Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila
Archdiocese of Manila
Arkidiyosesis ng Maynila
Arquidiócesis de Manila
Arms of the Archdiocese
|Territory||City of Manila
|Area||549 km2 (212 sq mi)|
|(as of 2004)
|Members||347 over all|
|Sui iuris church||Latin Church|
|Established||6 February 1579 (Diocese)
14 August 1595 (Archdiocese)
|Cathedral||Cathedral Basilica of the Immaculate Conception|
|Patron saint||Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception, Patroness of the Philippines|
|Archbishop||Luis Antonio G. Tagle|
|Auxiliary Bishops||Most Reverend Broderick S. Pabillo|
|Vicar General||Very Reverend Monsignor Jose Clemente F. Ignacio, PC|
Jurisdiction of the metropolitan see within the Philippines.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila (Latin: Archidioecesis Manilensis; Filipino: Arkidiyosesis ng Maynilà; Spanish: Arquidiócesis de Manila) is an archdiocese of the Catholic Church in Metropolitan Manila, Philippines. Its present local ordinary is Luis Antonio Cardinal Tagle, the 32nd Archbishop and 5th Filipino to hold the office. The cathedral church is the Minor Basilica and Metropolitan Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, with the Blessed Virgin Mary, under the title of Immaculate Conception as its principal patroness. The archdiocese juridically comprises the cities of Manila, San Juan, Makati, Pasay, and Mandaluyong, with a shrine located in Quezon City known as EDSA Shrine.
Per the efforts of conquistador Martín de Goiti—who founded the City of Manila after uniting the dominions of Sulayman III of Namayan, Tondo, and Sabag, Rajah Ache Matanda of Maynila, and Lakan Dula of Tondo—the Diocese of Manila was then canonically erected on February 6, 1579 through the Papal bull Illius Fulti Præsidio by Pope Gregory XIII, encompassing all Spanish colonies in Asia as a suffragan of Mexico. Fray Domingo de Salazar, a Dominican from the Convent of San Sebastian in Salamanca, Spain, was selected by King Philip II of Spain as the Bishop of the new diocese and was presented to the pope.
Over the course of history and growth of Catholicism in the Philippines, the diocese was elevated and new dioceses had been carved from its territory. On August 14, 1595, Pope Clement VIII raised the diocese to the status of an archdiocese with Bishop Ignacio Santibáñez elevated as its first archbishop. Three new dioceses were created as suffragan to Manila: Nueva Caceres, Nueva Segovia, and Cebu. With the creation of these new dioceses, the territory of the archdiocese was reduced to the city of Manila and the adjoining civil provinces in proximity including Mindoro Island. It was bounded to the north by the Diocese of Nueva Segovia, to the south by the Diocese of Cebu, and to the southeast by the Diocese of Nueva Caceres.
During the Hispanic period, the Archdiocese was ruled by a succession of Spanish and Latino archbishops. The British occupation of Manila during the Seven Years' War saw the temporary conversion of Sultan Azim ud-Din I of Sulu to Catholicism, the massive looting and destruction of ecclesiastical treasures, as well as the burning of churches by British soldiers, Sepoy mercenaries and rebellious Chinese residents in Binondo. This episode was particularly damaging to Philippine scholarship due to the fact that the monasteries holding the archives and artifacts about the precolonial Philippine Rajahnates, Datudoms, Sultanates and Huangdoms and their conversion to Catholicism; were either burnt, lost or looted by the British. An example of which would be the Boxer Codex, whose earliest owner Lord Giles of Ilchester, had inherited it from an ancestor who stole it from Manila during the British Occupation.
Nevertheless, peace was subsequently restored after the Protestant British occupation. In the time after this, the Catholic religious orders (with the exception of the Jesuits who were temporarily suppressed by the Spaniards due to their role in anti-imperialist movements in Latin America) became the powerful driving force in the Archdiocese of Manila. The local diocesan clergy resented the foreign religious orders due to their near monopoly of ecclesiastical positions. The opposition of the religious orders against an autonomous diocesan clergy independent of them lead to the martyrdom of priests Mariano Gómez, José Burgos, Jacinto Zamora collectively known as Gomburza. This inspired the Jesuit educated Jose Rizal to form the La Liga Filipina, to ask for reforms from Spain and recognition of local clergy.
Rizal was executed and the La Liga Filipina dissolved. The 1896 Philippine revolution was triggered when the Spanish discovered the anti-colonial secret organisation Katipunan, and ended Spanish rule. The United States took the Philippines from Spain in the 1898 Spanish–American War; this developed into fighting between the Philippine revolutionaries and the US in the 1899–1902 Philippine–American War, followed by victory for the US and disestablishment of the Roman Catholic Church as the state church of the Philippines. Some members of the Katipunan then turned to the Catholic Church, especially to the Jesuit order who had fostered Philippine nationalism in the students they educated. In the period after the war Philippine churches were restored in the Art-Deco architectural motif.
The province of Mindoro was established as an independent diocese on April 10, 1910 by virtue of a Decretum Consistoriale executed by Pope Pius X, implementing the Bull Quae Mari Sinico of Pope Leo XIII. On the same date the Diocese of Lipa (later Archdiocese of Lipa) was created, with jurisdiction over the provinces of Batangas, Tayabas, Marinduque and some parts of Masbate.
In May 1928 Pope Pius XI established the Diocese of Lingayen, carved from Manila and Nueva Segovia. In this creation 26 parishes were separated from Manila. He also named Our Lady of Guadalupe as a patroness of the Filipino people in 1938.
December 8, 1941, marked the beginning of the Japanese occupation of the Philippines. Members of the secretive Black Dragon Society had infiltrated all facets of Philippine life and had greatly guided the invading Japanese forces. World War 2 marked a period of irreplaceable loss to the Archdiocese of Manila. The combination of violent theft and arson done by the Japanese and the indiscriminate carpet bombing perpetuated by the Americans lead to the permanent loss of many of the ancient Gothic, Art-Deco and Earthquake Baroque Cathedrals found around the Archdiocese of Manila.
In the aftermath of the war, in September 1942, Pope Pius XII declared Our Lady of Immaculate Conception as the Principal Patroness of the Philippines on the Papal Bull, Impositi Nobis, along with Saints Pudentiana and Rose of Lima as secondary patrons.
Due to the heavy damages resulted from World War II, the Manila Cathedral underwent major rebuilding from 1946 to 1958. The Parish of San Miguel served as pro-cathedral or temporary cathedral of the local church until the Manila Cathedral was reopened and blessed in 1958.
On December 11, 1948, the Apostolic Constitution Probe noscitur further divided the Archdiocese of Manila by separating the northern part of the Archdiocese and establishing it as the Diocese of San Fernando. On November 25, 1961, the Archdiocese of Manila was again partitioned. The civil provinces of Bulacan in the north and Cavite in the south were separated from the Archdiocese with the northern part becoming the Diocese of Malolos and the south the Diocese of Imus.
Pope John Paul II declared the Manila Cathedral a minor basilica in 1981 through a Motu Proprio. In 1983, fifteen towns in Eastern Rizal, the city of Marikina, and two barangays of Pasig were separated to form the Diocese of Antipolo.
The archdiocese witnessed many grace-filled church events such as the Second Synod of Manila (1911), Third Synod of Manila (1925), 33rd International Eucharistic Congress (1937), First Plenary Council of the Philippines (1953), papal visit of Pope Paul VI (1970), Fourth Synod of Manila (1979), papal visits of Pope John Paul II (the first in 1981 and the second in 1995), National Marian Year (1985), National Eucharistic Year (1987), Second Plenary Council of the Philippines (1991), Second Provincial Council of Manila (1996), and World Meeting of Families (2003).
In 2002, two more dioceses were carved out of the Archdiocese: the Diocese of Novaliches in the north and the Diocese of Parañaque in the south, which also comprised the cities of Las Piñas and Muntinlupa.
In 2003, by the recommendation of Jaime Cardinal Sin (the spiritual leader of the People Power Revolution) and by papal decree, the archdiocese was further partitioned to form three new dioceses: the dioceses of Cubao, Caloocan and Pasig.
After having been served by a single diocesan bishop, nineteen archbishops were later appointed from Spain. In 1903, the archdiocese received its first American archbishop as appointed by the Holy See. Following the tenure of Archbishop Jeremiah James Harty from St. Louis, Missouri, the Irishman Michael J. O'Doherty was appointed, and received on September 6, 1916.
O'Doherty would lead the church in times when the Filipinos were petitioning for sovereignty from the United States and the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines during World War II. When O'Doherty died after Philippine independence in 1946, Rev. Gabriel Reyes, already serving as coadjutor archbishop, became the first native Filipino chosen for the position. Reyes' successor, Archbishop Rufino Jiao Santos, became the first Filipino to become a cardinal in 1960. After Santos' death in 1973, Auxiliary Bishop Artemio Casas was named in the capacity of vicar-capitular to oversee the archdiocese until a bishop was nominated. On January 21, 1974, Pope Paul VI appointed Jaro Archbishop Jaime Sin as new archbishop of Manila. Archbishop Sin was named cardinal in 1976 and would later be instrumental in encouraging peaceful demonstration to the Marcos regime through People Power in 1986.
In 2003 Pope John Paul II appointed Gaudencio Rosales, Archbishop of Lipa, to succeed Cardinal Sin. Pope Benedict XVI later elevated Rosales to the cardinalate on March 24, 2006. On October 13, 2011, Most Reverend Luis Antonio Gokim Tagle, Bishop of Imus, was named archbishop. Tagle replaced Cardinal Rosales, who had resigned at the compulsory age of retirement and now bears the honorary title of Archbishop Emeritus. Tagle was himself made a cardinal by Benedict XVI on November 24, 2012.
List of Archbishops of Manila
|1||Domingo de Salazar, O. P.||February 6, 1579||December 4, 1594|
|2||Ignacio Santibáñez, O.F.M.||August 30, 1595||August 14, 1598|
|3||Miguel de Benavides, O. P.||October 7, 1602||July 26, 1605|
|4||Diego Vázquez de Mercado||May 28, 1608||June 12, 1616|
|5||Miguel García Serrano, O.S.A.||February 12, 1618||June 14, 1629|
|6||Hernando Guerrero, O.S.A.||January 9, 1634||July 1, 1641|
|7||Fernando Montero Espinosa||February 5, 1646||1648|
|8||Miguel de Poblete Casasola||January 21, 1649||December 8, 1667|
|9||Juan López, O. P.||1672||February 12, 1674|
|10||Felipe Fernandez de Pardo, O. P.||October 28, 1681||December 31, 1689|
|11||Diego Camacho y Ávila||August 19, 1696||January 14, 1704|
|12||Francisco de la Cuesta, O.S.H.||August 12, 1707||1722|
|13||Carlos Bermúdez Gonzalez||1722||November 13, 1729|
|14||Juan Ángel Rodríguez, O.S.T.||May 18, 1731||June 24, 1742|
|15||Pedro de la Santísima Trinidad Martínez de Arizala, O.F.M.||February 3, 1744||May 28, 1755|
|16||Manuel Antonio Rojo del Río y Vieyra||1758||1764|
|17||Basilio Sancho de Santa Justa, S.P.||April 14, 1766||December 15, 1787|
|18||Juan Antonio Orbigo de Gallego, O.F.M.||December 15, 1788||May 17, 1797|
|19||Juan Antonio Zulaibar, O. P.||March 26, 1804||March 4, 1824|
|20||Hilarión Díez, O.S.A.||July 3, 1826||May 7, 1829|
|21||José Seguí, O.S.A.||July 5, 1830||July 4, 1845|
|22||José Aranguren, O.A.R.||January 19, 1846||April 18, 1861|
|23||Gregorio Melitón Martínez Santa Cruz||December 23, 1861||1875|
|24||Pedro Payo y Piñeiro, O.P.||January 28, 1876||January 1, 1889|
|25||Bernardino Nozaleda y Villa, O. P.||May 27, 1889||February 4, 1902|
|26||85px||Jeremiah James Harty||June 6, 1903||May 16, 1916|
|27||85px||Michael J. O'Doherty||September 6, 1916||October 13, 1949|
|28||90px||Gabriel Reyes y Martelino||October 13, 1949||October 15, 1952|
|29||Rufino Cardinal Santos y Jiao||February 10, 1953||September 3, 1973|
|30||Jaime Cardinal Sin y Lachica||March 19, 1974||September 15, 2003|
|31||100px||Gaudencio Cardinal Rosales y Borbon||November 21, 2003||October 13, 2011|
|32||100px||Luis Antonio Cardinal Tagle y Gokim||December 12, 2011||present|
College of Consultors
Below are member priests of the College of Consultors of the Archdiocese of Manila since July 1, 2015. Auxiliary bishops also serve as vicars general.
- Auxiliary Bishop of Manila – Most Rev. Broderick S. Pabillo, DD, SSL
- Vicar General and Moderator Curiae – Rev. Msgr. Jose Clemente F. Ignacio, PC
- Episcopal Vicar for Chancery Affairs, Chancellor & Private Secretary to the Archbishop - Rev. Fr. Reginald R. Malicdem, MAL
- Episcopal Vicar for Foreign Communities Concern - Rev. Msgr. Esteban U. Lo, LRMS, PC
- Episcopal Vicar for the Diocesan Clergy - Rev. Msgr. Jesus-Norriel Bandojo, PC
- Judicial Vicar - Rev. Msgr. Geronimo F. Reyes, PC, JCD
- Oeconomus - Rev. Fr. Cesar A. Buhat
As of 2004, the archdiocese has registered a total of 2,719,781 baptized faithful. They are served by 475 diocesan and religious priests – with a ratio of 5,725 faithful per priest, under 85 parishes. The archdiocese also houses 369 male religious and 1,730 female religious engaged in various social, pastoral and missionary works in various areas of the archdiocese.
Formation of Priests
The archdiocese administers San Carlos Seminary, the archdiocesan major seminary which caters to the formation of future priests for the archdiocese and for its suffragan dioceses. Located in Guadalupe Viejo, Makati City, it has college program (AB Philosophy) and graduate school (Masteral Degree in Theology or Pastoral Ministry), as well as formation houses for future priests committed to serve the Filipino-Chinese communities in the country (Lorenzo Ruiz Mission Society) and a center for adult vocations (Holy Apostles Senior Seminary). The archdiocese also operates Our Lady of Guadalupe Minor Seminary, a seminary for young men in the secondary school level. It is located a few blocks away from San Carlos Seminary.
- Minor Basilica and Metropolitan Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception (Manila Cathedral)
- Archdiocesan Shrine and Parish of Nuestra Señora de Guia
- Archdiocesan Shrine of Nuestra Señora de Consolación y Correa (San Agustin Church)
- Our Lady of Remedies Parish
- Our Lady of the Assumption Parish
- San Vicente de Paul Parish
- Minor Basilica of San Sebastian/Our Lady of Mount Carmel
- Minor Basilica of the Black Nazarene / Saint John the Baptist Parish
- National Shrine and Parish of Saint Jude
- National Shrine and Parish of Saint Michael and the Archangels
- San José de Trozo Parish
- Santa Cruz Parish
- Archdiocesan Shrine and Parish of Espíritu Santo
- Immaculate Conception Parish (Tayuman)
- Risen Christ Parish
- Saint Joseph Parish (Gagalangin)
- San José Manggagawà Parish
- San Rafael Parish (Balut)
- San Roque de Manila Parish
- Santa Monica Parish
- Archdiocesan Shrine and Parish of Our Lady of Loreto
- Archdiocesan Shrine of Saint Anthony of Padua
- Most Holy Trinity Parish
- Nuestra Señora de Salvación Parish
- Nuestra Señora del Perpetuo Socorro Parish
- Our Lady of Fátima Parish (Bacood)
- Sacred Heart of Jesus Parish (Old Santa Mesa)
- San Roque de Sampaloc Parish
- Santísimo Rosario Parish (University of Santo Tomas)
- Minor Basilica of San Lorenzo Ruiz/Our Lady of the Most Holy Rosary Parish
- Nuestra Señora de la Soledad Parish
- Our Lady of Peace and Good Voyage Parish
- Saint John Bosco Parish (Barrio Magsaysay)
- San Pablo Apostol Parish
- Santo Niño de Tondo Parish
- Our Lady of Peñáfrancia Parish
- Saint Maria Goretti Parish
- Saint Peter the Apostle Parish
- San Fernando de Dilao Parish
- Santo Niño de Pandacan Parish
- Our Lady of the Abandoned Parish (Santa Ana)
- Parokya ng Ina ng Laging Saklolo
- Sagrada Familia Parish
- Saint Anthony of Padua Parish
- Saint Pius X Parish
- Santísima Trinidad Parish
- Vicariate of Sta. Clara de Montefalco (Pasay City)
- Archdiocesan Shrine of Jesus the Way, the Truth, and the Life
- Mary, Comforter of the Afflicted Parish
- Our Lady of Fatima Parish (Don Carlos)
- Our Lady of Sorrows Parish
- Our Lady of the Airways Parish
- Our Lady of the Blessed Sacrament Parish
- San Isidro Parish
- San Juan Nepomuceno Parish
- San Rafael Parish (Park Avenue)
- San Roque Parish (Cabrera)
- Santa Clara de Montefalco Parish
- Archdiocesan Shrine and Quasi-Parish of Mary, Queen of Peace (EDSA Shrine)
- Chapel of the Eucharistic Lord
- Mary the Queen Parish
- Saint Francis of Assisi Parish
- Saint John the Baptist Parish (Pinaglabanan)
- Santuario de San José Parish
- Santuario del Santo Cristo Parish
- Vicariate of San Felipe Neri (Mandaluyong City)
- Archdiocesan Shrine of the Divine Mercy
- Our Lady of Fátima Parish (Addition Hills)
- Our Lady of the Abandoned Parish (Hulo)
- Sacred Heart of Jesus Parish (Welfareville)
- Saint Dominic Savio Parish
- San Felipe Neri Parish
- San Roque Parish (Barangka Ilaya)
- Vicariate of Saints Peter and Paul (Makati City)
- Holy Cross Parish
- National Shrine and Parish of the Sacred Heart
- Nuestra Señora de Gracia Parish
- Our Lady of La Paz Parish
- Saint Andrew the Apostle Parish
- Saint John Bosco Parish
- Saints Peter and Paul Parish
- Santo Niño de Paz Chapel
- Vicariate of Our Lady of Guadalupe (Makati City)
- Mary, Mirror of Justice Parish
- Mater Dolorosa Parish
- National Shrine and Parish of Our Lady of Guadalupe
- Saint John Mary Vianney Parish
- Saint John of the Cross Parish
- Santa Teresita Parish
- Santuario de San Antonio Parish
- Vicariate of Saint Joseph the Worker (Makati City)
- Holy Family Parish (San Isidro)
- Our Lady of Fátima Parish (Bangkal)
- Saint Alphonsus Mary de Liguori Parish
- Saint Joseph the Worker Parish (Palanan)
- San Ildefonso Parish
- Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila
- Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Archdiocese of Manila". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Gregory XIII, Pope, 1502–1585. "Bull for erection of the Diocese and Cathedral Church of Manila." In The Philippine Islands, 1493–1898. Cleveland, Ohio: A.H. Clark Company, 1903-9. Vol. 4, 1576–82. Pp. 119–124.
- "Officials". The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila Official Website. Retrieved on 2013-03-22.
- "History – the First Cathedral 1581–1583. Manila Metropolitan Cathedral-Basilica Official Website. Retrieved on 2013-03-22.
- "History – The Second Cathedral 1591-1600". Manila Metropolitan Cathedral-Basilica Official Website. Retrieved on 2013-03-22.
- Roces 1977, p. 1004.
- Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
- Quezon III, Manuel L. (2007-02-07). "The Warsaw of Asia: How Manila was Flattened in WWII". Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: Arab News Online (archive.arabnews.com). Opinion. Archived from the original on 2010-08-07. Retrieved 2010-08-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Pope Pius XII (1942). 34  - ocr.pdf "Acts of the Apostolic See – Insularum Philippinarum Beatissima Virgo Maria Titulo Immaculata Concepto Primaria Universalisque Patrona et Sanctae Virgines' Pudentiana ac Rosa Limanae Patronae Secundarias Declarantur", pp. 336–337. Vatican Archives. Retrieved on 2013-03-22.
- Rufo, Aries (11 January 2015). "Billions of pesos in Church funds locked in stocks". Rappler.com. Retrieved 3 September 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Palad, Carlos Antonio (2011-12-12). "The 32nd Archbishop of Manila". Filipino Catholicism. Retrieved on 2013-03-22.
- Catholic Hierarchy: "Bishop Ginés (Ginesio) Barrientos, O.P." retrieved November 12, 2015
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