Association for Computing Machinery
|"acm" in blue circle with gray rim, surrounded by blue diamond|
|Type||501(c)(3) not-for-profit membership corporation|
|Headquarters||New York City|
|Alexander L. Wolf|
The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing. It was founded in 1947 and is the world's largest scientific and educational computing society. It is a not-for-profit professional membership group. Its membership is more than 100,000 as of 2011. Its headquarters are in New York City.
- 1 Activities
- 2 Services
- 3 Portal and Digital Library
- 4 Competition
- 5 Membership grades
- 6 Chapters
- 7 Conferences
- 8 Awards
- 9 Leadership
- 10 Infrastructure
- 11 ACM Council on Women in Computing
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
ACM is organized into over 171 local chapters and 37 Special Interest Groups (SIGs), through which it conducts most of its activities. Additionally, there are over 500 college and university chapters. The first student chapter was founded in 1961 at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
Many of the SIGs, like SIGGRAPH, SIGPLAN, SIGCSE and SIGCOMM, sponsor regular conferences which have become famous as the dominant venue for presenting innovations in certain fields. The groups also publish a large number of specialized journals, magazines, and newsletters.
ACM also sponsors other computer science related events such as the worldwide ACM International Collegiate Programming Contest (ICPC), and has sponsored some other events such as the chess match between Garry Kasparov and the IBM Deep Blue computer.
ACM publishes several journals and magazines with ACM Communications and ACM Queue as mouthpieces.
ACM publishes a prestigious academic journal, Journal of the ACM, and general magazines for computer professionals, Communications of the ACM (also known as Communications or CACM) and Queue. Other publications of the ACM include:
- ACM XRDS, formerly "Crossroads", was designed in 2010 and is the most popular student computing magazine in the US.
- ACM Interactions, an interdisciplinary HCI publication focused on the connections between experiences, people and technology, and the third largest ACM publication.
- ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR)
- ACM Computers in Entertainment (CIE)
- A number of journals, specific to subfields of computer science, titled ACM Transactions. Some of the more notable transactions include:
- ACM Transactions on Computer Systems (TOCS)
- IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics (TCBB)
- ACM Transactions on Computational Logic (TOCL)
- ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI)
- ACM Transactions on Database Systems (TODS)
- ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG)
- ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS)
- ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications, and Applications (TOMM)
- IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking (TON)
- ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems (TOPLAS)
Although Communications no longer publishes primary research, and is not considered a prestigious venue, many of the great debates and results in computing history have been published in its pages.
ACM has made almost all of its publications available to paid subscribers online at its Digital Library and also has a Guide to Computing Literature. Individual members additionally have access to Safari Books Online and Books24x7. ACM also offers insurance, online courses, and other services to its members.
In 1997, ACM Press published Wizards and Their Wonders: Portraits in Computing (ISBN 0897919602), written by Christopher Morgan, with new photographs by Louis Fabian Bachrach. The book is a collection of historic and current portrait photographs of figures from the computer industry.
Portal and Digital Library
The ACM Digital Library is the full-text collection of all articles published by the ACM in its articles, magazines and conference proceedings. The Guide is a bibliography in computing with over one million entries. The ACM Digital Library contains a comprehensive archive starting in the 1950s of the organization's journals, magazines, newsletters and conference proceedings. Online services include a forum called Ubiquity and Tech News digest. There is an extensive underlying bibliographic database containing key works of all genres from all major publishers of computing literature. This secondary database is a rich discovery service known as The ACM Guide to Computing Literature.
ACM adopted a hybrid Open Access (OA) publishing model in 2013. Authors who do not choose to pay the OA fee must grant ACM publishing rights by either a copyright transfer agreement or a publishing license agreement.
ACM was a "green" publisher before the term was invented. Authors may post documents on their own websites and in their institutional repositories with a link back to the ACM Digital Library's permanently maintained Version of Record.
All metadata in the Digital Library is open to the world, including abstracts, linked references and citing works, citation and usage statistics, as well as all functionality and services. Other than the free articles, the full-texts are accessed by subscription.
ACM's primary historical competitor has been the IEEE Computer Society, which is the largest subgroup of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The IEEE focuses more on hardware and standardization issues than theoretical computer science, but there is considerable overlap with ACM's agenda. They occasionally cooperate on projects like developing computing curricula. Some of the major awards in Computer science are given jointly by ACM and the IEEE–CS.
There is also a mounting challenge to the ACM's publication practices coming from the open access movement. Some authors see a centralized peer–review process as less relevant and publish on their home pages or on unreviewed sites like arXiv. Other organizations have sprung up which do their peer review entirely free and online, such as Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research (JAIR), Journal of Machine Learning Research (JMLR) and the Journal of Research and Practice in Information Technology.
In addition to student and regular members, ACM has several advanced membership grades to recognize those with multiple years of membership and "demonstrated performance that sets them apart from their peers".
The ACM Fellows Program was established by Council of the Association for Computing Machinery in 1993 "to recognize and honor outstanding ACM members for their achievements in computer science and information technology and for their significant contributions to the mission of the ACM."
In 2006 ACM began recognizing two additional membership grades, one which was called Distinguished Members. Distinguished Members (Distinguished Engineers, Distinguished Scientists, and Distinguished Educators) have at least 15 years of professional experience and 5 years of continuous ACM membership and "have made a significant impact on the computing field". Note that in 2006 when the Distinguished Members first came out, one of the three levels was called "Distinguished Member" and was changed about two years later to "Distinguished Educator". Those who already had the Distinguished Member title had their titles changed to one of the other three titles.
Also in 2006, ACM began recognizing Senior Members. Senior Members have ten or more years of professional experience and 5 years of continuous ACM membership.
As of 2011, ACM has professional & SIG Chapters in 56 countries.
As of 2014, there exist ACM student chapters in 41 different countries.
Special Interest Groups
- SIGACCESS: Accessible Computing
- SIGACT: Algorithms and Computation Theory
- SIGAda: Ada Programming Language
- SIGAI: Artificial Intelligence
- SIGAPP: Applied Computing
- SIGARCH: Computer Architecture
- SIGBED: Embedded Systems
- SIGBio: Bioinformatics
- SIGCAS: Computers and Society
- SIGCHI: Computer–Human Interaction
- SIGCOMM: Data Communication
- SIGCSE: Computer Science Education
- SIGDA: Design Automation
- SIGDOC: Design of Communication
- SIGecom: Electronic Commerce
- SIGEVO: Genetic and Evolutionary Computation
- SIGGRAPH: Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques
- SIGHPC: High Performance Computing
- SIGIR: Information Retrieval
- SIGITE: Information Technology Education
- SIGKDD: Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining
- SIGLOG: Logic and Computation
- SIGMETRICS: Measurement and Evaluation
- SIGMICRO: Microarchitecture
- SIGMIS: Management Information Systems
- SIGMM: Multimedia
- SIGMOBILE: Mobility of Systems, Users, Data and Computing
- SIGMOD: Management of Data
- SIGOPS: Operating Systems
- SIGPLAN: Programming Languages
- SIGSAC: Security, Audit, and Control
- SIGSAM: Symbolic and Algebraic Manipulation
- SIGSIM: Simulation and Modeling
- SIGSOFT: Software Engineering
- SIGSPATIAL: Spatial Information
- SIGUCCS: University and College Computing Services
- SIGWEB: Hypertext, Hypermedia, and Web
ACM sponsors numerous conferences listed below. Most of the special interest groups also have an annual conference. ACM conferences are often very popular publishing venues and are therefore very competitive. For example, the 2007 SIGGRAPH conference attracted about 30000 visitors, and CIKM only accepted 15% of the long papers that were submitted in 2005.
- ASPLOS: International Conference on Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems
- CHI: Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
- SIGCSE: SIGCSE Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education
- CIKM: Conference on Information and Knowledge Management
- DAC: Design Automation Conference
- DEBS: Distributed Event Based Systems
- FCRC: Federated Computing Research Conference
- GECCO: Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference
- SC: Supercomputing Conference
- SIGGRAPH: International Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques
- Hypertext: Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia
- JCDL: Joint Conference on Digital Libraries
- TAPIA: Richard Tapia Celebration of Diversity in Computing Conference
- SIGCOMM: ACM SIGCOMM Conference
There are some conferences hosted by ACM student branches; this includes Reflections Projections, which is hosted by UIUC ACM. . In addition, ACM sponsors regional conferences. Regional conferences facilitate increased opportunities for collaboration between nearby institutions and they are well attended.
The ACM presents or co–presents a number of awards for outstanding technical and professional achievements and contributions in computer science and information technology.
- A. M. Turing Award
- ACM - AAAI Allen Newell Award
- ACM Eugene L. Lawler Award
- ACM – IEEE CS Ken Kennedy Award
- ACM - Infosys Foundation Award in the Computing Sciences
- ACM–W Athena Lecturer Award
- ACM Presidential Award
- ACM Programming Systems and Languages Paper Award
- Distinguished Service Award
- Doctoral Dissertation Award
- Eckert–Mauchly Award
- Gordon Bell Prize
- Grace Murray Hopper Award
- Paris Kanellakis Theory and Practice Award
- Karl V. Karlstrom Outstanding Educator Award
- Outstanding Contribution to ACM Award
- Software System Award
- SIAM/ACM Prize in Computational Science and Engineering
The President of the ACM for 2014–2016 is Alexander L. Wolf of Imperial College London, UK. He is the successor of Vint Cerf (2012–2014), an American computer scientist who is recognized as one of "the fathers of the Internet"; Alain Chesnais (2010–2012), a French citizen living in Toronto, Canada, where he runs his company named Visual Transitions; and Dame Wendy Hall of the University of Southampton, UK (2008-2010).
ACM is led by a Council consisting of the President, Vice–President, Treasurer, Past President, SIG Governing Board Chair, Publications Board Chair, three representatives of the SIG Governing Board, and seven Members–At–Large. This institution is often referred to simply as "Council" in Communications of the ACM.
ACM has five “Boards” that make up various committees and subgroups, to help Headquarters staff maintain quality services and products. These boards are as follows:
- Publications Board
- SIG Governing Board
- Education Board
- Membership Services Board
- Practitioners Board
ACM Council on Women in Computing
ACM–W, the ACM council on women in computing, supports, celebrates, and advocates internationally for the full engagement of women in computing. ACM–W's main programs are regional celebrations of women in computing, ACM-W chapters, and scholarships for women CS students to attend research conferences. In India and Europe these activities are overseen by ACM-W India and ACM-W Europe respectively. ACM-W collaborates with organizations such as the Anita Borg Institute, the National Center for Women and IT, CRA-W.
The ACM-W gives an annual Athena Lecturer Award to honor outstanding women researchers who have made fundamental contributions to computer science. This program began in 2006. Speakers are nominated by SIG officers.
- 2006–2007: Professor Deborah Estrin of UCLA
- 2007–2008: Professor Karen Spärck Jones of Cambridge University
- 2008–2009: Professor Shafi Goldwasser of MIT and the Weitzmann Institute of Science
- 2009–2010: Susan Eggers of the University of Washington
- 2010–2011: Mary Jane Irwin of the Pennsylvania State University
- 2011–2012: Judith S. Olson of the University of California, Irvine
- 2012–2013: Nancy Lynch of MIT
- 2013–2014: Katherine Yelick of LBNL
- 2014–2015: Susan Dumais of Microsoft Research
- ACM Classification Scheme
- Association of Information Technology Professionals
- Computer science
- Grace Murray Hopper Award, awarded by the ACM
- Ken Kennedy Award, awarded by ACM and the IEEE Computer Society
- Presidents of the Association for Computing Machinery
- Timeline of computing 2400 BC–1949
- Turing Award
- Franz Alt, former president
- Edmund Berkeley, co–founder
- Bernard Galler, former president
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- Lowry, Paul Benjamin; Romans, Denton; Curtis, Aaron (2004). "Global Journal Prestige and Supporting Disciplines: A Scientometric Study of Information Systems Journals". Journal of the Association for Information Systems. 5 (2): 29–80.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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- The University of Georgia Guide to Online Resources
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- Joint Task Force on Computing Curricula; Association for Computing Machinery (ACM); IEEE Computer Society. "Computer Science Curricula 2013: Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Degree Programs in Computer Science" (PDF).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- See, e.g., Ken Kennedy Award
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- "Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM)". Cikmconference.org.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Home - DEBS.org". debs.org.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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- "Hypertext 2009". Ht2009.org.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Joint Conference on Digital Library (JCDL)–Home". JCDL.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing, Largest Gathering of Women in Computing, Attracts Researchers, Industry". Retrieved June 27, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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- ACM portal for publications
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- Association for Computing Machinery Records, 1947-2009, Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota.