Antiquities Act

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Antiquities Act
Great Seal of the United States
Long title An act for the preservation of American antiquities.
Enacted by the 59th United States Congress
Effective June 8, 1906
Public law 59-209
Statutes at Large 34 Stat. 225
U.S.C. sections created
Legislative history
  • Introduced in the House as H.R. 11016 by John F. Lacey (RIA) on January 9, 1906
  • Committee consideration by Public Lands
  • Passed the House on June 5, 1906 
  • Passed the Senate on June 7, 1906  with amendment
  • House agreed to Senate amendment on June 8, 1906 ()
  • Signed into law by President Theodore Roosevelt on June 8, 1906
United States Supreme Court cases
Cameron v. United States
Cappaert v. United States
United States v. California
Devils Tower, the first National Monument

The Antiquities Act of 1906, (Pub.L. 59–209, 34 Stat. 225, 54 U.S.C. §§ 320301320303), is an act passed by the United States Congress and signed into law by Theodore Roosevelt on June 8, 1906. This law gives the President of the United States the authority to, by presidential proclamation, create national monuments from federal lands to protect significant natural, cultural, or scientific features. The Act has been used more than a hundred times since its passage.


The Antiquities Act was signed into law by President Theodore Roosevelt during his second term in office. The act resulted from concerns about protecting mostly prehistoric Native American ruins and artifacts--collectively termed "antiquities"--on federal lands in the West, such as at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. Removal of artifacts from these lands by private collectors, "pot hunters," had become a serious problem by the end of the 19th century. In 1902, Iowa Congressman John F. Lacey, who chaired the House Committee on the Public Lands, traveled to the Southwest with the rising anthropologist Edgar Lee Hewett, to see for himself the extent of the pot hunters' impact. His findings, supported by an exhaustive report by Hewett to Congress detailing the archaeological resources of the region, provided the necessary impetus for the passage of the legislation.[1]

Since the Antiquities Act became law, all but four presidents, Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, Ronald Reagan, and George H.W. Bush have chosen to enlarge or dedicate new national monuments.[2] President Obama in his last term in office erected more monuments than any President before him, with 26. The previous record was held by President Theodore Roosevelt with 18 monuments.[3]

On April 26, 2017, President Donald Trump signed an executive order directing a review of the law and its uses.[4]


The Act was intended to allow the President to set aside certain valuable public natural areas as park and conservation land. The 1906 act stated that it was intended for: "... the protection of objects of historic and scientific interest." These areas are given the title of "National Monuments." It also allows the President to reserve or accept private lands for that purpose. The aim is to protect all historic and prehistoric sites on United States federal lands and to prohibit excavation or destruction of these antiquities. With this act, this can be done much more quickly than going through the Congressional process of creating a National Park. The Act states that areas of the monuments are to be confined to the smallest area compatible with the proper care and management of the objects to be protected.

The United States Supreme Court has repeatedly upheld presidential proclamations under the Antiquities Act, ruling each time that the Act gives the president nearly-unfettered discretion as to the nature of the object to be protected and the size of the area reserved.[5][6]

Some areas designated as National Monuments have later been converted into National Parks, or incorporated into existing National Parks.

The first use of the Act protected a large geographic feature – President Theodore Roosevelt proclaimed Devils Tower National Monument on September 24, 1906.[7] President Roosevelt also used it to create the Grand Canyon National Monument (now Grand Canyon National Park).

At 583,000 square miles (1,510,000 km2), Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument is the largest protected area proclaimed.[8] The smallest, Father Millet Cross National Monument (now part of a state park), was a mere 0.0074 acres (30 m2).[9]

For any excavation, the Act requires that a permit (Antiquities Permit) be obtained from the Secretary of the department which has jurisdiction over those lands.

Reduction of powers

Presidential powers under the Act have been reduced twice. The first time followed the unpopular proclamation of Jackson Hole National Monument in 1943. The 1950 law that incorporated Jackson Hole into an enlarged Grand Teton National Park also amended the Antiquities Act, requiring Congressional consent for any future creation or enlargement of National Monuments in Wyoming.[10] The second time followed Jimmy Carter's use of the Act to create 56 million acres (230,000 km2) of National Monuments in Alaska. The Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act requires Congressional ratification of the use of the Antiquities Act in Alaska for withdrawals of greater than 5,000 acres (20 km2).[11] Under the Trump administration, all monuments dedicated after the year 1996 have been called into question. The Trump Administration is possibly looking to modify or even dismantle some of the monuments erected under the 1906 Antiquities Act.[12] Although some Presidents have chosen to ignore the tradition of preservation of notable environmental or historic areas, no President to date has undone a predecessor's monument.[12]

See also


  1. Ken Burns. The National Parks: America's Best Idea. Florentine Films.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. "Americian Antiquities Act of 1906". National Park Service. Retrieved March 28, 2018.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Kraft, Michael; Vig, Norman (2017). Environmental Policy New Directions for the Twenty-First Century (10th ed.). Sage.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Merica, Dan. "Trump order could roll back public lands protections from 3 presidents". CNN. CNN. Retrieved April 26, 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Cameron v. United States, 252 U.S. 450
  6. Cappaert v. United States, 426 U.S. 128
  7. "Devils Tower First 50 Years" (PDF). National Park Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 31, 2009. Retrieved October 11, 2014. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Papahānaumokuākea protects submerged land. The largest surface reservation was the proclamation of Wrangell-St. Elias National Monument, 10,950,000 acres (40,000 km2).
  9. "Antiquites Act: Monument List". National Park Service Archeology Program. Archived from the original on May 9, 2009. Retrieved May 20, 2009. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help); Cite journal requires |journal= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  10. Robert W. Righter. "National Monuments to National Parks: The Use of the Antiquities Act of 1906". Archived from the original on May 27, 2006. Retrieved May 16, 2006. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. "Digest of Federal Resource Laws of Interest to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service: Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980". Archived from the original on June 26, 2006. Retrieved May 16, 2006. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. 12.0 12.1 Vig, Norman; Kraft, Michael (2017). Environmental Policy New Direction for the Twenty-First Century. Sage. p. 106-107.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links