Department of State. p. 5. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
Ethnic Greek minority groups had encouraged their members to boycott the census, affecting measurements of the Greek ethnic minority and membership in the Greek Orthodox Church.
- "Macedonians and Greeks Join Forces against Albanian Census". balkanchronicle. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- "Albania passes census law". MINA.
- "Census Legislation".
- "ÿþMicrosoft Word – Law Nr 10442 date 07.07.2011.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 25 March 2013.
- Maria Karathanos; Constantine Callaghan. "Ethnic tensions in Albania". Athensnews. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
... in line with Albanian nationalist sentiment alleging that the census poses a threat to Albanian territorial integrity
- Likmeta, Besar. "Albania Nationalist Leader Resigns from Top Justice Job". Balkannsight. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- "Census stirs Balkan melting pot". 20 October 2011.
... nationalist critics are up in arms at efforts to provide an accurate picture of Albania's ethnic breakdown, seeing a plot to weaken the state ... The group has denounced the ethnicity section of the national census, and Spahiu warns the results could upset Albania's "good model" of ethnic and religious tolerance ...
- "Some Albanians consider changing nationality for profit". SETimes.
- "Courts in Albania suspend changing nationality to Greek". SETimes.
- "Greek Consul Statement Angers Albanian MPs". BalkanInsight.
- "Popullsia e Shqipërisë" (PDF). Retrieved 19 February 2016.
- "Population – INSTAT".
- "Population and Housing Census 2011" (PDF).
- "Languages of Albania". Archived from the original on 23 January 2009. Retrieved 31 October 2010.
- "Fjala e Drejtorit të Përgjithshëm të INSTAT, Ines Nurja gjatë prezantimit të rezultateve kryesore të Censusit të Popullsisë dhe Banesave 2011." (PDF). instat.gov.al.
- Jazexhi, Olsi (2013). "Albania". In Nielsen, Jørgen; Akgönül, Samim; Alibašić, Ahmet; Racius, Egdunas. Yearbook of Muslims in Europe: Volume 5. Leiden: Brill. pp. 351–. ISBN 978-900425586-9. "Some officials from the Muslim community of Albania have expressed their unhappiness with the census result, claiming that according to their calculations the percentage of the Muslims was 70%. They have also claimed that many members of the Muslim Community were not counted in the census."
- "Presentation of the main results of the Census of Population and Housing 2011." (PDF). Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- "Shqiptarja.com – Kisha Ortodokse: Censusi fshehu 17% të besimtarëve". Retrieved 23 July 2016.
- "Gallup Global Reports". Gallup.com. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
- "Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation". The World's Muslims: Unity and Diversity. Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 9 August 2012
- "Early Christianity – Albania – Reformation Christian Ministries – Albania & Kosovo". reformation.edu.
- Jørgen Nielsen; Samim Akgönül; Ahmet Alibašić; Egdunas Racius (2013). "Albania". Yearbook of Muslims in Europe. 5. Leiden, Boston, New York: Brill. p. 23. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
- Mejdini, Fatjona (17 February 2014). "Shqipëria refuzon Organizatën Islamike, jo pjesë e aktivitetit në Teheran" (in Albanian). Shqip. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
- "Albania: International Religious Freedom Report 2007". State.gov. 14 September 2007. Archived from the original on 28 August 2010. Retrieved 27 August 2010.
- "Albania". TED Adventist. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
- "Famous British celebrity visits ADRA Albania".
- "LDS Newsroom-Country Profile-Albania". The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Archived from the original on 25 August 2010.
- 2015 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses. Watch Tower Society. p. 178.
- Samer, Haroey (1997), "Rescue in Albania: One Hundred Percent of Jews in Albania Rescued from Holocaust", The Jews of Albania, California: Brunswick Press, archived from the original on 2008-05-10, retrieved 21 October 2012
- "1st chief rabbi inaugurated in Albania – Israel Jewish Scene, Ynetnews". Ynetnews.com. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
- Ariel Scheib. "Albania Virtual Jewish Tour". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
- "Korrieri online – Shqip". 23 May 2005. Archived from the original on 23 May 2005. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- "Në Shqipëri P. ka 1119 kisha dhe 638 xhami". Ateistët. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- "The Albanian education system described and compared with the Dutch system" (PDF). epnuffic.nl. 1 January 2015.
- "SCHOOL LIFE EXPECTANCY". world.bymap.org. 31 January 2017.
- "Albania-prel.pmd" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 December 2009. Retrieved 29 December 2009.
- "Albania DHS Surveys". measuredhs.com. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH". CIA – The World Factbook.
- "Albania 1998 (rev. 2008)". Constitute. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
- Konferencë për shtyp e Ministrit të Punëve të Jashtme z. Panariti lidhur me vizitën e fundit në Greqi, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Albania, 2012-10-06 (in Albanian)
- "Albania sells off its military hardware". BBC News. 17 April 2002.
- "Albania to abolish conscription by 2010". SETimes.com. 21 August 2008. Retrieved 29 December 2009.
- "Albanian military expenditure as % of GDP". World Bank.
- sues/active_endeavour/index.html Operation Active Endeavour. nato.int August 2011/https://web.archive.org/web/20110830210539/http://www.nato.int/issues/active_endeavour/index.html Archived August 30, 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- "Albania membership Nato". NATO. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011.
- A Brief History of the Administrative-territorial Organization in Albania May 2015/https://web.archive.org/web/20150524170836/http://www.reformaterritoriale.al/en/roadmap/history Archived May 24, 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- "Ndarja administrative, njësitë vendore në lagje dhe fshatra".
- "Ndarja e re, mbeten 28 bashki, shkrihen komunat – Shekulli Online". Retrieved 23 July 2016.
- "On the Organization and Functioning of the Local Government, Republic of Albania, 2000" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 September 2010. Retrieved 27 August 2010.
- "Ndarja e re, mbeten 28 bashki, shkrihen komunat | Shekulli Online". Shekulli.com.al. 10 January 2014. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
- "Reforma Territoriale – KRYESORE". Reformaterritoriale.al. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- "Albania". World Diplomacy. Retrieved 1 August 2014.
- "Albania » Overview". worldbank.org. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
- "GDP per capita in purchasing power standards in 2012" (PDF). Eurostat. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
- Business: Albania, Cyprus register economic growth SEtimes.com
- Strong economic growth potential puts Albania and Panama top of long term investment list, Propertywire.com
- International Monetary Fund (IMF), 9 October 2010. Albania and the IMF
- "Instituti i Statistikave" (PDF). Instituti i Statistikave – Tiranë. Retrieved 2016-05-06.
- "Best Countries for Business". Forbes. Forbes Media LLC. December 2016. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
- "Albania – Economic Outlook". World Bank. World Bank. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
The current fiscal deficit is projected to expand in 2016, but it will continue to be financed primarily by foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows and external public borrowing.
- "Figs, production quantity (tons) - for all countries". factfish.com.
- "IPA National Programme 2011 for Albania Project Fiche 7: Support to Agriculture and Rural Development" (PDF). ec.europa.eu.
- "Albania Country Profile". Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "factfish Sour cherries, production quantity for Albania". Retrieved 23 July 2016.
- http://www.winealbania.com Wine Albania Portal
- Tom Stevenson (2011). The Sotheby's Wine Encyclopedia. Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 978-1-4053-5979-5.
- "Wine production (tons)". Food and Agriculture Organization. p. 28. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-18.
- name="winealbania1">http://www.winealbania.com Wine Albania Portal
- "Manufacturing & garment industry". 1 June 2014.
- "Mining sector". 1 June 2014.
- "ANTEA, the company with the highest working standards". anteacement.com.
- "UPDATE 1-Bankers Petroleum's key Albanian oilfield output jumps in Q1". Reuters. 2011-04-07.
- "Textile industry in Albania is unprepared for a potential influx of import orders". balkaneu.com. 24 August 2014.
- Europe Review 2003/04: The Economic and Business Report. pp. 3–7.
- "Albania - Mining and Minerals". 15 August 2016.
- Rochelle Turner; et al. (2015). Travel & Tourism: Economic Impact 2015: Albania (PDF) (Report). London: World Travel & Tourism Council. Retrieved 17 October 2016. See p. 1.
- "Lonely Planet's top 10 countries for 2011 – travel tips and articles – Lonely Planet". Archived from the original on 4 November 2010. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
- "52 Places to Go in 2014". The New York Times. 5 September 2014.
- Mark Hillsdon (27 February 2017). "The European capital you'd never thought to visit (but really should)". telegraph.co.uk.
- "Coastline | Visit Albania | The Official website of Albanian Tourism". Albania.al. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- "Number of tourists to Albania up 25 pct during summer 2015". Travel Gazette. Travel Gazette. 4 October 2015. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
- "USAID AND EMBASSY OF SWEDEN ANNOUNCE CALL FOR PROPOSALS FOR ALBANIA'S TOURISM SECTOR". USAid. USAid. 8 October 2015. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
- Mejdini, Fatjona (1 April 2016). "Albanians Get to Fly from Second Airport". Balkan Insight.
- Rabeta, Lorenc. "Trenat e rinj Tiranë-Durrës-Rinas me 222 pasagjerë, 112 të ulur". dailynews.al. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
- "Hekurudha Tiranë-Rinas-Durrës, Haxhinasto: Projekti përfundon në 2019". top-channel.tv (in Albanian). 25 June 2016.
- "Research for Development". Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Strategy of Science, Technology and Innovation 2009–2015" (PDF). Retrieved 27 August 2010.
- "Electricity production from hydroelectric sources (% of total)".
- "Albania, Croatia plan nuclear power plant". Balkaninsight.com. Archived from the original on 28 March 2010. Retrieved 27 August 2010.
- Enel Albanian Joint Venture Introduces Coal In Albania's Power Mix, Business Monitor Online, 24 February 2009 February 2012/https://web.archive.org/web/20120219093411/http://www.allbusiness.com/energy-utilities/utilities-industry-electric-power/11935171-1.html Archived February 19, 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- "Devoll Hydropower Project". Power Technology. Retrieved 2015-11-03.
- "Project Scheme".
- "Devoll hydropower project overview".
- Arbatsky, Yuri, cited in Koco with the footnote Translated and published by Filip Fishta in Shkolla Kombëtare (The National School; No.1, May 1939), 19, and quoted from his Preface to Pjetër Dungu's Lyra Shqiptare (see note 2).
- "Kujtimet për Koço Çakalin, themeluesin e këngës himariote". Retrieved 23 July 2016.
- "Era Istrefi requires Albanian citizenship, meets with President Nishani". ocnal. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
- "How Ermonela Jaho became the world’s most acclaimed soprano". The Economist. 28 May 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
- "Tenori shqiptar Saimir Pirgu nominohet në "Grammy Awards"! (Foto)". Telegrafi. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
- "Robert Elsie: Arti Shqiptar". www.albanianart.net. Retrieved 22 November 2015.
- Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture By J. P. Mallory, Douglas Q. Adams Edition: illustrated Published by Taylor & Francis, 1997 ISBN 978-1-884964-98-5, ISBN 978-1-884964-98-5 ("Although there are some lexical items that appear to be shared between Romanian (and by extension Dacian) and Albanian, by far the strongest connections can be argued between Albanian and Illyrian." page 11) Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World By Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie Contributor Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie Edition: illustrated Published by Elsevier, 2008 ISBN 978-0-08-087774-7, ISBN 978-0-08-087774-7 ("Albanian constitutes a single branch of the Indo-European family of languages. It is often held to be related to Illyrian, a poorly attested language spoken in the Western Balkans in classical times" page 22)
- "The Thracian language". The Linguist List. Archived from the original on 3 February 2008. Retrieved 27 January 2008.
An ancient language of Southern Balkans, belonging to the Satem group of Indo-European. This language is the most likely ancestor of modern Albanian (which is also a Satem language), though the evidence is scanty. 1st Millennium BC – 500 AD.
- Bonefoy, Yves (1993). American, African, and Old European mythologies. University of Chicago Press. p. 253. ISBN 0-226-06457-3.
- "Albania", Encyclopedia of National Dress: Traditional Clothing Around the World, ABC-CLIO, 2013, p. 16, ISBN 9780313376368
- Leyla Belkaid (2013), "Albania", in Jill Condra, Encyclopedia of National Dress: Traditional Clothing Around the World, I, ABC-CLIO, p. 16, ISBN 9780313376368
- Dushku, Eliza (September 2, 2011). "Why You Must Visit Albania". Huffington Post. Retrieved March 11, 2012.
- Albania National Film Archive
- "Euro 2016: Albania 0–1 Romania – Armando Sadiku scores the only goal to seal his country's first ever win at a major competition". telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 19 June 2016.
- "Romania 0–1 Albania – Sadiku scores landmark goal to provide last 16 hope". mirror.co.uk. 19 June 2016. Retrieved 19 June 2016.
- "Radio Tirana's Broadcasting Schedule – RadioTirana.org". Picasaweb.google.es. 25 October 2008. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
- "4.2.1 Ease of protecting minority investors" (PDF). globalinnovationindex.org. p. 342.
- "Trade freedom – country rankings". TheGlobalEconomy.com.
- "Annual Review of the Human Rights Situation of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex People in Europe" (PDF). ilga-europe.org. ILGA-Europe. 2015. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
- "Fiscal freedom – country rankings". TheGlobalEconomy.com.
- "Monetary freedom – country rankings". TheGlobalEconomy.com.
- History of the Party of Labor of Albania. Tirana: Institute of Marxist–Leninist Studies, 1971. 691 p.
- Abrahams, Fred (2015). Modern Albania: From Dictatorship to Democracy in Europe. NYU Press. p. 384. ISBN 978-0-8147-0511-7.
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Travel guide from Wikivoyage|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
|The Wikibook Wikijunior:Countries A-Z has a page on the topic of: Albania|
- Official website
- Albanian Tourism Official Portal
- Albania entry at The World Factbook
- Albania from UCB Libraries GovPubs
- Wikimedia Atlas of Albania
- Albania at DMOZ
- Guide To Albania
- Geographic data related to Albania at OpenStreetMap
- Key Development Forecasts for Albania from International Futures
Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.