Alibaba Group

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search

Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.

Alibaba Group Holding Limited
260px
Type Public Company
Traded as NYSEBABA
Founded 4 April 1999; 19 years ago (1999-04-04)
Hangzhou, China
Headquarters Hangzhou, China
Area served Worldwide
Founder(s) Jack Ma
Key people
Industry Internet
Products E-commerce, Online auction hosting, Online money transfers, mobile commerce
Services Online shopping
Revenue Increase CN¥76.204 billion (2015)[1]
Operating income Decrease CN¥22.716 billion (2015)[1]
Net income Increase CN¥24.261 billion (2015)[1]
Total assets Increase CN¥255.434 billion (2015)[1]
Total equity Increase CN¥146.097 billion (2015)[1]
Employees 34,985 (March 2015)[2]
Subsidiaries Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao F.C., Taobao, Tmall, UCWeb, AliExpress
Slogan(s) Global Trade Starts Here
Website alibabagroup.com
Alibaba Group
Simplified Chinese 阿里巴巴集团
Traditional Chinese 阿里巴巴集團

Alibaba Group Holding Limited is a Chinese e-commerce company that provides consumer-to-consumer, business-to-consumer and business-to-business sales services via web portals. It also provides electronic payment services, a shopping search engine and data-centric cloud computing services. The group began in 1999 when Jack Ma founded the website Alibaba.com, a business-to-business portal to connect Chinese manufacturers with overseas buyers. In 2012, two of Alibaba's portals handled 1.1 trillion yuan ($170 billion) in sales.[3] The company primarily operates in the People's Republic of China (PRC), and at closing time, on the date of its initial public offering (IPO), 19 September 2014, Alibaba's market value was measured as US$231 billion.[4] However, the stock has traded down and market cap was $145 billion at the end of September 2015.

In September 2013, the company sought an IPO in the United States after a deal could not be reached with Hong Kong regulators.[5] Planning occurred over 12 months before the company's market debut in September 2014. The Alibaba Reuters Instrument Code is "BABA.N", while the pricing of the IPO initially raised US$21.8 billion,[4][6] which later increased to US$25 billion, making it the largest IPO in history.[7] However, buyers weren't purchasing actual shares in the group, since China forbids foreign ownership, but rather just shares in a Cayman Islands shell corporation.[8]

Alibaba's consumer-to-consumer portal Taobao, similar to eBay.com, features nearly a billion products and is one of the 20 most-visited websites globally. The Group's websites accounted for over 60% of the parcels delivered in China by March 2013,[3] and 80% of the nation's online sales by September 2014.[4] Alipay, an online payment escrow service, accounts for roughly half of all online payment transactions within China.[9]

Alibaba is planning to enter India and was in talks with Snapdeal in September 2014.[10]

Alibaba reported sale of $14.32 billion on China's Singles' Day on 11 November 2015, up 60 percent from 2014.[11][12]

Alibaba entered India's e-commerce space with 25% stake in Paytm owner One97.[13]

History

Founding

The company was founded in Hangzhou[14] as Ma explained:

"Taobao City", the main corporate campus for Alibaba Group at Xixi, Hangzhou.
Alibaba Binjiang Campus in Hangzhou, headquarters for Alibaba's B2B service.

One day I was in San Francisco in a coffee shop, and I was thinking Alibaba is a good name. And then a waitress came, and I said, "Do you know about Alibaba?" And she said yes. I said, "What do you know about Alibaba?", and she said, "Open Sesame". And I said, "Yes, this is the name!" Then I went onto the street and found 30 people and asked them, "Do you know Alibaba?" People from India, people from Germany, people from Tokyo and China … they all knew about Alibaba. Alibaba – open sesame. Alibaba is a kind, smart business person, and he helped the village. So … easy to spell, and globally known. Alibaba opens sesame for small- to medium-sized companies. We also registered the name "Alimama", in case someone wants to marry us!"[15][16]

Brick and mortar stores

According to Li Chuan, a senior executive at Alibaba, the company was planning in 2013 to open traditional brick and mortar retail outlets in partnership with Chinese real estate company Dalian Wanda Group.[17] Additionally, Alibaba purchased a 25% stake in Hong Kong-based Intime Retail in early 2014.[18]

IPO

On 5 September 2014, the group—in a regulatory filing with the US Securities and Exchange Commission—set a US$60- to $66- per-share price range for its scheduled initial public offering (IPO), the final price of which would be determined after an international roadshow to gauge the investor interest in Alibaba shares to shareholders.

On 18 September 2014, Alibaba's IPO priced at US$68, raising US$21.8 billion for the company and investors. Alibaba was the biggest US IPO in history.[19][20]

On 19 September 2014, Alibaba's shares (BABA) began trading on the NYSE at an opening price of $92.70 at 11:55 am EST.

On 22 September 2014, Alibaba's underwriters announced their confirmation that they had exercised a greenshoe option to sell 15% more shares than originally planned, boosting the total amount of the IPO to $25 billion.[7][21]

Company Timeline

  • In December 1998, Jack Ma and 17 other founders released their first online marketplace, named "Alibaba Online".
  • From 1999 to 2000, Alibaba Group raised a total of US$25 Million from SoftBank, Goldman Sachs, Fidelity and some other institutions.[22]
  • In December 2001, Alibaba.com achieved profitability.
  • In May 2003, Taobao was founded as a consumer e-commerce platform.
  • In December 2004, Alipay, which started as a service on the Taobao platform, became a separate business.
  • In October 2005, Alibaba Group took over the operation of China Yahoo! as part of its strategic partnership with Yahoo! Inc.
  • In November 2007, Alibaba.com successfully listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange.
  • In April 2008, Taobao established Taobao Mall (Tmall.com), a retail website, to complement its C2C marketplace.
  • In September 2008, Alibaba Group R&D Institute was established.
  • In December 2008, Alibaba.com Corporation announced that all Alibaba group websites will be shark fin-free on 1 January 2009.[23][24]
  • In 2009, global growth equity firm General Atlantic invests $75M, led by the firm's head of global internet and technology sector, Anton Levy.[25][26]
  • In September 2009, Alibaba Group established Alibaba Cloud Computing in conjunction with its 10-year anniversary.
  • In May 2010, Alibaba Group announced a plan to earmark 0.3% of its annual revenues to fund environmental protection initiatives.
  • In October 2010, Taobao beta-launched eTao as a shopping search engine.
  • In June 2011, Alibaba Group reorganised Taobao into three separate companies: Taobao Marketplace, Taobao Mall (Tmall.com) and eTao.
  • In July 2011, Alibaba Cloud Computing launched its first self-developed mobile operating system, Aliyun OS over K-Touch Cloud Smartphone.[27]
  • In January 2012, Tmall.com changed its Chinese name as part of a rebranding exercise.[28]
  • In March 2014, Alibaba group said it will begin the process of filing for an initial public offering in the US[29]
  • Prior to its IPO filing on Form F-1 as a foreign issuer in the US, Alibaba undertook an aggressive acquisition spree – previously atypical for the company – acquiring numerous majority and minority stakes in companies including micro-blogging service Weibo, China Vision Holdings, and car sharing service Lyft,[30] as well as smart remote app developer Peel Technologies.[31]
  • On 6 May 2014, Alibaba Group filed registration documents to go public in the US in what may be one of the biggest initial public offerings in American history.[32]
  • On 5 June 2014, Alibaba group agreed to take a 50 percent stake in Guangzhou Evergrande Football Club, winners of the 2013 AFC Champions League, for 1.2 billion yuan ($192 million).[33]
  • In June 2014, Alibaba acquired the Chinese mobile internet firm UCWeb. The price of the purchase has not been disclosed but the company did claim that the acquisition creates the biggest merger in the history of China's internet sector.[34]
  • On 19 September 2014, Alibaba's shares (BABA) began trading on the NYSE.
  • On 2 February 2015, Alibaba announces that it has acquired a $590m minority stake in the Chinese smartphone maker Meizu.[35]

Companies and affiliated entities

Alibaba.com

Alibaba.com, the primary company of Alibaba, is the world's largest online business-to-business trading platform for small businesses.[36]

Founded in Hangzhou in eastern China, Alibaba.com has three main services. The company's English language portal Alibaba.com handles sales between importers and exporters from more than 240 countries and regions.[28] The Chinese portal 1688.com was developed for domestic business-to-business trade in China. In addition, Alibaba.com offers a transaction-based retail website, AliExpress.com, which allows smaller buyers to buy small quantities of goods at wholesale prices.

Alibaba.com went public at the Hong Kong Stock Exchange in 2007, and was delisted again in 2012.[37]

In 2013, 1688.com launched a direct channel that is responsible for $30 million in daily transaction value.[38]

AutoNavi

AutoNavi is a Chinese map supplier. It has been acquired by Alibaba in 2014.[39] Its online maps can be accessed at http://amap.com

Taobao

Taobao Marketplace, or Taobao, is China's largest consumer-to-consumer online shopping platform.[40] Founded in 2003, it offers a variety of products for retail sale. In January 2015 it was the second most visited web site in China, according to Alexa.com.[41] Taobao's growth was attributed to offering free registration and commission-free transactions using a free third-party payment platform.[42]

Advertising makes up 85 percent of the company's total revenue, allowing it to break even in 2009. Taobao's 2010 profit was estimated to be 1.5 billion yuan (US$235.7 million), only about 0.4 percent of their total sales figure of 400 billion yuan (US$62.9 billion) that year, way below the industry average of 2 percent, according to iResearch estimates.[43]

According to Zhang Yu, the director of Taobao, the number of stores on Taobao with annual sales under 100 thousand yuan increased by 60% between 2011 and 2013. Over the same period, the number of stores with sales between 10 thousand and 1 million yuan increased by 30%, and the number of stores with sales over 1 million yuan increased by 33%.[44] Taobao's total sales (including Tmall) exceeded 1 trillion yuan (USD 160 billion) in 2012. And on 11 November 2012, the biggest online shopping promotion activity, Taobao accomplished 19.1 billion yuan (USD 3.07 billion) sales in one day.[45]

Tmall.com

Tmall.com was introduced in April 2008 as an online retail platform to complement the Taobao consumer-to-consumer portal and became a separate business in June 2011. As of October 2013 it was the eighth most visited web site in China,[46] offering global brands to an increasingly affluent Chinese consumer base.

Juhuasuan

Juhuasuan.com is a group shopping website in China. It was launched by Taobao in March 2010 and became a separate business in October 2011. Juhuasuan offers "flash sales", products that are available only for a fixed time period, which can last from one or two days to a full month. To buy at the discounted price, buyers must purchase the item within that defined time.

eTao

eTao.com was beta-launched by Taobao in October 2010 as a comparison shopping website, and became a separate business in June 2011. It offers search results from most Chinese online shopping platforms,[47] including product searches, sales and coupon searches. Online shoppers can use the site to compare prices from different sellers and identify products to buy. According to the Alibaba Group web site, eTao offers products from Amazon China, Dangdang, Gome, Yihaodian, Nike China and Vancl, as well as Taobao and Tmall.[28]

Alipay

Launched in 2004, Alipay is a third-party online payment platform with no transaction fees. It also provides an escrow service, in which buyers can verify whether they are happy with goods they have bought before releasing money to the seller.[48] Alibaba Group spun off Alipay in 2010 in a controversial move.[49] According to analyst research report, Alipay has the biggest market share in China with 300 million users and control of just under half of China's online payment market in February 2014.[50] In 2013, Alipay launched a financial product platform called Yu'ebao (余额宝).[51] In 2015, Alibaba announced that they will introduce system that can be payed by recognising owner's face.[52]

Alibaba Cloud Computing

Alibaba Cloud Computing (www.aliyun.com) aims to build a cloud computing service platform, including e-commerce data mining e-commerce data processing, and data customisation. It was established in September 2009 in conjunction with the 10th anniversary of Alibaba Group.[28] It has R&D centres and operators in Hangzhou, Beijing and Silicon Valley[53] In July 2014, Aliyun entered into a partnership deal with Inspur. Aliyun is the largest high-end cloud computing company in China.[54]

AliExpress

Launched in 2010, [AliExpress.com] is an online retail service made up of mostly small Chinese businesses offering products to international online buyers. It is the most visited e-commerce website in Russia.[55]

China Yahoo!

In October 2005, Alibaba Group formed a strategic partnership with Yahoo! and acquired China Yahoo! (www.yahoo.com.cn), a Chinese portal that focuses on Internet services like news, email, and search. In April 2013, Alibaba Group announced that, as part of the agreement to buy back the Yahoo! Mail stake, technological support for China Yahoo! Mail service would be suspended and the China Yahoo! Mail account migration would begin. Several options were offered to users to make the transition as smooth as possible, and China Yahoo! users had four months to migrate their accounts to the Aliyun mail service, the Yahoo! Mail service in the United States, or to another third-party e-mail provider of the user's choice.[56] Yahoo! China closed its mail service on 19 August 2013. E-mails sent to Yahoo! China accounts can be forwarded to an Alimail box until 31 December 2014. Users are also allowed to transfer e-mail accounts to yahoo.com or any other e-mail service. It is estimated there are no more than a million users with Yahoo! Mail for China and chances are they also own other e-mail accounts.[57]

Aliwangwang

In 2004, the company released its own instant messaging software service Aliwangwang for interactions between customer and online sellers. By 2014 Aliwangwang user has reached 50 million, making it the second largest instant messaging tool in China.[58]

Laiwang

In October 2013, the company's chairman Jack Ma announced that the company would no longer use Tencent's messaging application WeChat, and would henceforth promote its own messaging application and service, Laiwang.[59]

Alibaba Pictures

In March 2014, Alibaba agreed to acquire a controlling stake in ChinaVision Media Group for $804 million. The two firms announced they would establish a strategic committee for potential future opportunities in online entertainment and other media areas.[60] The company was renamed Alibaba Pictures Group.

Youku Tudou

In April 2014, Alibaba and Yunfeng Capital, a private equity company controlled by Alibaba's founder, Jack Ma, agreed to acquire a combined 18.5 percent stake in Youku Tudou, which broadcasts a series of popular television programs and other videos over the Internet.[61]

11 Main

On 11 June 2014, Alibaba launched US shopping site 11 Main. The 11 Main marketplace hosts more than 1,000 merchants in categories such as clothing, fashion accessories and jewellery as well as interior goods and arts and crafts and it plans to keep adding more, the company said.[62][63] On 23 June 2015, Alibaba announced that it is selling 11 Main to OpenSky, an online-marketplace operator based in New York.[64]

Alibaba Group R&D institute

Alibaba introduced the Alibaba Group R&D institute in 2008. One year later, Alibaba filed around 350 patent and utility model applications.[65]

Xia Mi

Alibaba completed the purchase of XiaMi, the online music service provider, for an undisclosed sum. Taobao has since launched a service allowing customers to listen to music while shopping.[66]

Global Biz Circle

Global Biz Circle in an online content site powered by Alibaba.com. The mission of Global Biz Circle is to provide content that not only empowers businesses but also provides them with the know-how to grow and succeed in a global e-commerce environment. http://globalbizcircle.com/

365fanyi.com

Alibaba has completed the acquisition of this domestic crowdsourcing translation platform to solve the language barrier problem encountered for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to participate in cross-border e-commerce.[67] [68]

South China Morning Post

In December 2015, Alibaba agreed a deal to acquire the South China Morning Post and other media assets belonging to the group for a consideration of $266 million. Although Alibaba promised editorial independence, vice-chairman Joseph Tsai said that Alibaba believes that "the world needs a plurality of views when it comes to China coverage. China's rise as an economic power and its importance to world stability is too important for there to be a singular thesis."[69] The acquisition attracted media concerns over what this would mean for the newspaper’s coverage.[70]

Corporate governance

Jack Ma was Alibaba Group's chief executive officer for its first 10 years, but stepped down as CEO on 10 May 2013, becoming executive chairman.[71][72] Jonathan Lu became the company's new CEO.[73]

On 7 May 2015 Alibaba announced that on 10 May COO Daniel Zhang will replace Lu as CEO.[74]

Controversies

Gold Supplier

Alibaba.com offers a Gold Supplier membership to try to ensure that each seller is genuine.[citation needed] "To qualify for a Gold Supplier membership, a supplier must complete an authentication and verification process by a reputable third-party security service provider appointed by Alibaba.com".[citation needed] While the majority of suppliers are reported to be genuine,[citation needed] there have been cases of sellers seeking to defraud unsuspecting buyers. In February 2011, controversy ensued when Alibaba's corporate office admitted that it had granted the mark of integrity of its "China Gold Supplier" program to more than 2,000 dealers that had subsequently defrauded buyers; the firm's share price dropped "abruptly" after the announcement.[75] A statement from the firm reported that Yan Limin, the general manager of Alibaba.com at the time, had been dismissed in March for "misconduct"; Phil Muncaster of UK's The Register additionally reported that "a further 28 employees had been involved in dodgy dealings".[76]

As the Economist noted, the company's response has conflicting components: Alibaba's promulgated view that its corrective actions indicate its commitment to quality and integrity (where it contrasts itself with other scandal-associated Chinese business sectors), versus a damage control view suggesting that the subscription-driven, third-party verified "China Gold Supplier" program was endangered by diminished trust in its endorsement system, removing the incentive for global buyers to choose Alibaba as their business-to-business service, thus more broadly endangering Alibaba through impact on its brand and capabilities (the latter via the "defenestration of senior people").[75] The scandal is said to have placed the head of Alibaba Group, Jack Ma—who is described as having been furious over the scandal—in a position to personally fight to win back trust.[77]

Uranium sales

In May 2012, a US law enforcement agent posing as an American broker representing persons in Iran posted an advertisement on Alibaba.com seeking to purchase uranium. In August 2013, Patrick Campbell of Sierra Leone was arrested at New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport. Samples of raw uranium ore were allegedly found concealed in the soles of his shoes. Campbell was accused of seeking to arrange the export of 1,000 tonnes of yellowcake from Sierra Leone to the Iranian port of Bandar Abbas, packed in drums and disguised as the mineral chromite.[78] It was later determined that the samples contained an insignificant amount of uranium, and Campbell was acquitted at trial.[79]

See also

JD.com

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 "Alibaba Group Announces March Quarter 2015 and Full Fiscal Year 2015 Results". alibaba.newshq.businesswire.com. Retrieved 7 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. "Alibaba group FAQs". 5 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. 3.0 3.1 "E-commerce in China: The Alibaba phenomenon". The Economist. 23 March 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Lianna B. Baker, Jessica Toonkel, Ryan Vlastelica (19 September 2014). "Alibaba surges 38 percent on massive demand in market debut". Reuters. Retrieved 20 September 2014. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. "UPDATE 3-U.S. to get coveted Alibaba IPO after Hong Kong talks founder". Reuters. 25 September 2013. Retrieved 26 September 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. "IPO launch of Alibaba pushed back by a week". China National News. 1 September 2014. Retrieved 1 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. 7.0 7.1 Picker, Leslie; Chen, Lulu Yilun (22 September 2014). "Alibaba's Banks Boost IPO Size to Record of $25 Billion". Bloomberg. Retrieved 23 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Solomon, Steven Davidoff (6 May 2014). "Alibaba Investors Will Buy a Risky Corporate Structure". New York Times (Dealbook blog).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. "Alibaba: The world's greatest bazaar". The Economist. 23 March 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. "Alibaba in funding talks with Snapdeal". The Times of India. 18 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Carsten, Paul. "Alibaba's Singles' Day sales surge 60 percent to $14.3 billion". Reuters. Retrieved 13 November 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. Alibaba reports record $9 billion Singles' Day sales
  13. "Alibaba enters India's e-commerce space with 25% stake in Paytm owner One97". Economic Times. 6 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. "Alibaba’s IPO Filing: Everything You Need to Know – Digits – WSJ". blogs.wsj.com. Retrieved 11 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. "Where did Alibaba, the brand name, come from?". Wordlab. 15 October 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. http://web.archive.org/web/20070227023026/– The original forum post referred to in the wordlab article; it does not appear to have been posted by Alibaba staff
  17. Hsu, Alex (3 July 2013). "Alibaba to Open Brick and Mortar Stores in Wanda Plazas Across China". BrightWire News. Archived from the original on 13 October 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. Mozur, Paul; Fung, Esther (31 March 2014). "Alibaba to Pay $692 Million for Stake in Intime Retail". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 23 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. "Alibaba's IPO Priced at $68 a Share". The Wall Street Journal. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. "Alibaba prices at $68, becomes top U.S. IPO". USA Today. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. "Alibaba Sells Extra Shares; IPO Raises $25B, Breaks Global Record". IBTimes.com. 22 September 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. "Company Overview". Retrieved 24 January 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. "China&#821". Retrieved 20 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. "Shark fins removed from 'front window' of China-based website, but apparently still available to buyers - latimes.com". Retrieved 20 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. De La Merced, Michael J. "Silver Lake Reaps a Golden Return on Its Alibaba Stake After the I.P.O." The New York Times. Retrieved 16 December 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. "Anton J. Levy". General Atlantic website. Retrieved 16 December 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. Jones, Terril Yue (28 July 2011). "UPDATE 2-Alibaba launches smartphone running its Cloud OS". Reuters. Retrieved 23 September 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 "Alibaba Group Company Overview". Alibaba Group Group. Retrieved 18 October 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. Alibaba picks U.S. for IPO; in talks with six banks for lead roles, http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/03/16/us-alibaba-ipo-idUSBREA2F05O20140316
  30. "Alibaba Continues Pre-IPO Spending Spree". PrivCo. February 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. "Peel gets another major investment from Alibaba, strikes alliances in China". Gigaom. 12 June 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  32. Ryan Mac and Brian Solomon. "Chinese E-commerce Giant Alibaba Files For IPO".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. "China's Alibaba to buy 50% stake in Guangzhou Evergrande Football Club".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  34. "Alibaba continues quest to own the Chinese internet". CNN.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  35. "Alibaba invests $590m in Chinese smartphone maker Meizu".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  36. "Alibaba Flexes Muscles Before IPO". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 26 November 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  37. "Alibaba Group Said to Plan Privatizing Alibaba.com Close to IPO Price". Bloomberg. Retrieved 10 October 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  38. Hsu, Alex (17 July 2013). "Alibaba's 1688.com Launches New Direct Channel, Responsible for 30 Million USD Per Day in Transactions Value". BrightWire News. Archived from the original on 13 October 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  39. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2014-04-11/alibaba-agrees-to-buy-autonavi-in-1-5-billion-mapping-deal
  40. Einhorn, Bruce (15 January 2013). "Alibaba's Jack Ma Is Moving On, With an IPO Looming". Bloomberg Businessweek. businessweek.com. Retrieved 16 January 2013<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  41. "Taobao's Alexa Statistics". Alexa.com. Retrieved 8 January 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  42. Zhe, Sun (January 2012). "From Stall to Mall". News China.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  43. Zhe, Sun (January 2012). "From Stall to Mall". News China.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  44. Hsu, Alex (17 July 2013). "Alibaba's Taobao Continues to Attract New Stores, Focuses on Personalized Services, Store Branding and Customized Contracts". BrightWire News. Archived from the original on 13 October 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  45. Jude. "Total Taobao Sales Exceeded 1 Trillion Yuan in 2012". China Internet Watch. Retrieved 20 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  46. "Alexa Web Site Statistics for Tmall.com". Alexa.com. Alexa.com. Retrieved 18 October 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  47. "Microsoft and eTao". The Next Web. Retrieved 10 December 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  48. Zhe, Sun (January 2012). "From Stall to Mall". News China.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  49. Guilford, Gwynn (June 2014). "Alibaba has a new way of explaining its controversial Alipay spinoff". Quartz.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  50. John Watling (14 February 2014). "China's Internet Giants Lead in Online Finance". The Financialist. Credit Suisse. Retrieved 15 February 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  51. Chohan, Usman W. "Financial Innovation in China: Alibaba's Leftover Treasure – 余额宝". McGill University. Retrieved 14 May 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  52. Newsis (17 March 2015). "알리바바, 알리페이에 '얼굴 인식' 결제 도입".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  53. "aliyun.com".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  54. "Aliyun & Inspur Partner to Beat Cloud competition".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  55. http://www.internetretailer.com/commentary/2014/09/09/alibaba-tops-e-commerce-sites-russia-well-china
  56. Steadman, Ian. (22 April 2013) Yahoo! decides to close its Chinese mail service (Wired UK). Wired.co.uk. Retrieved on 21 September 2013.
  57. "Yahoo!China Closing Mail Service Today". TechNode. Retrieved 20 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  58. "阿里旺旺". Retrieved 25 October 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  59. "Alibaba's Jack Ma to dump WeChat service in favour of 'own baby' Laiwang". South China Morning Post. 23 October 2013. Retrieved 28 October 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  60. Donny Kwok and Denny Thomas (12 March 2014). "Alibaba buys ChinaVision stake for $804 million; gains TV, movie content". Reuters.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  61. Neil Gough (28 April 2014). "Alibaba Buys Stake in Chinese Web TV Company for $1.2 Billion". New York Times.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  62. Juro Osawa (11 June 2014). "Alibaba Tackles Amazon, eBay on Home Turf". Wall Street Journal.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  63. "BBC News – China's Alibaba plans US online shop". bbc.com. Retrieved 11 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  64. Juro Osawa and Eva Dou (23 June 2015). "Alibaba Stumbles in U.S. Online Market". Wall Street Journal.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  65. "Alibaba: Profile, Internationalization, R&D, Patents -". Retrieved 20 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  66. "Alibaba confirms acquisition of Xiami and will launch music service for taobao".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  67. "Alibaba acquired 365fanyi".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  68. "Alibaba Acquires Zhen Fund, CBC-Backed 365Fanyi".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  69. https://www.techinasia.com/jack-ma-big-mistake
  70. "Alibaba agrees on $266 million acquisition deal with South China Morning Post". Reuters. 14 December 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  71. Wee, Willis (13 May 2013). "Jack Ma's Last Speech as Alibaba CEO". Tech in Asia. Retrieved 23 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  72. Hille, Kathrin (15 January 2013). "Jack Ma steps down as Alibaba chief". Financial Times. United Kingdom. Retrieved 23 September 2014. (Subscription required (help)).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  73. Millward, Steven (11 March 2013). "Alibaba Appoints Jonathan Lu as New CEO, Will Take Ma's Desk on May 10". Tech in Asia. Retrieved 23 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  74. Kelley, Michael B.; Yarow, Jay (7 May 2015). "Alibaba's CEO replaced". www.businessinsider.com. BUSINESS INSIDER. Retrieved 7 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  75. 75.0 75.1 "Alibaba and the 2,236 thieves". The Economist. 24 February 2011. Retrieved 23 September 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  76. Muncaster, Phil (6 July 2012). "Ex-Alibaba GM cuffed as bribery scandal resurfaces". The Register. London. Retrieved 23 September 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  77. Epstein, Gady (11 April 2011). "Alibaba's Jack Ma Fights To Win Back Trust". Forbes. Retrieved 23 September 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  78. "BBC News – Iran nuclear: 'Uranium shoe' man arrested in US". BBC News. Retrieved 20 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  79. "The Uranium Sting: Did Homeland Security Catch a Smuggler or Create One?". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 13 November 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links