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Anglosphere refers to a set of English-speaking nations with a similar cultural heritage, based upon populations originating from the nations of the British Isles (England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland), and which today maintain close political and military cooperation. While the nations included in different sources vary, the term anglosphere usually does not include all countries where English is an official language, although the nations that are commonly included were all once part of the British Empire. In its most restricted sense, the term covers the United Kingdom, Ireland, the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, which post-British Empire maintain a close affinity of cultural, familial and political links with one another. Additionally, all these countries (except Ireland) are militarily aligned under the following programs: UKUSA Agreement (signals intelligence), Five Eyes (intelligence), Combined Communications Electronics Board (communications electronics), The Technical Cooperation Program (technology and science), Air and Space Interoperability Council (air forces), AUSCANNZUKUS (navies), and ABCA Armies.


Below is a table comparing the countries of the Anglosphere (data updated in 2014).[1]

Country Population Area (km2) Density (hab./km2) GDP (Millions of US$) [2] Capital Largest city
 United Kingdom 63,742,977 243,610 262 2,950,039 London
 Ireland 4,609,600 70,273 69 250,814 Dublin
 United States 321,272,634 9,826,675 32 17,348,075 Washington New York
 Canada 34,834,841 9,984,670 3 1,785,387 Ottawa Toronto
 Australia 22,507,617 7,741,220 3 1,442,722 Canberra Sydney
 New Zealand 4,570,038 267,710 16 197,502 Wellington Auckland
Total 449,212,219 28,134,158 16 23,974,539


Definitions of the Anglosphere vary: countries in which English is the first language of the majority of the population are shown in blue     ; other countries where English has status as an official language are shown in light blue     .

'The Anglosphere' was first coined, but not explicitly defined, by the science fiction writer Neal Stephenson in his book The Diamond Age, published in 1995.[3] John Lloyd adopted the term in 2000 and defined it as including the United States and the United Kingdom along with English-speaking Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, South Africa and the British West Indies.[4] The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines the Anglosphere as "the countries of the world in which the English language and cultural values predominate".[5] The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary uses the definition "the group of countries where English is the main native language".[6]


The American businessman James C. Bennett, a proponent of the idea that there is something special about the cultural and legal traditions of English-speaking nations, writes in his 2004 book The Anglosphere Challenge:

The Anglosphere, as a network civilization without a corresponding political form, has necessarily imprecise boundaries. Geographically, the densest nodes of the Anglosphere are found in the United States and the United Kingdom. English-speaking Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland and English-speaking South Africa (who constitute a very small minority in that country) are also significant populations. The English-speaking Caribbean, English-speaking Oceania and the English-speaking educated populations in Africa and India constitute other important nodes.

— James C. Bennett.[7]
     Commonwealth of Nations members (all except Rwanda and Mozambique formerly parts of the British Empire)
     countries that were formerly part of the British Empire but currently not a member of the Commonwealth
     countries formerly under United States rule or influence that have adopted English as one of their main languages

Bennett argues that there are two challenges confronting his concept of the Anglosphere. The first is finding ways to cope with rapid technological advancement and the second is the geopolitical challenges created by what he assumes will be an increasing gap between anglophone prosperity and economic struggles elsewhere.[8]

British historian Andrew Roberts claims that the Anglosphere has been central in the First World War, Second World War and Cold War. He goes on to contend that anglophone unity is necessary for the defeat of Islamism.[9]

According to a 2003 profile in The Guardian, historian Robert Conquest favoured a British withdrawal from the European Union in favour of creating "a much looser association of English-speaking nations, known as the 'Anglosphere'".[10]

New Zealand historian James Belich connected patterns of growth in the industrialisation of the United States and the United Kingdom with former Dominions of the British Empire New Zealand, Australia, Canada and South Africa, and more loosely to growth in former UK constituent country Ireland, as well as British-allied Argentina, during the 19th and early to mid-20th century, in his book Replenishing the Earth. He used the term "Anglo-World" to refer to the US, UK and former Dominions, arguing that the experience and present reality of former British colonies like India, Kenya and Jamaica differ in substantial and important ways from this core group of countries.


Michael Ignatieff wrote in an exchange with Robert Conquest, published by the New York Review of Books, that the term neglects the evolution of fundamental legal and cultural differences between the US and the UK, and the ways in which UK and European norms have been drawn closer together during Britain's membership in the EU through regulatory harmonisation. Of Conquest's view of the Anglosphere, Ignatieff writes: "He seems to believe that Britain should either withdraw from Europe [Brexit] or refuse all further measures of cooperation, which would jeopardize Europe's real achievements. He wants Britain to throw in its lot with a union of English-speaking peoples, and I believe this to be a romantic illusion".[11]

See also


  1. "The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 16 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2015". Retrieved 10 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Word Spy
  4. Lloyd, John (2000). "The Anglosphere Project". New Statesman. Retrieved 30 November 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. "Anglosphere". Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (6th ed.), Oxford University Press, 2007, ISBN 978-0-19-920687-2<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Bennett 2004, p. 80.
  8. Bennett 2004[page needed]
  9. Roberts 2006[page needed]
  10. Brown 2003.
  11. Conquest & Reply by Ignatieff 2000.


  • Bennett, James C. (2004). The anglosphere challenge: why the English-speaking nations will lead the way in the twenty-first century. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0742533328.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Brown, Andrew (15 February 2003). "Scourge and poet". The Guardian.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Conquest, Robert; Reply by Ignatieff, Michael (23 March 2000), The 'Anglosphere', The New York Review of Books, retrieved 24 July 2007CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Merriam-Webster Staff (2010). "anglosphere.". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved 5 August 2010.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Reynolds, Glenn (28 October 2004). "Explaining the 'Anglosphere'". maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Roberts, Andrew (2006). A History of the English-Speaking Peoples Since 1900. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0297850768.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Vucetic, Srdjan (2011). The Anglosphere: A Genealogy of a Racialized Identity in International Relations. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-7224-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Luca Bellocchio, Anglosfera. Forma e forza del nuovo Pan-Anglismo, Il Nuovo Melangolo, Genova, 2006, ISBN 978-88-7018-601-7
  • Luca Bellocchio, “Londington”? Forma e forza della nuova Pax Anglosferica, Working Paper, 2005, Milano : Università degli Studi

External links