Asylum in the European Union

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Arrested refugees-immigrants in Fylakio detention center, Evros, Greece.

The asylum in the European Union (EU) was formed a half-century ago by its Member States by application of the Geneva Convention of 28 July 1951 on the Status of Refugees. The process evolved as a result of common policies appearing in the 1990s in connection with the creation of the Schengen Agreement on the suppression of internal borders. The EU has set up a common policy on asylum so that unsuccessful asylum seekers do not have to make a new application in another country . This common policy began with the Dublin Convention in 1990. It continued through the implementation of Eurodac and the Dublin Regulation in 2003, and continues today (October 2009 adoption of two proposals by the European Commission.[1]

Outsourcing asylum

The outsourcing of asylum is a type of migration policy pursued by the countries of the European Union, it consists of relocating the reception and accommodation of asylum seekers and the processing of their asylum applications, in places near the borders of the EU or in countries outside the EU, from which asylum seekers originate or through which they pass. After an attempted relocation of asylum procedures in centers on the boundaries of the EU, in 2003 these policies have resulted in a proliferation of exile camps in and around the European Union, a pressure on neighboring countries to develop systems that consider applications for asylum in their territories, and a radicalization of antimigratory policies in neighboring countries and within the border of the European Union.[2]

Asylum shopping

In the jargon of European institutions, asylum shopping is the practice of refugees wanting to choose a country other than that prescribed by the regulations to apply for political asylum, in order to choose the one which will offer the best reception conditions, or to lodge an application in another country after being dismissed. This expression is used to treat certain asylum seekers in analogy with consumers of welfare provisions[3]). Such definition appears in official documents, newspaper articles, analysis, etc. Asylum shopping is practised by 12% of asylum seekers, according to former European Commissioner for Justice Franco Frattini.[4]

Differences between Member States

National governments' position in the 22 September 2015 European Union Justice and Home Affairs Council majority vote to relocate 120,000 refugees from Greece and Italy to other EU countries according to proportional quotas:
  Non-EU state

The differences between the laws of different Member States are the main cause of the desire of refugees to choose their host country; in fact some states give refugee status to the majority of applicants, while others give it to less than 1%. The Dublin Regulation enables a state to return an asylum seeker in the first Member State where he or she transited (so-called readmission). This provision was put to put pressure on border states, so that they exercise better control on the external borders of the EU. The effect of this measure is that a greater number of asylum applications in the border states (like Greece, Slovakia, Poland or Malta) and in some cases, the expulsion of asylum applicants in neighboring countries such as Ukraine,[5] Turkey or Russia where the system of recognition of refugee status is often faulty. The UNHCR asked the European Union in 2008 to not return Iraqi asylum seekers to Greece.[6]

Number of accepted asylum applications in 2012[7]

Country Total number Per 100,000 inhabitants
Germany 22,165 27
Sweden 15,290 161
United Kingdom 14,570 23
France 14,325 22
Italy 9,270 15
Norway[8] 6,125 123
Austria 6,000 71
Netherlands 5,920 35
Belgium 5,880 53
Switzerland 4,580 58
Denmark 2,105 38
Finland 1,840 34
Malta 625 348
Greece 625 1
Spain 565 1

Restrictive Legislation

Ostensibly to fight against fraud, most European states have engaged in restrictive policies, like the United Kingdom (UK Borders Act 2007, etc..), The Netherlands, which has passed the Aliens Act in April 2001, Italy, with the Bossi-Fini Act of July 2002, or France, with different Acts (French Law of July 24, 2006 on immigration and integration, and French Law of 20 November 2007 on the control of immigration, integration and asylum). These measures have reduced the number of asylum seekers that are awarded the status of Refugee.[9]

As part of the adoption on first reading of four codecision acts, between 4 and 7 May 2009, MEPs voted on 7 the asylum package.[10] This includes a proposed revision of the "reception" directive and another proposal to improve the Dublin system. The Commission also proposes to revise the regulations Eurodac (biometric database) and create a European Asylum Support Office, partially financed by funds previously granted to the European Fund for Refugees, which will be responsible for assisting Member States in the management of asylum applications. Chachipe a Roma rights organisation has criticised EU asylum policy that denies Roma from the former Yugoslavia asylum based on the "safe country of origin"[11] doctrine, as they face discrimination in their home countries.[12]

12 EU countries already have national lists of safe countries of origin.

See also


  1. A single asylum procedure and equitable to establish a uniform status valid throughout the European Union: the final building blocks of international protection are asked, Brussels, October 21, 2009 (press release
  2. VALLUY Jerome Rejection of exiles - The great reversal of the right of asylum, 2009
  3. ldeucom/84/8407.htm # n35 Select Committee on European Union Tenth Report,House of Lords
  4. 2144,2579627,00.html Article by Deutsche Welle
  5. According to Amnesty International, Ukraine is not a safe country for asylum: [1] The UNHCR also asks not to return asylum seekers to Ukraine
  6. The Independent, London, June 17, 2008
  7. Mona W. Claussen (27 November 2013) Slik håndterer Europa asylstrømmen Aftenposten based on numbers from Eurostat. Retrieved 5 December 2013
  8. Norway is not a member of the EU, but part of the Dublin Agreement
  9. French documentation,Asylum in the European Union
  10. Asylum policy: Parliament wants to introduce new rules, press release of the European Parliament, 7 May 2009
  11. "Glossary". European Migration Network. Retrieved 14 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. "Veranstaltung mit frau Dr. Phil. Karin Waringo vom Romaverband Chachipe E. V., Luxembourg". Amnesty International, Konstanz division (in German). 2012-12-15. Retrieved 14 April 2013. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links