Alt-right

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For the descriptive term used in several countries for various policies or groups that are right-wing, see New Right. For the online magazine publication based in the United States, see Alternative Right.

The Alt-Right is a loosely defined right-wing political movement active in many mostly Western and traditionally white countries. It rejects ideologies and policies it associates with political progressivism that have been widely adopted by mainstream conservative and center-right parties in the USA and Europe; including egalitarianism, establishmentarianism, federalism, globalization, immigration, international trade, and political correctness. The Alt-Right promotes ideologies that include economic protectionism, Eurocentrism, isolationism, cultural and ethnic nationalism, and nativism.

The Alt-Right largely supported Donald Trump's 2016 presidential campaign, particularly for his stances and policy proposals regarding crackdowns on illegal immigration and curbs on immigration from "terror prone" Islamic nations. [1]

History

The movement grew out of the writings of Paul Gottfried[2], Richard Spencer[3], Patrick J. Ford, Jack Hunter, and Richard Hoste[4]. The movement received considerable recognition due to Hillary Clinton's decision during her 2016 Presidential campaign to address it during a speech in Reno, Nevada on Thursday, August 25.

In November 2008, Paul Gottfried addressed the H.L. Mencken Club about what he called "the alternative right".[2][5] In 2009, two more posts at Taki's Magazine, by Patrick J. Ford and Jack Hunter, further discussed the alternative right.[6][7] It has been used more frequently since self-described "identitarian" Richard B. Spencer founded Alternative Right in 2010[8], although that on-line magazine became defunct by about December 28, 2013 and redirected to Radix Journal.[9] In April 2010, the Alternative Right blog was started, and has continued to operate into 2017, with many of the same authors as the Alternative Right on-line magazine.[10]

Philosophy

While the movement is philosophically diverse, on the whole it has been united on key political issues such as immigration reform; and opposition to political correctness, and to social justice and left-wing identity politics in mainstream media, academia, and workplaces. Various authors have attempted to define the movement's collective ideologies:

In March 2016, Allum Bokhari and Milo Yiannopoulus of Breitbart News Network published an article titled "An establishment conservative's guide to the Alt-Right".[11] The authors divide the loosely-organized movement into four separate ideological "camps":

The 16 Points of the Alt Right

In August 2016, author and political blogger Vox Day proposed a 16-point philosophy[12] of the Alt-Right, emphasizing nationalism, Eurocentrism, identitarianism, and opposition to international free trade, political correctness, and egalitarianism - describing the movement as an alternative to both mainstream American conservatism and libertarianism. The manifesto was translated into several languages, including German,[13] Polish,[14] Portuguese,[15] Greek,[16] Dutch,[17] Spanish,[18] French,[19] Swedish,[20] Finish,[21] Hebrew,[22] Slovak,[23] and Russian.[24] Richard Spencer commented on the manifesto by saying "I might quibble here and there but @voxday's definition of the #AltRight is quite sound."[25][26]

Lawrence Murray has written a shorter 7-point[27] alternative philosophy that contains some overlap with the manifesto written by Vox Day.

Related movements

Some sources have attempted to connect the alt-right to the manosphere or "red pill" online subcultures, a loose collection of bloggers who write about masculinity and criticism of feminism, and sometimes overlap with the seduction community (also known as the pickup artist (PUA) community), whose theories on seduction and application of evolutionary psychology to seduction and sexual access to women are often referred to within the community as "game"). Manosphere blogs such as pickup artist Roosh V's Return of Kings, Mike Cernovich's Danger and Play, and Vox Day's Alpha Game Plan, have also written articles in favor of alt-right politics and criticizing political correctness and social justice within mainstream media and academia, though the alt-right is not equatable with the manosphere.

The Alt-Right has at times also been conflated with the Neoreactionary (NRX) or "Dark Enlightenment" movement, some of whose writers may form a sub-division within the alt-right.

Criticism

Media have attempted to define the Alt-Right as racist, anti-Semitic, white supremacist,[28] associated with white nationalism,[29][30] antisemitism,[29][30] and white supremacy.[29]

Cathy Young writing in Newsday called the alt-right "a nest of anti-Semitism" inhabited by "white supremacists" who regularly use "repulsive bigotry".[30] She further notes the alt-right's strong opposition to both legal and illegal immigration, and their "hardline" stance on the European migrant crisis of 2015–2016.[30] Chris Hayes on All In with Chris Hayes described alt-right as a euphemistic term for "essentially modern day white supremacy."[31] Taylor Andrews claimed that "some white supremacists from the 'alt-right,'" had chosen Taylor Swift as "an icon for their movement."

Betsy Woodruff, wrote in The Daily Beast that the Alt-Right is "a neoreactionary effort ... of right-wing agitators brought together by their opposition to immigration ..., animosity to Muslims, and general opposition to multiculturalism[32] ... white supremacist ... incubated in racist forums like StormFront and meme-loving corners of the internet like 4chan and 8chan" and sharing "a disdain for political correctness, feminism, zionism, Jews in general, immigration (especially Hispanic and Muslim immigration), and anyone who criticizes them for holding these views."[33]

Ian Tuttle, writing in National Review, states that "The Alt-Right has evangelized over the last several months primarily via a racist and anti-Semitic online presence and says they are "by definition" racists.[34] Tuttle further says "for Allum Bokhari and Milo Yiannopoulos, the Alt-Right consists of fun-loving provocateurs, valiant defenders of Western civilization, daring intellectuals—and a handful of neo-Nazis keen on a Final Solution 2.0, but there are only a few of them, and nobody likes them anyways. Bokhari and Yiannopoulos describe Spencer and American Renaissance founder Jared Taylor as representative of intellectuals in the alt-right."[35]

In a 2015 article in BuzzFeed, reporter Rosie Gray describes the alt-right as "white supremacy perfectly tailored for our times", saying that it uses "aggressive rhetoric and outright racial and anti-Semitic slurs", and notes that it has "more in common with European far-right movements than American ones." Gray notes that the alt-right is largely based online, and supports Donald Trump's candidacy while benefiting from his coattails. According to vlogger Paul Ramsey, the alt-right are not neo-Nazis,[29] although Gray notes that some hold historical revisionist beliefs such as Holocaust denial.[29] Professor George Hawley of the University of Alabama suggested that the alt-right may pose a greater threat to progressivism than the mainstream conservative movement.[36]

Mainstream conservative opposition to the alt-right

Although some conservatives have welcomed the alt-right, others on the mainstream right[30] have attacked the movement as "racist" or "hateful," particularly given the alt-right's overt hostility towards mainstream conservatism and the Republican party in general.[29][37] David French, for example, attacked the alt-right as "wanna-be fascists" and bemoaned their entry into the national political conversation.[38] Some sources have connected the alt-right and Gamergate in multiple ways, such as Milo Yiannopoulos' supportive articles on Breitbart.[37][39][40] According to the Southern Poverty Law Center, Breitbart has become the dominant outlet for alt-right views.[41]

GOP strategist Rick Wilson reportedly said of the Alt-Right that "most of them are childless single men who masturbate to anime ..."[42]

Hillary Clinton's campaign speech about the Alt-Right

On Thursday, August 25, 2016 in Reno Nevada, Hillary Clinton held a rally during which she gave an anti-Trump speech. That she intended to address alleged links between Trump and the 'alt-right' was announced in The Hill on Tuesday, August 23, 2016[43] and was widely discussed on blogs.

Originally scheduled to commence at 10:00 PDT, Clinton did not take the stage until around 12:00 PDT.

During the speech[44], which had been claimed by many would be an anti Alt-Right speech Clinton:

  1. Claimed that "Trump has built his campaign on prejudice and paranoia,"
  2. Claimed that birth-right citizenship was a bedrock constitutional principle,
  3. Claimed that the Alt-Right was an emerging racist ideology,
  4. Claimed that the Alt-Right had effectively taken over the Republican party,
  5. Linked Nigel Farage (the former leader of the UKIP) with Trump and "hard-line, right-wing nationalism around the world", and
  6. Linked Vladimir Putin, the President of the Russian Federation, to the wave of "extreme" nationalism around the globe.

A video clip of her speech seems to show a member of the audience shouting out "Pepe"[45][46] when Clinton mentions the Alt-Right.

After a relatively short speech, Clinton declined to take questions and left the rally. Further, claims have been made that the crowd attending was small and contained many government employees.[47]

Reactions to the Alt-Right

The Alt-Right was sporadically portrayed as "far right"[48], "racist and anti-semitic"[30][49] by various sources, being "white supremacist"[29] or as having ideological origins among paleoconservatives.[50] Others reported that "white supremacists" from the alt-right had begun calling Taylor Swift an "Aryan goddess."[35] However, some articles have more positive reporting, describing the Alt-Right as a "highly heterogeneous force" that refuses to "concede the moral high ground to the left".[37]

After Clinton's speech the New York Times said "Clinton’s speech was intended to link Mr. Trump to a fringe ideology of conspiracies and hate ..." but that the Alt-Right was thrilled that it offered "a new level of credibility."[51]

According to Richard Spencer in Radix Journal, even Time Magazine came out with an article on the Alt-Right, doing so, however only in its print edition.[52]

Allum Bokkari and Milo Yiannopoulos provided a more balanced view of the Alt-Right and said that "the alt-right has a youthful energy and jarring, taboo-defying rhetoric that have boosted it's membership and made it impossible to ignore."[53] Bokkari and Yiannopoulos point to thinkers like Oswald Spengler, H. L. Mencken, Julius Evola, and Sam Francis as having influenced the Alt-Right. They also state that the "French New Right also serve as a source of inspiration" for many in the Alt-Right.

See also

References

  1. "What the alt-right actually wants from President Trump by Zack Beauchamp". 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Gottfried, Paul (2008-12-01). "The Decline and Rise of the Alternative Right". The Unz Review: An Alternative Media Selection. Retrieved 2016-08-27. 
  3. "White Like Us". Taki's Magazine. 2009-05-22. Retrieved 2016-08-28. 
  4. "Richard Spencer Launches Alternative Right". The Occidental Quarterly. 2010-03-02. Retrieved 2016-08-28. 
  5. Gottfried, Paul (December 1, 2008). "The Decline and Rise of the Alternative Right". Taki's Magazine. 
  6. Theodoracopulos, Taki (2009-07-27). "Economism in the Alt Right". Taki's Magazine. Retrieved 2016-02-05. 
  7. Hunter, Jack (2009-11-03). "Whither the Alternative Right?". Taki's Magazine. Retrieved 2016-02-05. 
  8. Johnson, Greg (2010-03-02). "Richard Spencer Launches Alternative Right". The Occidental Quarterly. Retrieved 2016-08-27. 
  9. "Alternative Right". The Internet Archive. Retrieved 2016-08-28. The link redirects to Radix Journal after a while 
  10. "Alternative Right Blog". Retrieved 2016-08-28. 
  11. "An establishment conservative's guide to the Alt-Right - by Allum Bokhari and Milo Yiannopoulus". 
  12. "What the Alt Right is". Vox Day. Retrieved 2016-08-27. 
  13. VoxDay (2016-08-30). "16 Punkte der Alternative Rechte". Blogspot. Retrieved 2016-09-05. 
  14. VoxDay (2016-08-30). "Alt-Prawo: 16 punktów". Blogspot. Retrieved 2016-09-05. 
  15. VoxDay (2016-09-03). "Direita Alternativa: 16 Pontos". Blogspot. Retrieved 2016-09-04. 
  16. VoxDay (2016-09-04). "Αλτ Δεξιά: 16 Θέσεις". Blogspot. Retrieved 2016-09-04. 
  17. VoxDay (2016-09-04). "Alt-Høyre: 16 Punkter". Blogspot. Retrieved 2016-09-04. 
  18. Vox Day (September 4, 2016). "La Derecha Alternativa: 16 Puntos". Retrieved November 18, 2016. 
  19. VoxDay (2016-09-04). "L'alt-droite: 16 points". Blogspot. Retrieved 2016-09-04. 
  20. Vox Day (November 16, 2016). "Vad den Alternativa Högern är". Retrieved November 16, 2016. 
  21. Vox Day (November 17, 2016). "Mitä Vaihtoehto-oikeisto on". Retrieved November 17, 2016. 
  22. Vox Day (November 17, 2016). "הימין האלטרנטיבי, מהו". Retrieved November 17, 2016. 
  23. Vox Day (November 19, 2016). "Čo je Alt Pravica?". Retrieved November 19, 2016. 
  24. Vox Day. "Альтернативные правые: 16 тезисов". Retrieved November 24, 2016. 
  25. "Quite Sound". Twitter. Retrieved 2016-08-27. 
  26. "So that's settled". Vox Day. Retrieved 2016-08-27. 
  27. Lawrence Murray (March 5, 2016). "The Fight for the Alt-Right: The Rising Tide of Ideological Autism Against Big Tent-Supremacy". Counter-Currents Publishing. Retrieved May 1, 2017. 
  28. NPR Staff. "What You Need To Know About The Alt-Right Movement". NPR. Retrieved 2016-09-03. 
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 29.4 29.5 29.6 Gray, Rosie (2015-07-07). "How 2015 Fueled The Rise Of The Freewheeling, White Nationalist Alt Right Movement - BuzzFeed News". Buzzfeed. Retrieved 2016-02-05. 
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 30.3 30.4 30.5 Cathy Young (2016-01-25). "Donald Trump's rant against political correctness is comfort food to racists". Newsday. Retrieved 2016-02-05. 
  31. "All In with Chris Hayes, Transcript 12/9/2015". MSNBC. MSNBC. December 9, 2015. 
  32. Betsy Woodruff (2015-12-02). "Rush Limbaugh's Favorite New White-Power Group". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 2016-09-08. 
  33. Betsy Woodruff (2016-09-09). "Alt-Right Leaders: We Aren’t Racist, We Just Hate Jews". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 2016-09-10. 
  34. Tuttle, Ian. "The Racist Moral Rot at the Heart of the Alt-Right". The National Review. Retrieved 18 April 2016. 
  35. 35.0 35.1 Travis M. Andrews (2016-05-25). "'Alt-right' white supremacists have chosen Taylor Swift as their 'Aryan goddess' icon". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2016-09-07. 
  36. George Hawley (25 January 2016). Right-Wing Critics of American Conservatism. University Press of Kansas. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-7006-2193-4. 
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 Welton, Benjamin (2016-02-01). "What, Exactly, is the 'Alternative Right?'". The Weekly Standard. Retrieved 2016-02-05. 
  38. French, David (2016-01-26). "Donald Trump & Alt-Right's Rise - Not Conservatives Fault". National Review. Retrieved 2016-02-05. 
  39. Weigel, David. "'Cuckservative' – the conservative insult of the month, explained". The Washington Post. 
  40. Bernstein, Joseph (January 21, 2016). "Conservative Provocateur Milo Yiannopoulos Starts "White Men Only" Scholarship Fund". Buzzfeed News. 
  41. Piggott, Stephen. "Is Breitbart.com Becoming the Media Arm of the 'Alt-Right'?". splcenter.org. Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 2 May 2016. 
  42. Joseph, Cameron (2016-01-19). "Racist Trump supporters 'masturbate to anime,' says GOP strategist". Mashable. Retrieved 2016-09-09. 
  43. Jesse Byrnes. "Clinton to give speech linking Trump to 'alt-right'". The Hill. Retrieved 2016-08-30. 
  44. Politico Staff. "Transcript: Hillary Clinton's full remarks in Reno, Nevada". Politico. Retrieved 2016-08-29. 
  45. Earl of Grey. "Youtube Video: Anon shouts "PEPE" during Hillary Clinton's alt-right speech". Youtube. Retrieved 2016-08-29. 
  46. Charlie Nash. "We Spoke To The Guy Who Yelled ‘Pepe’ During Hillary Clinton’s Alt-Right Speech". Breitbart. Retrieved 2016-08-29. 
  47. PJ-Comix (2016-08-25). "PHOTO: Were Government Employees Attending Hillary's Reno Speech on Taxpayer's Dime?". Free Republic. Retrieved 2016-08-29. 
  48. Larry Keller (2010-03-15). "Paleocon Starts New Extreme-Right Magazine | Southern Poverty Law Center". Splcenter.org. Retrieved 2016-02-05. 
  49. Ian Tuttle (2016-04-05). "The Racist Moral Rot at the Heart of the Alt-Right". New Republic. Retrieved 2016-09-03. 
  50. Heer, Jeet (2016-01-22). "National Review Fails to Kill Its Monster". New Republic. 
  51. Alan Rappeport (2016-08-26). "Hillary Clinton Denounces the ‘Alt-Right,’ and the Alt-Right Is Thrilled". New York Times. Retrieved 2016-09-03. 
  52. Richard Spencer (2016-04-18). "That Time Magazine Article". Radix Journal. Retrieved 2016-09-06. 
  53. Allum Bokkari, Milo Yiannopoulos (2016-03-29). "An Establishment Conservative's Guild to the Alt-Right". Breitbart. Retrieved 2016-09-05.