Arranged marriage

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
File:V.V.Pukirev - The Arranged Marriage.jpg
Unequal marriage, a 19th-century painting by Russian artist Pukirev. It depicts an arranged marriage where a young girl is forced to marry someone she doesn't want to.

Arranged marriage is a type of marital union where the bride and groom are selected by their families rather than by each other.[1] It was common worldwide until the 18th century.[1] In more recent times, arranged marriage is common in South Asia, Africa,[2][3] the Middle East,[4][5] Latin America,[3][6] Southeast Asia[7] and parts of East Asia;[8][9] elsewhere in developed countries, arranged marriage has continued in some royal families,[10] parts of Japan,[11] among immigrant and minority ethnic groups.[12] Other groups that practice this custom include the Unification Church.

Arranged marriage should not be confused with the practice of forced marriage such as vani. In an arranged marriage, while the meeting of the spouses is arranged by family members, relatives or friends, the spouses agree of their own free will to marry. By contrast, in a forced marriage, one or both spouses are coerced into the marriage - the union takes place without their freely given consent (under duress, threats, psychological pressure etc.).[13]

Arranged marriage differs from autonomous marriage - called love marriage in some parts of the world - where the individuals find and select their own spouses; arranged marriages, in contrast, are usually set up by the parents or an older family member. In some cases, arranged marriage involves a matchmaker such as priest or religious leader, matrimonial site, mutual friends or a trusted third party.

Arranged marriages vary in nature and in how much time passes between first introduction and engagement. In an "introduction only" arranged marriage, also known as quasi-arranged[14] marriages or assisted[15] marriages, the parents or guardians introduce a potential spouse. From that point on, it is up to the two individuals to develop the relationship and make a final choice. There is no set time period. This is increasingly common in Japan, parts of Latin America and Africa, South Asia and East Asia.


Arranged marriages were very common throughout the world until the 18th century.[1] Typically, marriages everywhere were arranged by parents, grandparents or other relatives. Some historical exceptions are known, such as courtship and betrothal rituals during Renaissance period of Italy[16] and Gandharva marriages in Vedic period of India.[17]

In China, arranged marriages (baoban hunyin, 包辦婚姻) - sometimes called blind marriages (manghun, 盲婚) - were the norm before the mid 20th century. A marriage was a negotiation and decision between parents and other older members of two families. The boy and girl, were typically told to get married, without a right to consent, even if they had never met each other until the wedding day.[18][19][20]

Arranged marriages were the norm in Russia before the early 20th century, most of which were endogamous.[21]

Until the first half of the 20th century, arranged marriages were common in migrant families in the United States.[22] They were sometimes called picture-bride marriages among Japanese American immigrants because the bride and groom knew each other only through the exchange of photographs before the day of their marriage. These marriages among immigrants were typically arranged by parents, or relatives from the country of their origin. As immigrants settled in and melded into a new culture, arranged marriages shifted first to quasi-arranged marriages where parents or friends made introductions and the couple met before the marriage; over time, the marriages among the descendants of these immigrants shifted to autonomous marriages driven by individual's choice, dating and courtship preferences, along with an increase in interracial marriages.[22][23] Similar historical dynamics are claimed in other parts of the world.[24][25]

Arranged marriages have declined in prosperous countries with social mobility, ascendancy of individualism and the nuclear family; nevertheless, arranged marriages are still seen in countries of Europe and North America, among royal families, aristocrats and minority religious groups such as in placement marriage among Fundamentalist Mormon groups of the United States. In most other parts of the world, arranged marriages continue to varying degrees and increasingly in quasi-arranged form, along with autonomous marriages.[1]


File:The Ambitious Mother and the Obliging Clergyman.jpg
The Ambitious Mother and the Obliging Clergyman - a cartoon by Charles Dana Gibson caricaturing arranged marriages in early 20th century United States. A parent insists their daughter marry a man on grounds of wealth or aristocratic title, without considering the girl's wishes. The clergyman is caricatured officiating the marriage with a blindfold.

Marriages have been categorized into four groups in scholarly studies:[1][26]

  • parents or guardians select, the individuals are neither consulted nor have any say before the marriage (forced arranged marriage)
  • parents or guardians select, then the individuals are consulted, who consider and consent, and each individual has the power to refuse; sometimes, the individuals meet - in family setting or privately - before engagement and marriage as in shidduch custom among Orthodox Jews
  • individuals select, then parents or guardians are consulted, who consider and consent, and parents have the power to refuse
  • individuals select, the parents or guardians are neither consulted nor have any say before the marriage (autonomous marriage)

Gary Lee and Lorene Stone suggest that most adult marriages in recent modern history, are some gradation between extreme example of either ideal arranged or ideal autonomous marriage, in part because marriage is a social institution.[27] Similarly, Broude and Greene, after studying 142 cultures worldwide, have reported that 130 cultures have elements of arranged marriage.[28]

Extreme examples of forced arranged marriage have been observed in some societies, particularly in child marriages of girls below age 12. Illustrations include vani which is currently seen in some tribal / rural parts of Pakistan, and Shim-pua marriage in Taiwan before the 1970s (Tongyangxi in China).


There are many kinds of arranged marriages, some of these are:[29][30][31][32]

  • Arranged exogamous marriage: is one where a third party finds and selects the bride and groom irrespective of their social, economic and cultural group.
  • Arranged endogamous marriage: is one where a third party finds and selects the bride and groom from a particular social, economic and cultural group.
  • Consanguineous marriage: is a type of arranged endogamous marriage.[33] It is one where the bride and groom share a grandparent or near ancestor. Examples of these include first cousin marriages, uncle-niece marriages, second cousin marriages, and so on. The most common consanguineous marriages are first cousin marriages, followed by second cousin and uncle-niece marriages. These types of arranged marriages are most common in Muslim communities of the world. Between 25 to 40% of all marriages in parts of Saudi Arabia and Pakistan are first cousin marriages; while overall consanguineous arranged marriages exceed 65 to 80% in various regions of the Middle East, North Africa and Islamic Central Asia.[34][35]

The bride and groom in all of the above types of arranged marriages, usually do have the right to consent; if the bride or the groom or both do not have a right to consent, it is called a forced marriage.

Non-consanguineous arranged marriage is one where the bride and groom do not share a grandparent or near ancestor. This type of arranged marriages is common in Hindu and Buddhist South Asia, Southeast Asia, East Asia and Christian Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa.[36]

Consanguineous marriages are against the law in many parts of United States and Europe.[37] While consanguineous arranged marriages are common and culturally preferred in Islamic countries and migrants from Muslim countries to other parts of the world, they are culturally forbidden or considered undesirable in most Christian, Hindu and Buddhist societies.[38] Consanguineous arranged marriages were common in Jewish communities before the 20th century, but have declined to less than 10% in modern times.[39][40]

Causes and prevalence of arranged marriage

Over human history through modern times, the practice of arranged marriages have been encouraged by a combination of factors such as the practice of child marriage,[41] late marriage, tradition,[42][43] culture, religion, poverty and limited choice, disabilities,[44] wealth and inheritance issues, politics, social and ethnic conflicts.[45][46][47]

Child marriage

File:Marriage A-la-Mode 1, The Marriage Settlement - William Hogarth.jpg
"Marriage à-la-mode" by William Hogarth: a satire on arranged marriages and prediction of ensuing disaster

Child marriage, particularly those below the age of 12, does not prepare or provide the individual much opportunity to make an informed, free choice about matrimony. These child marriages are implicitly arranged marriages.[48] In rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and Latin America, poverty and lack of options such as being able to attend school leave little choice to children other than be in early arranged marriages.[41]

According to Warner, in nations with the highest rates of child marriages, the marriage of the girl is almost always arranged by her parents or guardians.[49] The nations with the highest rates of arranged child marriages are: Niger, Chad, Mali, Bangladesh, Guinea, Central African Republic, Afghanistan, Yemen, and Pakistan. Arranged child marriages are also observed in parts of the Americas.[50][51]


In impoverished communities, every adult mouth to feed becomes a continuing burden. Arranging a marriage of a daughter, scholars say,[52] is a means to reduce this burden. Poverty, thus, is a driver of arranged marriage.

This theory,[53][54] is supported by the observed rapid drop in arranged marriages in fast growing economies of Asia. The benefit parents received from the contributions from their earning single daughters has been cited[55] as a reason for their growing reluctance to see their daughters marry at too early an age.

Late marriage

Late marriage, particularly past the age of 30, reduces the pool of available bachelors for autonomous marriages. Introductions and arranged marriages become a productive option.[56]

For example, in part due to economic prosperity, about 40% of modern Japanese women reach the age of 29 and have never been married. To assist late marriages, the traditional custom of arranged marriages called Miai-kekkon is re-emerging. It involves the prospective bride and groom, family, friends and a matchmaker (nakōdo, 仲人); the pair is selected by a process with the individuals and family involved (iegara, 家柄); and typically the couple meet three times, in public or private, before deciding if they want to get engaged.[57][58][59]

Limited choices

Migrant minority ethnic populations have limited choice of partners, particularly when they are stereotyped, segregated or avoided by the majority population. This encourages homogamy and arranged marriages within the ethnic group. Examples of this dynamic include Sikh marriages between 1910 to 1980 in Canada,[60] homogamous quasi-arranged marriages between European descent South Africans,[61] arranged marriages among Hasidic Jews,[62][63] and arranged marriages among Japanese American immigrants before the 1960s, who would travel back to Japan, to marry the spouse arranged by the family, and then return married. In other cases, a girl from Japan would arrive in the United States as a picture bride, pre-arranged to marry the Japanese American man on arrival, whom she had never met.[64]

Physical disabilities

Certain physical disabilities increase the likelihood of arranged, even forced marriages in some parts of the world.[44][65] Okonjo says that a physical disability in a bride, and even more so, a groom is one of the reasons for early arranged marriages in Nigeria.[66]


Many cultures traditionally seek endogamous marriages. A prominent example of this practice is the Hindu culture where the bride and groom belong to the same caste, but are non-consanguineous, that is the bride and groom are not blood relatives nor extended family members. Other examples of cultures following the endogamous arranged marriage tradition include Amish people in United States,[67][68] Orthodox Jews in Canada, the United States, Israel, and Western Europe,[69][70] Arab Christians[71] such as Coptic Christians in Egypt.[5] Arranged marriage is also the tradition of many Islamic nations of West Asia and North Africa, but with the difference that between 17% to majority of all marriages in these countries are also consanguineous marriages.[72][73][74][75]

Endogamous non-consanguineous marriages limit the number of potential partners available, particularly when population size for the religion or caste or group is small; a limited marriagable pool makes locating potential partners challenging, and encourages arranged or quasi-arranged marriages.[76][77]

The practice of endogamous consanguineous marriage, dramatically limits the marriagable pool; it inherently encourages marriages arranged according to tradition and birth. Over 1.3 billion people, predominantly of Islamic faith practice endogamous consanguineous arranged marriages.[78][79] Consanguineous arranged marriages are presently also observed, though to a much lesser extent, in some ethnic groups of Africa, India, Indonesia, Polynesia and South America.[80] In Pakistan and Saudi Arabia, majority (65%+) of all marriages are endogamous and consanguineous arranged marriages. More than 40% of all marriages are endogamous and consanguineous in Iraq, Iran, Jordan, Syria, Yemen, Kuwait, UAE, Oman, Sudan, Libya and Mauritania; and over 1 in 5 marriages in Turkey, Egypt, Algeria, regions of Nigeria, India and Malaysia with high Muslim populations are endogamous and consanguineous arranged marriages.[78][81] Among these Islamic populations, arranged marriages include endogamous and non-consanguineous marriages, and therefore exceed the above observed rates of endogamous and consanguineous marriages.


The consequence of some customs is arranged marriage. For example, in rural and tribal parts of Pakistan and Afghanistan, disputes, unpaid debts in default and crimes such as murder are settled by a council of village elders, called jirga.[82] A typical punishment for a crime committed by males involves requiring the guilty family to marry their virgin girl between 5 to 12 year old to the other family. This custom requires no consent from the girl, or even her parents. Such arranged child marriages are called vani (custom), swara and sak in different regional languages of Pakistan.[83][84][85]

Another custom in certain Islamic nations,[86][87] such as Pakistan, is watta satta, where brother-sister pair of one family are swapped as spouses of brother-sister pair of another family. In other words, the wife is also the sister-in-law for the males in two families. This custom inherently leads to arranged form of marriage. About 30% of all marriages in western rural regions of Pakistan are by custom watta-satta marriages, and 75% of these Muslim marriages are between cousins and other blood relatives.[88][89][90] Some immigrant families prefer customary practice of arranged marriage.[91]


File:Mariage du duc de Bourgogne le 7 décembre 1697, tableau d'Antoine Dieu. Versailles.jpg
The arranged marriage in 1697, of Marie Adélaïde of Savoy, age 12 to Louis, Duke of Burgundy, heir apparent to the throne of France, as a result of the Treaty of Turin (1696). The marriage created an alliance between Louis XIV of France and the Duke of Savoy.

Arranged marriages across feudal lords, city states and kingdoms, as a means of establishing political alliances, trade and peace were common in human history.[59][92][93]

Wealth and inheritance issues

Throughout most of human history, marriage has been a social institution that produced children and organized inheritance of property from one generation to next. Various cultures, particularly some wealthy royals and aristocratic families, arranged marriages in part to conserve or streamline the inheritance of their wealth.[94]

Tongyangxi, also known as Shim-pua marriage in Taiwanese - literally child or little daughter-in-law - was a tradition of arranged marriage, in which a poor family would arrange and marry a pre-adolescent daughter into a richer family as a servant.[95] The little girl provided slave-like free labour, and also the daughter-in-law to the adoptive family's son. This sort of arranged marriage, in theory, enabled the girl to escape poverty and wealthy family to get free labour and a daughter-in-law. Zhaozhui was a related custom by which a wealthy family that lacked an heir would arrange marriage of a boy child from another family. The boy would move in with the wealthy family, take on the surname of the new family, and marry the family's daughter. Such arranged marriages helped maintain inheritance bloodlines.[96] Similar uxorilocal arranged marriages to preserve wealth inheritance were common in Korea, Japan and other parts of the world.[97][98][99]


In many cultures, particularly in parts of Africa and the Middle East, daughters are valuable on the marriage market, because the groom and his family must pay cash and property for the right to marry the daughter. This is termed as bride-wealth and locally, by various names such as Lobola and Wine Carrying.[100][101] The bride-wealth is typically kept by the bride's family, after the marriage, and is a source of income to poor families. The brothers, father and male relatives of the bride typically take keen interest in arranging her marriage to a man who is willing to pay the most wealth in exchange for the right to marry her.[102][103]


Some religious dominations recognize marriages only within the faith. Of the major religions of the world, only Islam forbids marriage of girls born to a devout parent to a man who does not belong to that religion. In other words, Islam forbids marriage of Muslim girls to non-Muslim men,[104] and the religious punishment for those who marry outside might be severe.[105] This is one of the motivations of arranged marriages in Islamic minority populations in Europe.[106][107]


Arranged marriages are actively debated between scholars. The questions debated include whether arranged marriages are being used to abuse international immigration system; whether arranged marriages inherently violate human rights, particularly women's rights;[108] whether they yield more stable marriages for raising children, the next generation;[109] and whether there is more or less loving, respectful relationship for the married couple.[110]

Sham marriages

In the United Kingdom, public discussion[111] has questioned whether international arranged marriages are a sham, a convenient means to get residency and European citizenship to some male or female immigrants, who would otherwise be denied a visa to enter the country. These fears have been stoked by observed divorces once the minimum married residence period requirement is met. MP Ann Cryer has alleged examples of such abuse by West Asian Muslim families in her motion to the UK's House of Commons.[112] The United States has seen a similar controversy with sham arranged marriages.[113][114]

Arranged marriages and human rights

Various international organizations, including UNICEF, have campaigned for laws to ban arranged marriages of children, as well as forced arranged marriages.[115] Article 15 and 16 of The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) specifically cover marriage and family law, which support such as ban.[116][117]

Arranged marriages are a matter of debate and disagreements. Activists such as Charlotte Bunch suggest that marriages arranged by parents and other family members, typically assume heterosexual preference and involve emotional pressure; this drives some individuals into marriages that they consent under duress.[108] Bunch suggests that marriages should be autonomous.

In contrast, preventing arranged marriages may harm many individuals who want to get married and can benefit from parental participation in finding and selecting a mate. For example, Willoughby suggests[110] that arranged marriages work because they remove anxiety in process of finding Mr. and Ms. Right. Parents, families and friends provide an independent perspective when they participate in learning and evaluating the other person, past history, behavior, as well as the couple's mutual compatibility. Willoughby further suggests that parents and family provide more than input in the screening and selection process; often, they provide financial support for the wedding, housing, emotional support and other valuable resources for the couple as they navigate past the wedding into married life, and help raise their children.

Michael Rosenfeld says[110] that the differences between autonomous marriages and arranged marriages are empirically small; many people meet, date and choose to marry or cohabit with those who are similar in background, age, interests and social class they feel most similar to, screening factors most parents would have used for them anyway, according to Rosenfeld. Assuming the pool from which mates are screened and selected is large, Rosenfeld suggests that the differences between the two approaches to marriages are not as great as some imagine them to be.[110] Others[118] have expressed sentiments similar to Rosenfeld.


Divorce rates have climbed in Europe and United States, with increase in autonomous marriage rates. The lowest divorce rates in the world are in cultures with high rates of arranged marriages such as Amish culture of United States (1%),[119] Hindus of India (3%),[110] and Ultra-Orthodox Jews of Israel (7%).[120] In contrast, over 50% of self-arranged marriages in many parts of Europe and United States end up in divorce.[121][122] This has led scholars to ask if arranged marriages are more stable than autonomous marriages, and whether this stability matters. Others suggest that the low divorce rates may not reflect stability, rather it may reflect the difficulty in divorce process and social ostracism to the individuals, who choose to live in a dysfunctional marriage rather than face the consequences of a divorce.[110]Also, the perception of high divorce rates attributed to self-arranged marriages in the United States is being called into question[123] and no authoritative data is available to support the theory that Hindus of India continue to enjoy low divorce rates.

There is a difference in observed divorce rates between various types of arranged marriages. The divorce rates in Islamic countries with consanguineous arranged marriages such as Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Egypt, Qatar, Jordan is between 20% to 35%,[124] in contrast to less than 10% divorce rates in non-consanguineous arranged marriages among Amish people, Hindus and Orthodox Jews.

Love and respect in arranged versus autonomous marital life

Various small sample surveys have been done to ascertain if arranged marriages or autonomous marriages have a more satisfying married life. The results are mixed - some state marriage satisfaction is higher in autonomous marriages, others find no significant differences.[125] Johnson and Bachan have questioned the small sample size and conclusions derived from them.[126]

Scholars[110][127] ask whether love and respect in marital life is greater in arranged marriages than autonomous marriages. Epstein suggests that in many arranged marriages, love emerges over time. Neither autonomous nor arranged marriages offer any guarantees. Many arranged marriages also end up being cold and dysfunctional as well, with reports of abuse.[128][129][130]

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Jodi O'Brien (2008), Encyclopedia of Gender and Society, Volume 1, SAGE Publications, page 40-42, ISBN 978-1412909167
  2. WIEN, A. F. I. The Other Face of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM): MORAL AND SOCIAL ELEMENTS; AFRICAN WOMEN’S ORGANIZATION (OCTOBER 2003), Vienna, Austria; page 15-16
  3. 3.0 3.1 Voluntarism and Marriage; UNFPA, United Nations Population Fund (2011); see Child Marriage section
  4. Alan H. Bittles, Hanan A. Hamamy (2010), Genetic Disorders Among Arab Populations, in Endogamy and Consanguineous Marriage in Arab Populations (Editor: Ahmad Teebi), ISBN 978-3-642-05079-4, pages 85-108
  5. 5.0 5.1 Somervill, Barbara (2007). Teens in Egypt. Capstone; ISBN 978-0756532949; page 41-43, 57
  6. Sloan, Kathryn (2011). Women's Roles in Latin America and the Caribbean, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 978-0313381089
  7. Hatfield, E., Rapson, R. L., & Martel, L. D. (2007), Passionate love and sexual desire, Handbook of cultural psychology, S. Kitayama & D. Cohen (Eds.), New York: Guilford Press; pages 760-779
  8. Batabyal, A. A. (2001). On the likelihood of finding the right partner in an arranged marriage. Journal of Socio-Economics, 30(3), pages 273-280
  9. Adams, B. N. (2004). Families and family study in international perspective. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66(5), pages 1076-1088
  10. Margaret Evans, The Diana Phenomenon: Reaction in the East Midlands, Folklore, Volume 109, Issue 1-2, 1998, pages 101-103; Quote: "Diana Spencer was of the ancient British royal bloodline. Her arranged marriage to Charles had been engineered to re-introduce this ancient bloodline and legitimise the House of Windsor."
  11. Arnett & Taber (1994), Adolescence terminable and interminable: When does adolescence end?, Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 23(5), pp 517-537; Quote - "In Japan, for example, even in modern times close to half of marriages are reported to be arranged (known as miai marriages)"
  12. (a) Ralph Grillo (2011), Marriages, arranged and forced: the UK debate; in Gender, Generations and the Family in International Migration, (Editors: Albert Kraler, Eleonore Kofman, Martin Kohli, Camille Schmoll), ISBN 978-9089642851, pp 77-78; Quote - "Arranged and forced marriages among immigrant and minority ethnic groups has been widely debated across Europe"; (b) Christian Joppke (2004), The retreat of multiculturalism in the liberal state: theory and policy, The British Journal of Sociology, 55(2), pp 237-257
  13. "BBC - Ethics: Forced Marriage".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Vaillant, N. G., & Harrant, V. (2008). Determinants of the likelihood of finding the right partner in an arranged marriage: Evidence from a French matchmaking agency, The Journal of Socio-Economics, 37(2), pages 657-671
  15. Force Marriage Staffordshire County Council, United Kingdom
  16. "Courtship and Betrothal in the Italian Renaissance".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M, James G. Lochtefeld (2001), ISBN 978-0823931798, Page 427
  18. Fricke, Chang, and Yang. (1994). Historical and Ethnographic Perspectives on the Chinese family. Social Change and the Family in Taiwan. Arland Thornton and Lin, Hui-Sheng. Chicago and London, The University of Chicago Press: 22-48
  19. Pan, Rong (2004), Why Being Single?, Lund University (Sweden), Centre for Asian studies
  20. Gender, Marriage and Migration - Mainland China and Taiwan Melody Chia-Wen Lu (2008), Leiden University
  21. Hutton, M. J. (2001). Russian and West European Women, 1860-1939: Dreams, Struggles, and Nightmares. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers; see Chapter 1
  22. 22.0 22.1 Harry Reis and Susan Sprecher, Encyclopedia of Human Relationships, SAGE Publications, ISBN 978-1412958462, pages 113-117
  23. Ghimire et al. (2006), Social change, premartial family experience and spouse choice in an arranged marriage society, American Journal of Sociology, 111, pages 1181-1218
  24. Xiaohe and Whyte (1990), Love matches and arranged marriages: A Chinese replication, Journal of Marriage and the Family, 52, pages 709-722
  25. Tekce (2004), Paths of marriage in Istanbul: arranging choices and choice in arrangements, Ethnography, 5, pages 173-201
  26. Stange et al. (2011), Encyclopedia of Women in Today's World, SAGE Publications, ISBN 978-1412976855, pages 899-901
  27. Gary R. Lee and Lorene Hemphill Stone, Mate-Selection Systems and Criteria: Variation according to Family Structure, Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 42, No. 2 (May, 1980), pages 319-326
  28. Broude, G. J., & Greene, S. J. (1983). Cross-cultural codes on husband-wife relationships. Ethnology, 22(3), pages 263-280
  29. Ghimire, D. J., Axinn, W. G., Yabiku, S. T., & Thornton, A. (2006). Social Change, Premarital Nonfamily Experience, and Spouse Choice in an Arranged Marriage Society1. American Journal of Sociology, 111(4), pages 1181-1218
  30. Jones, G. (2010). Changing marriage patterns in Asia, Asia Research Institute Working Paper No. 131
  31. Shaw, A. (2001). Kinship, cultural preference and immigration: consanguineous marriage among British Pakistanis. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 7(2), pages 315-334
  32. Joseph, S. E. (2007). Kissing Cousins. Current Anthropology, 48(5), pages 756-764
  33. Joseph, S. E. (2007). Kissing Cousins, Current Anthropology, 48(5), pages 756-764
  34. R. Hussain (1999), Community perceptions of reasons for preference for consanguineous marriages in Pakistan, Journal of Biosocial Science, 31, pages 449-461
  35. Consanguineous marriages Brecia Young (2006)
  36. Derek F. Roberts, N. Fujiki, K. Torizuka, Kanji Torizuka (Editors), see Imaizumi, Y. O. K. O. (1992). Factors influencing the frequency of consanguineous marriages in Japan (pages 29-40). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press; ISBN 978-0521419123
  37. Bittles, A. H. (2003). The bases of Western attitudes to consanguineous marriage. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 45(2), pages 135-138
  38. Alan Bittles, Consanguinity in Context (Cambridge Studies in Biological and Evolutionary Anthropology), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521781862
  39. Jewish Encyclopedia (1906), see article on CONSANGUINITY AMONG JEWS; also see Jacobs, Studies in Jewish Statistics, pp. 1-9, London, 1891;
  40. Cohen et al., Consanguinity, intracommunity and intercommunity marriages in a population sample of Israeli Jews, Ann Hum Biol. 2004 Jan-Feb;31(1), pages 38-48
  41. 41.0 41.1 Child Marriages World Health Organization, United Nations (7 March 2013)
  42. Afghanistan - The situation of women and girls UNHCR (2007), pages 45-46
  43. Early Marriage as a barrier to Girl's Education Jeannette Bayisenge, Rwanda (2008)
  44. 44.0 44.1 Ghai, A. (2001). Marginalisation and disability: experiences from the Third World. Disability and the life course: Global perspectives, pages 26-37
  45. Amt, Emilie (1993), Women's Lives in Medieval Europe, New York, Routledge
  46. Máiréad Enright, Choice, Culture and the Politics of Belonging: The Emerging Law of Forced and Arranged Marriage, The Modern Law Review, Volume 72, Issue 3, pages 331–359, May 2009
  47. Carol Ember and Melvin Ember, Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender: Men and Women in the World's Cultures Topics and Cultures, Volume 2, ISBN 978-0306477706, pages 71-77
  48. Gupta, G. R. (1976). Love, arranged marriage, and the Indian social structure. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 7(1), pages 75-85
  49. Warner, Elizabeth (2004), Behind the wedding veil: Child marriage as a form of trafficking in girls. American U Journal Gender Soc. Policy & Law, 12, pages 233-270
  50. Chawkins, Steve (January 15, 2009). "Teen's arranged marriage is allowed in native Mexico". Los Angeles Times.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  51. California dad accused of selling girl to teen for cash, beer – Houston Chronicle. (2009-01-12). Retrieved on 2012-04-02.
  52. Engel, J. W. (1984). Marriage in the People's Republic of China: Analysis of a new law. Journal of Marriage and the Family, pages 955-961
  53. The "Flight from Marriage" in South-East and East Asia Gavin Jones, Singapore (2011)
  54. Salaff, J. (1976) ‘The status of unmarried Hong Kong women and the social factors contributing to their delayed marriage’, Population Studies, 30(3), pages 391-412
  55. Jones (1997) ‘The demise of universal marriage in East and South-East Asia’, in G.W. Jones, R.M. Douglas, J.C. Caldwell and R. D’Souza (eds.), The Continuing Demographic Transition, Oxford Clarendon Press
  56. Retherford, R. D., Ogawa, N., & Matsukura, R. (2001). Late marriage and less marriage in Japan. Population and Development Review, 27(1), pages 65-102
  57. "Omiai and Miai-gekkon, Arranged Marriages in Japan". 6 November 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  58. Applbaum, K.D. (1995) Marriage with the proper stranger – arranged marriage in metropolitan Japan, Ethnology, 34, 37–51
  59. 59.0 59.1 Hendry, Joy (2010), Marriage in Changing Japan: Community & Society (Vol. 4), Taylor & Francis
  60. Kurian, G. (1991). South Asians in Canada. International Migration, 29(3), pages 421-433
  61. Maconachie, M. (1988). Bound by language: Homogamous marriages among a sample of White South Africans. South African Journal of Sociology, 19(1), 34-41.
  62. Hasidism in America Public Broadcasting Service, United States (2002)
  63. Hasidism Louis Jacobs, The Yivo Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe (1998)
  64. A History of Japanese Americans in California Archives of National Park Service, United States (2004)
  65. Rauf et al (2013), Forced marriage: implications for mental health and intellectual disability services, Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 19, pages 135-143
  66. Okonjo, Kamene (1992). Aspects of continuity and change in mate-selection among the Igbo West of the River Niger. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 23(3), pages 339-360.
  67. Hurd, J. P. (1985). Kissing cousins: Frequencies of cousin types in "Nebraska" Amish marriages. Biodemography and Social Biology, 32(1-2), pages 82-89
  68. McKUSICK, V. A., Hostetler, J. A., & Egeland, J. A. (1964). Genetic studies of the Amish. Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, 115, 203-222.
  69. Schnoor, R. F. (2002). tradition and innovation in an ultra-orthodox Community: the hasidim of outremont. Canadian Jewish Studies/Études juives canadiennes, pages 55-56
  70. Mandel, Arnold (1967). The Jews in Western Europe Today. Jewish Publication Society of America; see page 9
  71. Patai, Raphael (Winter, 1965). The structure of endogamous unilineal descent groups, Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, Vol. 21, No. 4, pages 325-350
  72. Islam, M. M. (2012). The practice of consanguineous marriage in Oman: prevalence, trends and determinants. Journal of biosocial science, 44(5), 571
  73. Hussain, R. (2005). The effect of religious, cultural and social identity on population genetic structure among Muslims in Pakistan. Annals of Human Biology, 32(2), 145-153.
  74. Saadat, M., Ansari-Lari, M., & Farhud, D. D. (2004), Short Report Consanguineous marriage in Iran, Annals of human biology, 31(2), pages 263-269
  75. Khoury, S. A., & Massad, D. (1992). Consanguineous marriage in Jordan, American journal of medical genetics, 43(5), pages 769-775
  76. Brown, C. H. (1981). demographic constraints on caste: a Fiji Indian example.American Ethnologist, 8(2), pages 314-328
  77. Adams, J. W., & Kasakoff, A. B. (1975). Factors underlying endogamous group size. Population and social organization, pages 147-173
  78. 78.0 78.1 Hanan Hamamy (July 2012), Consanguineous marriages, Journal Community Genet. 3(3), pages 185–192
  79. Tadmouri GO, Nair P, Obeid T, Al Ali MT, Al Khaja N, Hamamy HA (2009), Consanguinity and reproductive health among Arabs, Reproductive Health; pages 6:17
  80. Khlat, M. (1997). Endogamy in the Arab world. OXFORD MONOGRAPHS ON MEDICAL GENETICS, 30, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195093056; pages 63-82
  81. Bittles A. The global prevalence of consanguinity; access date: September 2013
  82. Vani verdict The Tribune (IHT / New York Times Group), Pakistan (October 9, 2012)
  83. Nasrullah, M., Muazzam, S., Bhutta, Z. A., & Raj, A. (2013). Girl Child Marriage and Its Effect on Fertility in Pakistan: Findings from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006–2007. Maternal and child health journal, pp 1-10
  84. [ Vani a social evil] Anwar Hashmi and Rifat Koukab, The Fact (Pakistan), (July 2004)
  85. Ahsan, I. (2009). PANCHAYATS AND JIRGAS (LOK ADALATS): Alternative Dispute Resolution System in Pakistan. Strengthening Governance Through Access To Justice
  86. Latif, Z. (2010), The silencing of women from the Pakistani Muslim Mirpuri community in violent relationships. Honour, Violence, Women and Islam, 29
  87. Beswick, S. (2012). Brian J. Peterson. Islamization from Below: The Making of Muslim Communities in Rural French Sudan, 1880–1960. The American Historical Review, 117(4), Chapter 5, pp 1329-1360
  88. Watta Satta: Bride Exchange and Women’s Welfare in Rural Pakistan Hanan G. Jacoby and Ghazala Mansuri, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 4126, February 2007 (Washington DC)
  89. PAKISTAN: Traditional marriages ignore HIV/AIDS threat IRIN, United Nations press service (6 December 2007)
  90. Charsley, K. (2007), Risk, trust, gender and transnational cousin marriage among British Pakistanis, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30(6), pp 1117-1131
  91. Arranged Marriage: Trapped Between Two Cultures. National Public Radio. Retrieved on 2012-04-02.
  92. Harris, B. J. (1989). Power, Profit, and Passion: Mary Tudor, Charles Brandon, and the Arranged Marriage in Early Tudor England. Feminist Studies, 15(1), pages 59-88
  93. Fossum, U. M. S., & Boyd, K. (2010). Arranged Marriage–A violation of human rights?. University of California, Berkeley
  94. Coontz, S. (2006). Marriage, a history: How love conquered marriage. Penguin
  95. Judd, E. R. (1989). Niangjia: Chinese women and their natal families. Journal of Asian Studies, 48(3), pages 525-544
  96. Lin Yuju (2011). "Zhaozhui son-in-law". Encyclopedia of Taiwan. Council for Cultural Affairs.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  97. Martin, L. G. (1990). Changing intergenerational family relations in East Asia.The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, pages 102-114
  98. Haruko, W., & Gay, S. (1984). Marriage and property in premodern Japan from the perspective of women's history. Journal of Japanese Studies, 10(1), pages 73-99
  99. Kerbo, H. R., & MacKinstry, J. A. (1995). Who rules Japan?: the inner circles of economic and political power. Greenwood Publishing Group; see pages 30-31
  100. Wining back our good luck: bridewealth in nowadays Maputo Paulo Granjo (2004)
  101. Bride price: an insult to women, a burden to men?, BBC News (August 30, 2004)
  102. Margrethe Silberschmidt (1999), Women Forget that Men are the Masters, Nordic Africa Institute, ISBN 978-9171064394, pp 87
  103. Stephanie Beswick (2001), " We Are Bought Like Clothes": The War Over Polygyny and Levirate Marriage in South Sudan, Northeast African Studies, 8(2), pp 35-61, Quote - "The highest bidder usually acquires the woman, and the bridewealth is made in a series of payments."
  104. See:
    • Saad Ibrahim, Minority Rights Group International, The Copts of Egypt, January 1996; pages 24-25;
    • Philippe Fargues (1998), in Andrea Pacini (Editor), Christian Communities in the Arab Middle East, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-829388-7, page 51;
    • Heiner Bielefeldt, Human Rights Quarterly, Volume 17, Number 4, November 1995, pages 587-617
  105. See:
    • Saeed, Hassan (2004): Freedom of Religion, Apostasy and Islam. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-3082-1;
    • Altstein,Howard;Simon, Rita James (2003): Global perspectives on social issues: marriage and divorce. Lexington, Mass: LexingtonBooks. ISBN 0-7391-0588-4;
    • [Quran 60:10]
  106. Coleman, D. A. (2004), Partner choice and the growth of ethnic minority populations, Bevolking en Gezin, 33(2), 7-34.
  107. Razack, Sherene H. (October 2004). "Imperilled muslim women, dangerous muslim men and civilised Europeans: legal and social responses to forced marriages". Feminist Legal Studies. Springer. 12 (2): 129–174. doi:10.1023/B:FEST.0000043305.66172.92.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  108. 108.0 108.1 Bunch, Charlotte (1995). Transforming human rights from a feminist perspective, Women’s Rights, Human Rights: International Feminist Perspectives (Julie Peters and Andrea Wolper Editors), pages 15-16; also see pages 157-160
  109. Amato, Paul R. (2012). Institutional, Companionate, and Individualistic Marriages, Marriage at the Crossroads: Law, Policy, and the Brave New World of Twenty-First-Century Families, pages 107-124
  110. 110.0 110.1 110.2 110.3 110.4 110.5 110.6 Modern Lessons from Arranged Marriages Ji Hyun Lee, New York Times (January 18, 2013)
  111. Ralph Grillo, Marriages, arranged and forced: the UK debate; in Gender, Generations and the Family in International Migration, (Editors: Albert Kraler, Eleonore Kofman, Martin Kohli, Camille Schmoll), ISBN 978-9089642851; see Chapter 3
  112. Multi-cultural sensitivity is not an excuse for moral blindness, Hansard, 10 February 1999; column 256-280
  113. David Seminara (2008) Hello, I Love You, Won’t You Tell Me Your Name: Inside the Green Card Marriage Phenomenon Center for Immigration Studies
  114. MORE WEDDING RING BUSTS Green-card scam probe widens Brian Harmon, New York Daily News (August 16, 2002)
  115. Child Marriages UNICEF
  116. Freeman, Marsha (1995). Transforming human rights from a feminist perspective, Women’s Rights, Human Rights: International Feminist Perspectives (Julie Peters and Andrea Wolper Editors), pages 149-176
  117. CEDAW - Full Text of Convention United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (2009)
  118. Is arranged marriage really any worse than craigslist? Anita Jain, New York Magazine (2013)
  119. Trip back in time: the Amish in Ohio St Louis Post-Dispatch (September 10, 2010)
  120. "It's All Relative: The Contemporary Orthodox Jewish Family in America - Institute for Jewish Ideas and Ideals".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  121. "NVSS - National Marriage and Divorce Rate Trends".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  122. "Statistics Explained".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  123. "The Divorce Surge Is Over, but the Myth Lives On". New York Times.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  124. World Marriage Data United Nations Population Division (2008)
  125. See:
    • Usha Gupta; Pushpa Singh (July 1982). "An exploratory study of love and liking and type of marriages". Indian Journal of Applied Psychology. 19 (2): 92–97.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    • Xu Xiaohe; Martin King Whyte (Aug 1990). "Love Matches and Arranged Marriages: A Chinese Replication". Journal of Marriage and Family. 52 (3): 709–722. doi:10.2307/352936.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    • Jane E. Myers; Jayamala Madathil; Lynne R. Tingle (2005). "Marriage Satisfaction and Wellness in India and the United States: A Preliminary Comparison of Arranged Marriages and Marriages of Choice". Journal of Counseling & Development. 83 (2): 183–190. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6678.2005.tb00595.x.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    • Pamela C. Regan; Saloni Lakhanpal; Carlos Anguiano (June 2012). "Relationship Outcomes in Indian-American Love-Based and Arranged Marriages". Psychological Reports. 110 (3): 915–924. doi:10.2466/21.02.07.PR0.110.3.915-924.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  126. David R. Johnson; Lauren K. Bachan (Aug 2013). "What can we learn from studies based on small sample sizes? Comment on Regan, Lakhanpal, and Anguiano (2012)". Psychological Reports. 113 (1): 221–224. doi:10.2466/21.02.07.PR0.113x12z8. PMC 3990435. PMID 24340813.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  127. Paul Amato (2012), in Marriage at the Crossroads: Law, Policy, and the Brave New World;Editors: Marsha Garrison, Elizabeth S. Scott; ISBN 978-1107018273; see Chapter 6
  128. Child bride, 13, dies of internal injuries four days after arranged marriage in Yemen Mail Online, United Kingdom (9 April 2010)
  129. Indian woman says arranged marriage was full of abuse John Tuohy and Bill McCleery, USA Today (August 12, 2013)
  130. Fighting arranged marriage abuse Sue Lloyd-Roberts, BBC News (July 12, 1999)

External links

de:Heiratsvermittlung#Abgrenzung zur Zwangsheirat