This is a good article. Click here for more information.


From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
Scottish Gaelic: Obar Bhrothaig
Scots: Aiberbrothock
Arbroath from Inchape Park
Arbroath from the south
Arbroath is located in Angus
 Arbroath shown within Angus
Population 23,902 (2011 census)[1]
OS grid reference NO641412
   – Edinburgh  45 mi (72 km) SSW 
   – London  371 mi (597 km) SSE 
Council area Angus
Lieutenancy area Angus
Country Scotland
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town ARBROATH
Postcode district DD11
Dialling code 01241
Police Scottish
Fire Scottish
Ambulance Scottish
EU Parliament Scotland
UK Parliament Angus
Scottish Parliament Angus South
List of places

Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.

Arbroath or Aberbrothock /ɑːrˈbrθ/ (Scottish Gaelic: Obar Bhrothaig,[2] [opəɾˈvɾo.ɪkʲ]) is a former royal burgh and the largest town in the council area of Angus in Scotland, and has a population of 23,902.[3] It lies on the North Sea coast, around 16 miles (25.7 km) ENE of Dundee and 45 miles (72.4 km) SSW of Aberdeen.

While there is evidence for settlement of the area now occupied by the town that dates back to the Iron Age, Arbroath's history as a town begins in the High Middle Ages with the founding of Arbroath Abbey in 1178. Arbroath grew considerably during the Industrial Revolution owing to the expansion of firstly the flax and secondly the jute industries and the engineering sector. A new harbour was built in 1839 and by the 20th century, Arbroath had become one of the larger fishing ports in Scotland.

The town is notable as the home of the Declaration of Arbroath, as well as the Arbroath Smokie.[4] and its football team Arbroath FC holding the world record for highest number of goals in professional football match 36-0 against Aberdeen Bon Accord in the Scottish Cup in 1885.



The earliest recorded name for the town was 'Aberbrothock', a reference to the Brothock Burn which runs through the town, the prefix 'Aber' coming either from the Gaelic 'Obair',[5] or the earlier term 'Aber' which could be either Goidelic or Brythonic for 'river mouth'.[6] The name 'Aberbrothock' can be found in numerous spelling variations. In the earliest manuscripts available, it is seen as 'Abirbrothoke' (in the letter to Edward I confirming the Treaty of Salisbury, which agreed that the Queen regnant, Margaret, Maid of Norway would marry Edward I[7]) and 'Aberbrothok' (in the subsequent letter giving consent for the marriage[8]). In the Declaration of Arbroath, it is seen as 'Abirbrothoc'.[9] Early maps show a number of variants including Aberbrothock,[10][11] Aberbrothik,[12] Aberbrothick,[13][14] and Aberbrothwick.[15]

The modern name 'Arbroath' became more common in the mid-19th century,[14] with the older name being largely dispensed with by the time of the first edition of the Ordnance Survey Maps.[16] However, variants of 'Arbroath' had been used since the 17th century, including 'Arbroth'[17] and Aberbreth.[18]

Early history

The Drosten Stone

The area around Arbroath has been occupied since at least the Neolithic period. Material taken from postholes from an enclosure at Douglasmuir, near Friockheim, about five miles north of Arbroath have been radiocarbon dated to around 3500 BC The function of the enclosure is unknown, but may have been for agriculture or for ceremonial purposes.[19]

Bronze age archaeology is to be found in abundance in the surrounding area. Examples include the short-cist burials found near West Newbigging, about a mile to the North of the town. These burials included pottery urns, a pair of silver discs and a gold armlet.[20] Iron Age archaeology is also well represented, for example in the souterrain nearby Warddykes cemetery[21] and at West Grange of Conan,[22] as well as the better-known examples at Carlungie and Ardestie.

The area appears to have been of some importance in the early Christian period, as evidenced by the Pictish stone carvings found during the restoration of St Vigeans church, and now housed in the small museum there. The stones had been used in the building of the old church and, unfortunately, many been badly damaged. One of the stones, the 9th century Drosten Stone, has the distinction of being one of the few Pictish artefacts to have an inscription in Latin text: 'DROSTEN: IREUORET [E]TTFOR CUS', which has been interpreted in various ways, but it is thought that the second line refers to the Pictish King Uurad, who reigned between 839 and 842 AD.[23]

Medieval history

The ruined Arbroath Abbey, built from local red sandstone

The first modern development in Arbroath was the Abbey, founded by King William the Lion in 1178 for monks of the Tironensian order from Kelso Abbey. It received consecration in 1197 with a dedication to Saint Thomas Becket. It was the King's only personal foundation, and he was buried within its precincts in 1214. The Abbey was not finally completed until 1233.[24]

Arbroath was the location of the Battle of Arbroath in 1446. A series of disagreements between the Chief Justiciary of Arbroath, Alexander Lindsay, third Earl of Crawford, and Bishop James Kennedy of St Andrews resulted in Lindsay sacking the bishop's lands and burning his properties. Lindsay was excommunicated for his troubles and it was felt that this was incompatible with his role as Chief Justiciary. The monks of Arbroath Abbey selected Alexander Ogilvy of Inverquharity as his replacement and the insult led to pitched battle in the town, leaving 500 dead, including Lindsay and Ogilvy. Large parts of the town were destroyed in the aftermath by the Lindsay family.[25]

The Abbey relatively quickly fell into disuse and eventual disrepair after its dissolution at the Reformation, the lead from the roof rumoured to have been used in the 16th century civil wars and the stonework plundered for housebuilding throughout the town. The ruins were a popular site for travellers during the 17th and 18th centuries, and finally in 1815 the remains were taken into the care of the State for preservation. The remains are now administered by Historic Scotland.[4]

On 6 April 1320 the Scottish Parliament met at Arbroath Abbey and addressed to the Pope the Declaration of Arbroath, drafted by the Abbot of the time, Bernard. This document detailed the services which their "lord and sovereign" Robert the Bruce had rendered to Scotland, and affirmed in eloquent terms the independence of the Scots.[9]

Arbroath was created a royal burgh in 1599 by James VI.[26]

In the 17th century, at the church of St Vigeans, near Arbroath, communion was not held for several years because the villagers believed there was a curse on the church. The curse said that if communion were held then the church would fall in to a large subterranean lake.[27]

Modern history

During the Jacobite rising known as the Forty-Five, Arbroath was a Jacobite town. A large portion of its able bodied men joined the Jacobite army.[28] It was one of the principal ports where men and supplies could be landed from France. It and other Jacobite ports along the north-east coast collectively formed ‘an asset of almost incalculable value’ to the Jacobite cause.[29]

During the industrial revolution, Arbroath's economy expanded and the population of the town expanded, with new housing having to be constructed to house the influx of workers. Arbroath became moderately well known for jute and sailcloth production, with 34 mills employing 1400 looms and producing over one million yards of osnaburg cloth and 450,000 yards of sailcloth in 1875. Arbroath is believed to be the source of the sails used on the Cutty Sark.[30] In 1867, the mills in Arbroath employed 4620 people.[31] Arbroath was also prominent in the manufacture of shoes and lawnmowers; local firm Alexander Shanks supplied mowers to the Old Course at St Andrews and the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club.[4][32][33]

Arbroath today is mostly known for its connection with the Scottish fishing industry. After the original harbours, dating from the 14th and 18th centuries, were replaced in 1839 with a larger harbour, the local council tried to find fishermen who would be interested in migrating to Arbroath in order to take advantage of the new facilities offered. The town council contacted fishermen in nearby Auchmithie and further afield, including Shetland. The fishing industry grew and at its peak years between 1900 and 1980, around 40 whitefish and pelagic vessels worked from Arbroath, with hundreds of men employed directly as fishermen, hundreds more employed ashore to service the fishing vessels and to process the fish. Quota cuts and decommissioning took its toll on the fishing industry throughout Scotland from the 1980s to present. Today, Arbroath remains a designated whitefish landing port, and although no fish auction takes place, the fishmarket remains open and is used for landing shellfish.[34] There is now only one large fishing vessel operating regularly from Arbroath, and a further three Arbroath owned vessels operating from Aberdeen and ports further north. The fish processing sector remains one of the largest employers in the town however, but fish for processing now comes from Aberdeen, Peterhead and occasionally from Iceland, Norway and Ireland.[4][35][36]


The Royal Burgh of Arbroath's Coat of Arms

Arbroath was made a royal burgh in 1178 by King William the Lion at the same time as the Abbey was established. The burgh of regality permitted the monks to hold a weekly market, dispense basic justice and to establish a harbour. In 1559, the town's burgh of regality was reconfirmed in 1559 by King James VI of Scotland. A provost and a town council were appointed and it was at this point Aberbrothock became a fully fledged royal burgh.[4]

In 1922, Lord Inchcape became burgess of the town. To commemorate the occasion he was presented with his ticket to the office in a silver casket engraved with the burgh coat-of-arms and views of the locality.[37]

Arbroath was controlled by Arbroath Town Council from the time of King James VI through to 1975, when Arbroath (and the county of Angus) were amalgamated with the counties of Perthshire and Dundee City into Tayside, under the control of Tayside Regional Council. Angus, together with Dundee City and Perth & Kinross were re-established following reorganisation under the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994.[38]

Local government

Arbroath is represented within Angus Council by two wards: Arbroath West & Letham; and Arbroath East & Lunan. Four councillors are elected. The members elected from each ward. At the 2012 local elections, the councillors elected from Arbroath West & Letham were Alex King (Scottish National Party), David Lumgair (Scottish Conservative and Unionist), David Fairweather (Independent) and Ewan Smith (Scottish National Party).[39] Those elected from the Arbroath East & Lunan ward were Donald Morrison (Scottish National Party), Bob Spink (Independent), Sheena Welsh (Scottish National Party) and Martyn Geddes (Scottish Conservative and Unionist).[40]

Parliamentary representation

For elections to the House of Commons, Arbroath forms part of the Angus constituency and since 2001 has been represented by Michael Weir (SNP) who held the seat again, with an increased majority of 3800 votes at the 2010 General Election.[41] Arbroath is also part of the Angus South constituency of the Scottish Parliament (having been part of the Angus constituency until its abolition in 2011), which has significantly different boundaries to the Westminster constituency. The constituency returns a Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) to Holyrood directly, and is part of the North East Scotland electoral region with regards to additional Members of the Scottish Parliament. The constituency's MSP is currently Graeme Dey of the Scottish National Party.[42]


At Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found., Arbroath is located on the North Sea coast in eastern Scotland 17 miles (27 km) northeast of Dundee, within the Angus region. Geologically, Arbroath sits predominantly on Old Red Sandstone. Lower-lying parts of the town were below sea level during and immediately after the last ice age.[43]

Arbroath is located 98 miles (158 km) northeast of Glasgow, 50 miles (80 km) southwest of Aberdeen and 77 miles (124 km) from Edinburgh. The neighbouring villages of St Vigeans, Carmyllie, Friockheim, Colliston and Inverkeilor are considered part of Arbroath for the purposes of council representation, and together with Carnoustie, share the 01241 telephone area code with Arbroath.

Panorama of Arbroath Cliffs in winter


Arbroath has a typical British marine climate, that is heavily influenced by its position by the sea. There are narrow differences in temperature between seasons. January has an average high of 6.4 °C (43.5 °F) and July has 18 °C (64 °F). The climate is somewhat dry and sunny compared to Scottish standards with 628.6 millimetres (24.75 in) of precipitation and 1538.4 hours of sunshine. All data is sourced from the 1981-2010 averages from the Met Office weather station in Arbroath.[44]

Climate data for Arbroath 15m asl, 1981–2010
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 6.4
Average low °C (°F) 1.6
Average precipitation mm (inches) 55.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 59.7 83.3 126.0 161.2 197.1 184.6 183.5 176.8 136.0 103.9 74.7 51.8 1,538.4
Source: Met Office[45]


Residents of Arbroath are called Arbroathians[46] but often refer to themselves as Red Lichties[47] after the red lamp that shone from the harbour light and foghorn tower at the entrance to the harbour as an aid to shipping entering aforementioned harbour.

At the 2001 census, the population of Arbroath was 22,785. Approximately 88.9% were born in Scotland, while 97.7% were born in the United Kingdom as a whole. Most Arbroath residents are between 16 and 65, with 19.8% under 16, 59.5% between 16 and 65 with those over 65 making up 20.7% of the population. There are 47.1% males to 52.9% females.[3]

Arbroath has a moderate rate of unemployment – around 2.7% of the population are claiming unemployment-related social welfare benefits.[48]


Arbroath has no sizeable employers outside of the public sector, with most workers commuting to Dundee.[49] Arbroath itself has an economically active population of 9,192 people, with the public sector (21.8%) the largest employer of Arbroath residents closely followed by the manufacturing (16%) and retail sector (15.4%). The fishing industry accounts for 0.4% (fewer than 50 people) although the processing sector is considered separately under manufacturing and the figure of 50 people relates directly to the catching and support sectors.[50][51]


Arbroath's prospects originally revolved around the harbour. The original harbour was constructed and maintained by the abbot within the terms of an agreement between the burgesses and John Gedy, the abbot in 1394 AD.[4] This gave way to a more commodious port in 1725,[4] which in turn was enlarged and improved in 1839, when the sea wall, quay walls and breakwater were added to the old inner harbour, at a cost of £58,000.[52] Arbroath became a major port for the coastal shipping trade and in 1846, there were 89 Arbroath registered vessels, totalling 9100 gross tons. In the same year, 599 vessels docked at Arbroath, 56 from foreign ports (mainly Baltic ports) with the remaining 543 employed on the coastal trade. Bark, flax, hemp, hides, oak, and fir timber, and guano for manure, groceries from London, and numerous articles of Baltic produce were imported via Arbroath, with manufactured goods (mainly sailcloth) exported via Arbroath.[33]

View of Arbroath Harbour

Driven by the needs of the fishing and commercial sailing industry, in 1795 Arbroath-based sail maker Francis Webster Ltd had perfected the art of adding Linseed oil to flax sails, creating an oiled flax.[53] This developed in the late-19th century into waxed cotton, which drove Arbroath as a manufacturing centre, until the early 1970s manufacturing began to decline. A major employer, Keith & Blackman, closed in 1985 and Giddings and Lewis-Fraser wound down its operations at about the same time, with the entire plant eventually demolished to make way for a Safeway (now Morrisons) supermarket.[54][55] Alps Electric Co. was a large employer in Arbroath from 1990 to 2001, employing 180 staff. Following the closure of the plant, all 180 staff were made redundant


Arbroath is home to 45 Commando of the Royal Marines, who have been based at RM Condor since 1971. The barracks were originally built in 1940 and commissioned as RNAS Arbroath/HMS Condor, a Royal Naval Air Station (RNAS) until 1971. The Royal Marines moved to Arbroath in 1971 and remain a major contributor to the local economy, in addition to the Marines stationed at Arbroath, around 600 residents are employed by the Ministry of Defence.[51] The Royal Marines from 45 Commando were recently engaged on operations in Afghanistan and have deployed in support of operations in Iraq and the Falklands War.[56] In 2004, there was speculation that RM Condor would be transferred to the Army as a replacement for Fort George and that the barracks would become a permanent base for a battalion of The Royal Regiment of Scotland. These plans never went beyond the planning stage and in 2005 it was confirmed the Royal Marines would remain based at the site.[57]


House prices in Arbroath are very close to the national average and in April–June 2006 were £99 below the national average, local prices averaging £113,646 compared to the national average of £113,745.[58] The average house price across Angus has risen by 14.9% in the past year (to November 2006) and now stands at £124,451.[59] Angus Council suggests the recent upgrading of the A92 between Arbroath and Dundee to dual carriageway has lured Dundonians to Arbroath and this may be driving up house prices.[60]


Tourism plays some part in the Arbroath economy, with Arbroath Abbey attracting over 14,000 visitors each year.[61] Attractions during the summer months include the Seafront Spectacular, which includes an airshow, and the Seafest which is themed around Arbroath's maritime heritage. There is also a re-enactment of the signing of the Declaration of Arbroath (the declaration of Scottish independence) and in past years there has been a mock Viking invasion culminating in the burning of a longship.[62]

Arbroath is home to Kerr's Miniature Railway, the oldest miniature railway in Scotland, which has been operating since 1935 and which at its height, in 1955, saw 60,000 visitors. Today, the railway is operated as a hobby by a group of volunteers and remains popular with locals, tourists and railway enthusiasts.[63]

The town also features a multimillion-pound Harbour Visitor Centre, located close to the Town Quay. The centre features a multimedia experience for its visitors, and is maintained by the Scottish tourist company VisitScotland and explains the town's fishing history, as well as hosting a restaurant and gift shop.[64]


Arbroath is served by the A92 road which connects the town to Dundee and Fife to the south west, and Stonehaven in the north east. The A92 joins the A90 north of Stonehaven and leads to Aberdeen further north. The A92 is dual carriageway from the southern outskirts of Arbroath to the northern outskirts of Dundee, the A92 proceeds through Dundee before crossing the Tay estuary into Fife via the Tay Road Bridge. The A90 can also be reached at Dundee heading both north (to Aberdeen) and south (to Perth and Edinburgh).

Arbroath has a modest public bus transport system, with the Arbroath Bus Station serving as the town's main terminus. Stagecoach Strathtay and Travel Wishart (part of National Express) operate most of the local services, with most rural services operated by Stagecoach Strathtay. Arbroath has one railway station, a short walk from the bus station, with regional train services to the east coast of Scotland, Edinburgh, Perth and Glasgow whilst intercity services operate to destinations in England such as Newcastle, Birmingham, York and London. Passenger services at Arbroath are provided by Abellio ScotRail, CrossCountry Trains, Caledonian Sleeper and Virgin Trains East Coast. Dundee has a regional airport which offers commercial flights to London City Airport five times a week.[65] The airport has a 1,400-metre runway capable of serving small aircraft and is located 3 kilometres west of the city centre, adjacent to the Tay river. The nearest major international airports are in Edinburgh and Aberdeen. Arbroath has a sizeable airfield at the Royal Marines military base on the western outskirts of the town, but this remains a dedicated military airfield.


Arbroath has one further education college, Angus College which is based in the former Arbroath High School buildings. There are two secondary schools and 11 primary schools. One primary school is Roman Catholic, the remaining schools are non-denominational. There are 2260 pupils in primary school education in Arbroath with a further 1,720 pupils in secondary education.[66]

Secondary schools

Arbroath has two secondary schools, Arbroath High School and Arbroath Academy. The High School (the older of the two), was originally a grammar school and the Academy a comprehensive. The Academy is located near the Mayfield area and the High School near Keptie Pond. Both schools are well regarded with exam results along reading and writing performance indicators above the national average.[67] Arbroath High is the larger of the two with around 1,200 pupils, and the Academy being smaller with around 600 pupils.

Noted former pupils of Arbroath High School include Michael Forsyth, former Scottish Secretary[68] and Andrew Webster, a professional footballer who plays for Heart of Midlothian.

Further education

Angus College, a further education college, has around 8,500 students, with 80% passing the course for which they enrol. There are around 1,700 full-time students with part-time students making up the majority of the student population. Arbroath is not a student town and there are no student residences in the town. The student population is made up solely of local students living within commuting distance of the college. Angus College offers courses up to Higher National Diploma (HND) level in a variety of trade related and academic disciplines from construction to Social Sciences, as well as a sizeable number of programs relating to computing, information technology and office administration. A large number of the student body are mature students taking evening classes related to computing, digital photography and various software packages.[69]

School leavers going on to study at university have the choice of several local institutions – the University of Dundee, the University of Abertay Dundee, the University of St Andrews and the University of Aberdeen all within around one hour's travel from Arbroath.

Places of worship

The neighbouring villages of St Vigeans, Carmyllie, Friockheim, Colliston and Inverkeilor are considered part of Arbroath for the purposes of council representation

The Church of Scotland has a number of congregations that meet in Arbroath. The Old and Abbey Church is located in the centre of town at West Abbey Street, and will shortly welcome Rev. Dolly Purnell as its minister.[70] St Andrews Church, Arbroath is located in Hamilton Green, and the minister is Rev. Dr. Martin Fair with associate minister Rev. Stuart Irvin.[71] Knox's Church[72] is located in Howard Street and the minister is Rev Dr Nelu Balaj. The West Kirk is located in Keptie Street and the minister is Rev. Alasdair Graham.[73]

There are also a number of Church of Scotland kirks in the surrounding villages. St Vigeans Church,[74] St Vigeans is linked with Knox's Church in Arbroath and services are led by Rev Dr Nelu Balaj. Arbirlot Church is linked with Carmyllie Church. Colliston Church is linked with Friockheim and Kinnell Church and Inverkeilor and Lunan Church. The minister of these three churches is Rev. Peter Phillips.

There is an Episcopalian congregation based at St Mary the Virgin Church in Springfield Terrace. The Minister is Rev. Dr. John Cuthbert.[75] St Mary's Church evolved from a meeting house set up in 1694 by Episcopalians forced out of Arbroath Parish Church. The present church building dates from 1854.[76] The Scottish Episcopal Church in Arbroath is part of the Diocese of Brechin. There is also a Scottish Episcopal Church in Auchmithie; King David of Scotland Church.

The Roman Catholic Church meets at St Thomas of Canterbury Church in Dishlandtown Street.[77][78] The priest is Rev Kevin J Golden. The church is part of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Dunkeld.[79] The parish includes a primary school and celebrated its 150th anniversary in 1998.[80]

The Methodist Church have one of their earliest established churches in Arbroath, St John's in Ponderlaw, which was opened in 1772. Services are led by David Nicoll.[81]

Other groups that worship in Arbroath include: The Arbroath Corps of the Salvation Army, who meet in Marketgate; The Elim Pentecostal Church, led by Alan Herd, who meet in Ogilvy Place;[82] The Baptists who meet at the New Life Church in James Street; The Jehovah's Witnesses, who meet at the Kingdom Hall in Lindsay Street; The Springfield Christian Assembly, who meet in the Gospel Hall in Ponderlaw Lane;[83] and the Arbroath Town Mission, an interdenominational group led by Dr Robert Clapham, who meet in Grant Road.[84]

Followers of other faiths and denominations travel further afield to worship.


Arbroath's Webster Theatre has featured among others Harry Lauder, Jimmy Tarbuck,[85] Charlie Landsborough, The Illegal Eagles, and the Drifters, The Chuckle Brothers and was the first venue the Alexander Brothers, a Scottish easy listening act, performed in as a professional duo.[86] The Webster Theatre recently went through a multi-million pounds refurbishment and opened in February 2008.

There are several amateur theatre and musical companies based in and around Arbroath, the best known being the Angus Minstrels group, the last group in Britain to regularly perform blackface. In 2005, following pressure from Angus Council, who feared legal action, the show began performing with normal stage makeup, and the group changed its name from 'The Angus Black and White Minstrels' to simply 'The Angus Minstrels'. The decision to stop performing the show in blackface received widespread press coverage in the UK.[87][88]

Beginning in 1947, a pageant commemorating the signing of the Declaration has been held within the roofless remains of the abbey (last full-scale event 2005). This was run by the local Arbroath Abbey Pageant Society, now Arbroath Abbey Timethemes, a registered charity, and re-enacts the story and history of the signing. The group also spearhead Scotland's Tartan Day celebrations on 6 April in association with Angus Council as well as educational visits to local schools.[89]

The Arbroath Male Voice Choir was established in 1934 and is now one of only a few male voice choirs left in Scotland. At 2012 the Choir has over 45 members drawn not just from Arbroath but also Angus and Dundee. The Choir's Musical Director is Sheena Guthrie. They sing a mix of songs from classical, through Scottish, showtunes to pop. The ensemble perform two main concerts each year (one at Christmas and another in Spring) and several smaller events for good causes. The Choir are notable for attracting well known, often international singers to their annual Spring concert as guests. In recent years these have included, Jamie McDougall, Karen Cargill, Gordon Cree, Cheryl Forbes and Colette Ruddy. March 2012 sees international diva Lesley Garrett as the Choir's special guest.

The author Sir Walter Scott is famous for the Waverley series of novels, including Rob Roy and Ivanhoe. Scott is known to have visited Arbroath three times, and his personal favourite in the series, The Antiquary (1816) features affectionately fictionalised versions of both Arbroath ("Fairport") and Auchmithie ("Musselcrag").[90]

Arbroath has one museum, the former Bell Rock Lighthouse Signal Tower. In 1807 Arbroath became the base of operations for the building of the Bell Rock Lighthouse. The shore station for the lighthouse – the Bell Rock Signal Tower – was completed in 1813 and acted as a lifeline for the keepers offshore. The Signal Tower Museum was opened in 1974 as a visitor centre detailing the history of the lighthouse and the town of Arbroath.[91]

Arbroath smokies

Arbroath smokies, for which Arbroath is well-known nationally and internationally, are made solely in Arbroath following the award of Protected Geographical Indication in 2004, which limits Arbroath smokie production to within 4 km of Arbroath. Smokies are made from haddock using traditional methods dating back to the late 19th century where the fish are first salted overnight to preserve them, before being left tied in pairs to dry. Next, the dried fish are hung in a special barrel containing a hardwood fire and covered with a lid. After around an hour of smoking, the fish are golden brown and ready to eat.[92] The preparation of smokies remains a cottage industry in Arbroath, centred almost exclusively at the harbour area. However, one larger processor, RR Spink, supplied Arbroath smokies to several UK supermarket chains. It appears that, nowadays, the firm concentrates on smoking other fish such as salmon or trout and no longer supplies the Arbroath Smokie.. They have a royal warrant as a fishmonger to HM Queen Elizabeth II for which the company holds the Royal Warrant.[93][94]


Arbroath has one professional football team, Arbroath, who play in the Second Division of the Scottish Football League after promotion from the Third Division in the 2010/11 season. Arbroath play their home matches at Gayfield Park, which holds the record for being the closest stadium to the sea in European football (around five metres from the high tide line).[95] Arbroath F.C. holds the world record for the largest winning margin in a senior football match, 36-0, in their Scottish Cup match against Bon Accord (a scratch team from Aberdeen) on 12 September 1885.[96] Further goals were disallowed either for offside, or because it was not clear whether the ball had gone into the goal.[97] For this reason the AFC supporters' club is called the 36-0 club in memory of this event. Arbroath F.C. are nicknamed The Red Lichties, owing to the red light that used to guide fishing boats back from the North Sea to the harbour (Lichtie being a Scots word for light). Arbroath and the surrounding areas are home to several amateur senior and junior teams competing in the various amateur leagues, such as Arbroath Victoria F.C. and Arbroath SC.

Arbroath also has a cricket club, rugby union club and several bowls clubs, with former World and British singles champion Darren Burnett a native of Arbroath.[98] Arbroath is also a popular location for Angling.

Public services

Arbroath and the surrounding area is supplied with water by Scottish Water. Along with Dundee and parts of Perthshire, Angus is supplied from Lintrathen and Backwater reservoirs in Glen Isla. Electricity distribution is by Scottish Hydro Electric plc, part of the Scottish and Southern Energy group.

Waste management is handled by Angus Council. There is a kerbside recycling scheme that has been in operation since May 2004. Cans, glass, paper and plastic bottles are collected on a weekly basis. Compostable material and non-recyclable material are collected on alternate weeks.[99] Roughly two thirds of non-recyclable material is sent to landfill at Angus Council's site at Lochhead, Forfar and the remainder sent for incineration (with energy recovery) outside the council area.[100]

A recycling centre is located at Cairnie Loan. Items accepted include, steel and aluminium cans, cardboard, paper, electrical equipment, engine oil, fridges and freezers, garden waste, gas bottles, glass, liquid food and drinks cartons, plastic bottles, plastic carrier bags, rubble, scrap metal, shoes and handbags, spectacles, textiles, tin foil, wood and yellow pages. Angus council publishes details of where and how each product is processed.[101] There are also glass banks at Timmergreens Shopping Centre, the Abbeygate Car Park, Morrisons Car Park and East Muirlands Road.[102] The Angus Council area had a recycling rate of 34.7% in 2007/08.[99]

Healthcare is supplied in the area by NHS Tayside. Arbroath Infirmary can be found at Rosemount Road, at the top of the hill[103] and Ninewells Hospital, Dundee.[104] Primary Health Care in Arbroath is supplied by Abbey Health Centre in East Abbey Street and Springfield Medical Centre in Ponderlaw Street. Arbroath, along with the rest of Scotland is served by the Scottish Ambulance Service.[105]

Law enforcement is provided by Police Scotland, with the police station located in Gravesend,[106] and Arbroath is served by Scottish Fire and Rescue Service.[107]

Arbroath has had its own Lifeboat since 1803 and is currently the last remaining slipway launched Lifeboat in Scotland.
Located at the harbour the lifeboat station houses two RNLI Lifeboats, an inshore D-Class IB1 lifeboat the "Duncan Ferguson" and an All Weather Mersey Class Lifeboat the "Inchcape" named after the infamous rock that the Bell Rock lighthouse sits on. Photos and information on the Arbroath Lifeboats along with their history and callout statistics can be found at the stations website.[108][109]

Notable people

See also


  2. Ainmean-Àite na h-Alba ~ Gaelic Place-names of Scotland[dead link]
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Arbroath 2011 Census – Population". Scotlands Census. Scottish Executive. Retrieved 11 August 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 "A glimpse of old Arbroath". Angus Council. Retrieved 6 January 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Beveridge, E. (1923). The 'Abers' and 'Invers' of Scotland. W. Brown.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Price, G. (2000). Languages in Britain & Ireland. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-0-631-21581-3. Retrieved 27 January 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Various authors (1290) Letters: confirmation of the treaty of Salisbury,; Retrieved 12 December 2008
  8. Various authors (1290) Letter: from the guardians, bishops, earls, abbots and barons of Scotland to Edward I of England, giving consent for the marriage of Queen Margaret to Edward, the king's son,; Retrieved 12 December 2008
  9. 9.0 9.1 Various authors (1320) Letters: ‘The Declaration of Arbroath’; letter of the barons of Scotland to Pope John XXII,; Retrieved 12 December 2008
  10. Pont, T. (c1583-96) Lower Angus and Perthshire east of the Tay,; Retrieved 11 December 2008
  11. Ainslie, J. (1794) Map of the county of Forfar or Shire of Angus,; Retrieved 11 December 2008
  12. Edward, R. (1678), Angusia Provincia Scotiae, The Shire of Angus,; Retrieved 11 December 2008
  13. Taylor, G and Skinner, A. (1776) Survey and maps of the roads of North Britain or Scotland: Road from Aberbrothick to Brechine.,; Retrieved 11 December 2008
  14. 14.0 14.1 Knox, J. (1850) Map of the Basin of the Tay, including the greater part of Perthshire, Strathmore and the Braes of Angus or Forfar,; Retrieved 11 December 2008
  15. Roy W. (1747–55), Military Survey of Scotland,; Retrieved 11 December 2008
  16. Ordnance Survey (1888) 1 inch to the mile maps of Scotland 1st Edition. Sheet 49,; Retrieved 11 December 2008
  17. Gordon, R. (c1636-52), Anguss,; Retrieved 11 December 2008
  18. Moll, H. (1732), The Shire of Angus or Forfar,; Retrieved 11 December 2008
  19. Kendrick, J.; Barclay, G.J.; Cowie, T.G.; Saville, A.; Townshend, A.; Braby, A. (1995). "Excavation of a Neolithic enclosure and an Iron Age settlement at Douglasmuir, Angus" (PDF). Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 125: 29–67.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[dead link]
  20. Jervise, A. (1863), Notice of stone cists and an urn, found near Arbroath, Forfarshire. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 5, 100–102.; Retrieved 11 December 2008 Archived 13 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  21. Watkins, T. and Barclay, G. (1978–80) Excavation of a settlement and souterrain at Newmill, near Bankfoot, Perthshire, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 110, 165–208.; Retrieved 12 December 2008 Archived 13 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  22. Jervise, A. (1860?) An account of the excavation of the round or "bee-hive" shaped house, and other underground chambers, at West Grange of Conan, Forfarshire, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 4, 429–499.; Retrieved 12 December 2008 Archived 13 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  23. Clancy, T.O. (2002), The Drosten Stone: A new reading Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 123, 345–353.; Retrieved 11 December 2008 Archived 11 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  24. Miller, D. (1860). Arbroath and its abbey, or the early history of the town and abbey of Aberbrothock including notices of ecclesiastical and other antiquities in the surrounding district. Edinburgh: Thomas G. Stevenson.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. Jervise, A. (1853) The history and traditions of the land of the Lindsays in Angus and Mearnes, with notices of Alyth and Meigle, Sutherland & Knox, Edinburgh
  26. "MS 300 Royal Burgh of Arbroath". Archive Services Online Catalogue. University of Dundee. Retrieved 1 December 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. Harrower-Gray, Annette. "The Kelpie's Curse : Scotland Magazine Issue 60". Scotland Magazine. Retrieved 4 August 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. C. Duffy, The 45 (2003), pp 83, 86.
  29. C. Duffy, The 45, p. 366.
  30. "". Rough Guides. Yahoo Travel. Retrieved 30 January 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. Warden, A.J. (1867). The linen trade, ancient and modern. London: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts and Green.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  32. "Alexander Shanks". The Gazetteer for Scotland. Retrieved 6 January 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. 33.0 33.1 "Andrew's, St – Arbroath". A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland. 1846. Archived from the original on 4 February 2007. Retrieved 13 January 2007. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  34. "Second boost as Arbroath harbour back on the map". The Courier and Advertiser. D.C Thompson. 4 March 2004. Retrieved 30 January 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[dead link]
  35. "Fishing Industry Statistics". Aberdeenshire Council. Archived from the original on 7 January 2007. Retrieved 6 January 2007. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  36. Urquhart, Frank (23 December 2005). "Quotas set to put bite on fish & chips". The Scotsman. Retrieved 7 February 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  37. "The Inchcape Casket". Dundee Courier. British Newspaper Archive. 6 June 1922. Retrieved 3 August 2014. Unknown parameter |subscription= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  38. "Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994". Office of Public Sector Information. 1994. Archived from the original on 12 December 2006. Retrieved 7 January 2007. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  39. Election 2012 Results Ward 6 – Arbroath West & Letham, retrieved 8 May 2012<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  40. Election 2012 Results Ward 7 – Arbroath East & Lunan, retrieved 8 May 2012<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  41. "UK Parliamentary Election for the Angus Constituency". Angus Council. 5 May 2005. Retrieved 7 January 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  42. "SNP's Angus wins no surprise – but margin of victory exceeds all expectations", The Courier, 6 May 2011, retrieved 6 May 2011<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[dead link]
  43. "Forfarshire". Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1911. Archived from the original on 1 January 2007. Retrieved 6 January 2007. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  44. "Arbroath climate information". Met Office. Retrieved 5 August 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  45. "Arbroath climate information". Met Office. Retrieved 5 August 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  46. McBain, J.M. (1897). Eminent Arbroathians, 1178–1894. Arbroath: Brodie & Salmond.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  47. Lord Fraser of Carmyllie. "The Red Lichties and Their Impact on the Rest of the World" (PDF). Royal Society of Edinburgh. Retrieved 18 August 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[dead link]
  48. "Unemployment Statistics" (PDF). Angus Council. January 2007. Retrieved 17 March 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  49. "Dundee Economic Profile" (PDF). Dundee City Council. Retrieved 7 January 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  50. "Census – Supporting Information". Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL). Scottish Executive. Retrieved 7 January 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  51. 51.0 51.1 "Arbroath 2001 Census – Employment". Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL). Scottish Executive. Retrieved 8 January 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  52. Great Britain Parliament. House of Commons (1845). Minutes of evidence taken before the commissioners appointed to inquire into the state of tidal harbours. Parliamentary Papers. 16. pp. 45–49.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  53. Emiliano Marino. The sailmaker's apprentice: a guide for the self-reliant sailor.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  54. Jarrett, Andrew (11 May 2004). "Disappointment for Arbroath Shoppers". Dundee Courier & Advertiser. DC Thompson. Retrieved 13 January 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[dead link]
  55. 55.0 55.1 "Arbroath Timeline". Retrieved 13 January 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  56. "UK forces battle Taliban fighters". BBC News. BBC. 11 January 2007. Retrieved 11 January 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  57. Chamberlain, Gethin; John Ross (24 July 2004). "Fort George at risk from defence cuts". The Scotsman. Retrieved 10 January 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  58. "Average property prices in Arbroath". Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 8 January 2007. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  59. "UK House Prices". BBC News. BBC. 17 November 2006. Retrieved 10 January 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  60. "New road 'improves' town fortune". BBC News. BBC. 22 January 2007. Retrieved 30 January 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  61. "Arbroath Abbey wins gold for green tourism". Scottish Executive. 14 August 2003. Retrieved 8 January 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  62. "Thrills galore at Seafront Spectacular". Dundee Courier & Advertiser. DC Thompson. 17 July 2006. Retrieved 10 January 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[dead link]
  63. "Kerr's Miniature Railway". Archived from the original on 25 October 2009. Retrieved 12 January 2007. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  64. "Harbour Visitor Center, Arbroath". AngusAhead. Retrieved 4 February 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  65. "Dundee Airport". Dundee City Council. Archived from the original on 11 August 2006. Retrieved 20 September 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  66. "Angus Council Schools". Angus Council. Retrieved 9 January 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  67. "HMSI – Angus Council" (PDF). HMSI. Scottish Executive. April 2002. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 9 January 2007. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  68. "Michael Forsyth". BBC News. BBC. 1997. Archived from the original on 22 November 2004. Retrieved 9 January 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  69. "Angus College FOI". Angus College. Retrieved 14 November 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  70. Old and Abbey Church, Arbroath,; Retrieved 12 December 2008
  71. St Andrews Church, Arbroath,; Retrieved 12 December 2008
  72. Knox's Church, Arbroath; retrieved 7 January 2011
  73. Arbroath West Kirk,; Retrieved 12 December
  74. St Vigeans Church,; retrieved 7 January 2011
  75. The Diocese of Brechin, Part of the Scottish Episcopal Church,; Retrieved 12 December 2008
  76. "Records of St. Mary's Church, Arbroath". Archive Services Online Catalogue. University of Dundee. Retrieved 15 February 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  77. "St Thomas Of Canterbury RC Church, Arbroath". Angus Council. 8 September 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  78. "St Thomas of Canterbury, Arbroath". Scotland's Churches Trust.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  79. Diocese of Dunkeld,; Retrieved 12 December 2008
  80. St Thomas RC Primary School, Arbroath
  81. The Methodist Church of Great Britain,; Retrieved 12 December 2008 Archived 18 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  82. Elim Pentecostal Churches in Scotland,; Retrieved 12 December 2008 Archived 24 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  83. Springfield Gospel Hall,; Retrieved 12 December 2008
  84. Arbroath Town Mission Centre,; Retrieved 12 December 2008
  85. "Theatres in Perthshire, Angus, Dundee and Fire". Visit Scotland. Archived from the original on 17 October 2006. Retrieved 8 January 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  86. "The Alexander Brothers". Foot Stompin' Celtic Music. Archived from the original on 17 January 2007. Retrieved 10 January 2007. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  87. Barnett, Ralph (7 November 2005). "Happy days with minstrels recalled". Dundee Courier & Advertiser. DC Thompson. Retrieved 9 January 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[dead link]
  88. Bayer, Kurt (8 November 2005). "Minstrels order to stop 'blacking up'". The Scotsman. Retrieved 9 January 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  89. Barnett, Ralph (5 April 2005). "Preparing for Tartan Day events in Angus". Dundee Evening Telegraph. DC Thompson. Archived from the original on 8 November 2007. Retrieved 9 January 2007. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  90. "Walter Scott". Edinburgh University Library. 7 February 2006. Archived from the original on 31 December 2006. Retrieved 9 January 2007. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  91. Arbroath Signal Tower Museum
  92. "Arbroath Smokie PGI". Protected Food Names. HM Government. 31 March 2004. Archived from the original on 25 December 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2009. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[dead link]
  93. . "The Royal Warrant Holders Association". Retrieved 8 February 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[dead link]
  94. Urquhart, Frank (30 April 2004). "New factory revives 'smokie' production". The Scotsman. Retrieved 8 February 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  95. "Arbroath Gayfield Park". Scottish Football Ground Guide. Retrieved 9 January 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  96. "A day when Scottish football scorched the record books". The Scotsman. 9 December 2005.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  97. "The 36-0 team". Arbroath F.C. 2003.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  98. "Bowls: Lawson scorches path to last eight". The New Zealand Herald. 8 January 2007. Retrieved 9 January 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  99. 99.0 99.1 Angus Council kerbside Recycling Scheme; retrieved 7 September 2008
  100. Angus Council local plan section 37,; retrieved 7 September 2008
  101. Angus Council recycling centres,; retrieved 7 September 2008
  102. Angus Council neighbourhood recycling points,; retrieved 7 September 2008
  103. Arbroath Infirmary,; retrieved 7 September 2008
  104. Ninwells Hospital,; retrieved 7 September 2008
  105. Scottish Ambulance Service,; retrieved 7 September 2008 Archived 19 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  106. Tayside Police; retrieved 7 September 2008
  107. Tayside Fire and Rescue Service,; Retrieved 7 September 2008
  108. [1]
  109. "The RNLI". Archived from the original on 12 December 2007. Retrieved 1 January 2008. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  110. The Singing Lass. Selected Work of Marion Angus, ed. Aimée Chalmers, Intro. pp. 3–71.
  111. "Dr Neil Arnott". Heritage Group Website of the CIBSE. Retrieved 30 September 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  112. "TV presenter backs out of crucifixion ordeal". Manchester Evening News. 14 April 2006. Archived from the original on 13 December 2006. Retrieved 10 January 2007. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  113. "John Ritchie Findlay". The Gazetteer for Scotland. Retrieved 9 January 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  114. "James Gibson". Dictionary of Scottish Architects. Retrieved 30 October 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  115. "Harry Lauder". Glasgow University Library. Archived from the original on 29 December 2006. Retrieved 9 January 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  116. "Durward Lely". the Gilbert and Sullivan Archive. Retrieved 1 October 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  117. "Morris Pert Official Biography". Morris Pert. Retrieved 9 January 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  118. "Andrew (Andy) Stewart". The Gazetteer for Scotland. Retrieved 9 January 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  119. "Andy Webster". Retrieved 21 August 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links