August 1963

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The following events occurred in August 1963:

August 1, 1963 (Thursday)

August 2, 1963 (Friday)

  • Sino-Soviet split: The People's Republic of China, in its strongest condemnation to that time of the Soviet Union, criticized the Soviets as being "freaks and monsters" for making "unconditional concessions and capitulation to the imperialists" after the USSR had agreed to a partial nuclear test ban treaty with the United States and the United Kingdom. The statement came in an editorial in the Chinese Communist Party newspaper, the People's Daily.[3]
  • The NFL champion Green Bay Packers were upset, 20-17, by the College All-Stars in the annual Chicago College All-Star Game.[4] It would be the last time that the All-Stars would win the series, which would be discontinued after the 1976 contest.[5]
  • José de Jesús García Ayala was consecrated as Auxiliary Bishop of Campeche. He would go on to become the oldest bishop in the Mexican church, living beyond his 100th birthday.
  • A tropical storm off Bermuda intensified and was classified as Hurricane Arlene, though it would degenerate into a tropical depression the following day.[6]
  • Died: Swami Ramdas, 79, Hindu philosopher

August 3, 1963 (Saturday)

August 4, 1963 (Sunday)

August 5, 1963 (Monday)

  • In Moscow, the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union signed the first nuclear test ban treaty. The ceremony took place at the Kremlin with U.S. Secretary of State Dean Rusk, British Foreign Secretary Alec Douglas-Home, and Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko signing on behalf of their respective nations.[12]
  • Craig Breedlove set the record for fastest driver in the world, reaching 428.37 miles an hour "for a measured mile" in a jet-powered vehicle, Spirit of America, on the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah. His average for two runs was 407.45 MPH.[13]
  • The trial of Stephen Ward was formally closed with no sentence pronounced, following Ward's suicide two days earlier.[14]
  • Died: Salvador Bacarisse, 64, Spanish composer

August 6, 1963 (Tuesday)

August 7, 1963 (Wednesday)

August 8, 1963 (Thursday)

  • The Great Train Robbery of 1963 took place at Ledburn, Buckinghamshire, England, when a gang of bandits halted a train ferrying mail between Glasgow and London. At 3:00 am, the group caused the train's engineer to stop by activating the red signal and covering the green signal. When the train came to a halt, engineer Jack Mills and his assistant were overpowered, while others in the group boarded the first two coaches hauling mail, and tied up the four employees on board. The group then uncoupled the engine and two coaches from the other ten cars on the train, and forced the engineer and assistant to move one mile down the line to the Bridego Bridge, where the mail bags were dropped into automobiles waiting beneath. The haul was estimated at £2,600,000 (at the time worth about $7,300,000; equivalent to $55 million or £37 million in 2013).[20][21]
  • The Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) was formed by Ndabaningi Sithole, future Zimbabwean Prime Minister (and later, President) Robert Mugabe, and other members of the Zimbabwe African People's Union who were dissatisfied with the leadership of Joshua Nkomo.[22]

August 9, 1963 (Friday)

  • American dissident Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested in New Orleans while distributing leaflets for the Fair Play for Cuba Committee at the corner of Canal Street and Baronne Street, after getting into a scuffle with three Cuban men (Carlos Bringuier, Celso Macario and Miguel Mariano), who were also arrested; Oswald spent the night in jail, and then paid .[23][24]
  • Hurricane Arlene passed directly over Bermuda with winds of 85 mph (140 km/h).[6] The storm continued to intensify after passing the island, with reconnaissance recording a minimum pressure of 969 mbar (hPa; 28.61 inHg) and maximum winds reached 105 mph (160 km/h).[6] The hurricane began to weaken hours later, with winds decreasing below 100 mph (155 km/h) by the afternoon of August 10. Shortly afterwards, Arlene transitioned into an extratropical cyclone, while maintaining hurricane-force winds, over the north Atlantic.[6]
  • The British rock music show Ready Steady Go! premiered on Associated-Rediffusion in London, part of Britain's ITV network, and would later be shown on the other ITV stations. It would run until December 7, 1966.[25] [26]
  • Born: Whitney Houston, American pop singer, in Newark, New Jersey (d. 2012)
  • Died: Patrick Bouvier Kennedy, two-day-old son of President John F. Kennedy, of infant respiratory distress syndrome. A funeral mass for the child was held the next day in the private chapel of Cardinal Richard Cushing in Boston.[27]

August 10, 1963 (Saturday)

  • Giovanni Colombo became Archbishop of Milan, replacing Pope Paul VI, who had been elected to the papacy two months earlier.
  • A new record was set for latest ending to a Major League Baseball game, when the second game of a doubleheader between the Pittsburgh Pirates, and the visiting Houston Colt .45s (now the Astros lasted until 2:30 in the morning. The first game had been delayed for an hour by rain. Only 300 of the original 9,420 fans stayed to watch Pittsburgh win 7-6 after 11 innings. The record would be broken on June 13, 1967, when a Washington Senators 6-5 win over the Chicago White Sox at 2:44 am.[28]
  • Born: Phoolan Devi, Indian bandit and politician, in Ghura Ka Purwa, Uttar Pradesh (died 2001)
  • Died: Estes Kefauver, 60, American politician who almost won the 1952 Democratic presidential nomination and then served as running-mate for nominee Adlai Stevenson II in 1956

August 11, 1963 (Sunday)

August 12, 1963 (Monday)

  • President of Kenya Jomo Kenyatta spoke to 300 white farmers at Nakuru, and reassured them that the new black African government would look after their interests if they remained. "To the chagrin of many freedom fighters, his prophecy turned out to be accurate", one commentator would observe later about the former Mau Mau Uprising leader.[34]
  • Fifteen of the 16 people on board an Air-Inter flight were killed when Viscount airplane they were on crashed while attempting a landing in a thunderstorm at Lyon. The airplane, which was stopping at Lille on the way to Nice, struck a barn as it descended, and debris from the wreckage killed the farm owner. The sole survivor was a three-year-old girl.[35]
  • The pilot and five passengers of a twin-engine Beechcraft plane, on a charter flight to Fort Erie, Ontario, were injured when their plane crashed at the Toronto Island Airport. One engine failed at an altitude of 200 feet (61 m) during take-off over Lake Ontario. The pilot turned back and landed on the Island, clipping a tree. Most of the plane's starboard wing was torn off.[36]
  • Born: Kōji Kitao, Japanese sumo wrestler, in Mie

August 13, 1963 (Tuesday)

  • The "Trois Glorieuses" uprising began in Congo-Brazzaville (formerly the French Congo), as political rallies degenerated into violent clashes.[37] Striking workers in the capital, Brazzaville, stormed the city prison and released all of the inmates.[38]
  • Born: Édouard Michelin, managing partner and co-chief executive of the Michelin Group from 1999, in Clermont-Ferrand (died 2006)

August 14, 1963 (Wednesday)

  • The first of the Yirrkala bark petitions, created by Aboriginal leaders in the Arnhem Land region of the Northern Territory of Australia, were presented to Australian governmental leaders at the capital in Canberra.[39]
  • British police arrested five persons believed to have been members of the gang that had carried out the robbery of the Glasgow-London mail train the previous week, and recovered £100,000 of the loot that had been stolen.[40]
  • The 1962–63 DFB-Pokal, the second-most important national competition in German football, was won by Hamburger SV.
  • Died: Clifford Odets, 57, American playwright

August 15, 1963 (Thursday)

  • A team of scientists from Yale University and the Brookhaven National Laboratory announced their discovery of what was believed at the time to be the last class of subatomic particle, the hyperon referred to as "anti-xi-zero".[41]
  • Fulbert Youlou was forced to resign as President of the Republic of Congo, after a three-day uprising in the capital.[42] A delegation of military leaders, led by Coloel David Mountsaka and Major Felix Mouzabakani, refused to obey President Youlou's order for the Congolese Army to shoot at the protesters, and demanded his resignation.[43] Youlou was replaced the next day by Alphonse Massamba-Débat, who was designated by the title "Chief of Government", rather than President.[44]
  • The last of the American nuclear Thor missiles, located in the United Kingdom at the 144th Strategic Missile Squadron at North Luffenham, was taken off of alert, ending a process that had started on November 29. The missiles were removed by September 27, and the missile facilities closed by December 20.[45]
  • Born: Simon Brown, Jamaican boxer, IBF welterweight champion 1998–1991, and WBC light middleweight champion 1993–1994; in Clarendon
  • Died: Vsevolod Ivanov, 68, Soviet novelist; Eddie Mays, 34, the last person to be executed in the state of New York, in the electric chair at Sing Sing prison; and Karl Drews, 43, former American MLB pitcher from 1946 to 1954, after being struck by a drunk driver.[46]

August 16, 1963 (Friday)

  • The NASA M2-F1, a wingless lifting body glider nicknamed the "flying bathtub", was flown for the first time, with test pilot Milt Thompson at the controls. The lifting body design, which permitted a spacecraft to descend horizontally through the atmosphere, would be put into service through the American space shuttle.[47]
  • Canada's new Prime Minister, Lester B. Pearson, reversed the policy of his predecessor, John G. Diefenbaker, and announced that his government had agreed with the United States to arm American-deployed missiles with nuclear warheads.[48]
  • Former President of Venezuela Marcos Pérez Jiménez was extradited from the United States back to Venezuela, eight months after his arrest and confinement in the Dade County Jail in Miami. Perez Jimenez had been dictator from 1952 to 1958, then fled to the U.S., where he lived in luxury until being jailed in Miami on December 12, 1962.[49]
  • Two people walking in Dorking Woods discovered a briefcase, a holdall and a camel-skin bag, all containing money. The evidence would lead to the arrest of Brian Field, a member of the gang who had carried out the Great Train Robbery a few days earlier. The discovery raised the total amount of money recovered to £141,000 ($394,800).[50]

August 17, 1963 (Saturday)

  • Fifty-five people were drowned when the Japanese ferry boat Midori Maru capsized in heavy waves as it sailed from the Okinawan capital to Kumejima Island. Another 185 of the passengers and crew were rescued by fishing boats and U.S. military aircraft.[51]
  • One day short of a year after its launch, Kosmos 8's orbit decayed.[52]
  • Died: Ed Gardner, 62, American radio comedian who starred in the series Duffy's Tavern; and Richard Barthelmess, 68, American silent film actor who was nominated for Best Actor in the first Academy Award ceremony

August 18, 1963 (Sunday)

  • American civil rights movement: James Meredith became the first African-American to graduate from the University of Mississippi in its 115 years of existence. He earned a Bachelor of Arts degree, having majored in political science and minored in French. The cost of Meredith's protection by federal marshals was more than $5,000,000.[53] His graduation day was without incident; Meredith would later earn a law degree from Columbia University.[54]
  • The last match in the third round of the 1963 CONCACAF Champions' Cup was played at the Estadio Nacional in Costa Rica. The final, scheduled to be played the following month, would eventually be scratched, and Racing Club Haïtien would eventually be declared champion.

August 19, 1963 (Monday)

August 20, 1963 (Tuesday)

August 21, 1963 (Wednesday)

August 22, 1963 (Thursday)

  • American test pilot Joe Walker achieved a second sub-orbital spaceflight, according to the international standard of 100 kilometers, piloting an X-15 rocket to an altitude of 354,200 feet (67.08 miles or 107.96 kilometers).[65] The record was unofficial, because the X-15 did not take off from the ground under its own power, and sent up by an air launch. Walker's flight would remain the highest ever achieved by an airplane for more than fifty years, until broken on October 4, 2004, when Brian Binnie would pilot SpaceShipOne to an altitude of 367,500 feet (69.6 miles or 112 kilometers).[66][67][68]
  • Died: Eric Johnston, 66, American motion picture executive who had served as President of the Motion Picture Association of America since 1945.

August 23, 1963 (Friday)

August 24, 1963 (Saturday)

August 25, 1963 (Sunday)

  • Nearly three years after the December 15, 1960 decision by King Mahendra of Nepal to abolish the nation's short-lived elected legislature, the King held the first meeting of the new "National Guidance Council" as an advisory body.[76]
  • The Greek freighter MV Donald, formerly the U.S. Navy cargo ship USS Cabell, was last heard from, when its captain reported by radio that he was encountering bad weather in the Indian Ocean. The ship had been en route to Indonesia with 26 people on board and a cargo of 5,000 tons of iron, and was never found after being reported as missing a month later by the Greek Ministry of Merchant Marine.[77]
  • The Beatles gave their sixth concert in Blackpool in two months, at the ABC Theatre.[78]
  • Died: Karl Probst, 79, American automobile engineer who, in 1940, designed the U.S. Army's "G.P." (general purpose) vehicle, which would become known as the "jeep"

August 26, 1963 (Monday)

August 27, 1963 (Tuesday)

  • Eighteen miners were killed in an explosion at an underground potash mine near Moab, Utah, but five men were able to survive the carbon monoxide by finding an air pocket, 2,712 feet below the surface, and were lifted to safety by rescue workers.[80]
  • Less than six hours before the railroads of the United States were scheduled to be shut down by a walkout of railway employees, President Kennedy signed anti-strike legislation that had been passed minutes earlier by the U.S. House of Representatives. The vote in the House, finished at 4:42 pm, was 286-66 on a bill that had passed the U.S. Senate on August 22. President Kennedy signed the bill into law at 6:14 pm, ending the strike that had been scheduled for one minute after midnight.[81]
  • Japanese Construction Minister Kono Ichiro announced that the government would construct a new city at undeveloped land in "a very suitable place near Mount Tsukuba". The "Tsukuba Science City", located 35 miles northeast of Tokyo and intended as a community for researchers and scientists, would be ready for its first residents after ten years of construction, and would have over 200,000 residents within 50 years.[82]
  • Died: W. E. B. Du Bois, 95, African-American professor and civil rights activist, who later became a citizen of Ghana; Inayatullah Khan Mashriqi, 75, Indian mathematician, logician, political theorist, Islamic scholar and the founder of the Khaksar movement; Garrett Morgan, 86, African-American inventor; and Werner Kuhn, Swiss physical chemist

August 28, 1963 (Wednesday)

August 29, 1963 (Thursday)

  • Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., the U.S. Ambassador to South Vietnam, sent a top secret cable to the White House, reporting that "We are launched on a course from which there is no turning back: the overthrow of the [Ngo Dinh] Diem government." [86] At noon in Washington, DC, President Kennedy held a conference with his Secretaries of State, Defense and the Treasury, as well as with the CIA Director, after which Kennedy authorized a reply to Lodge, which included the statement that "The USG [United States Government] will support a coup which has good chance of succeeding but plans no direct involvement of U.S. Armed Forces." [87]
  • The Policlínico Bancario bank in Argentina was robbed by members of Tacuara Nationalist Movement, who stole 14,000,000 Argentine pesos (equivalent to $100,000 USD), and killed two bank employees in the process.[88]
  • Gulzarilal Nanda replaced Lal Bahadur Shastri as India's Minister for Home Affairs.
  • The 47th General Assembly of Nova Scotia ended its term.

August 30, 1963 (Friday)

August 31, 1963 (Saturday)


  1. "Nuclear Notebook", in Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (June 1989) p48
  2. Chia-Jui Cheng, Basic Documents on International Trade Law (BRILL, 1990) p366
  3. "Soviets are 'Freaks, Monsters'", Miami News, August 2, 1963, p1
  4. "All-Stars Upset Packers", Milwaukee Sentinel, August 3, 1963, p7
  5. "The Death of an All-Star Game", by John C. Hibner, Coffin Corner 1986 Annual, (Professional Football Researchers Association)
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Hurricane Specialists Division (2009). "Easy to Read HURDAT 2008". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 6, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Barry Miles, Paul McCartney: Many Years From Now (Macmillan, 1998) p80
  8. "Ward Dies, Leaves Note: 'I'd Rather Get Myself'", Miami News, August 4, 1963, p1
  9. "Washington Post Chief Killed", Miami News, August 4, 1963, p1
  10. "African Development Bank", in International Governmental Organizations: Constitutional Documents, Amos J. Peaslee and Dorothy Peaslee Xydis, eds. (BRILL, 1961) p66
  11. "Jim Clark Holds Auto Point Lead", Miami News, August 5, 1963, p1B
  12. "Big 3 Sign Ban Pact In Kremlin Ceremony", Miami News, August 5, 1963, p1
  13. "American Driver Sets Speed Mark-- 407 MPH", Miami News, August 5, 1963, p1B
  14. Ludovic Kennedy (1964) The Trial of Stephen Ward: 227
  15. Jacklyn Cock and Laurie Nathan, War and Society: The Militarisation of South Africa (New Africa Books, 1989) p233
  16. Paul Crickmore, Lockheed Blackbird: Beyond The Secret Missions (Osprey Publishing, 2004) p93
  17. "Father, Daughter Crushed to Death Under Escalator", Long Beach (CA) Press Telegram, August 8, 1963, p3
  18. America's Royalty: All the Presidents' Children, by Sandra L. Quinn-Musgrove, Sanford Kanterand, 1995; "IT'S A BOY FOR THE KENNEDYS", Pittsburgh Press, August 7, 1963, p1
  19. "KENNEDYS MOURN DEATH OF BABY", Pittsburgh Press, August 9, 1963, p1
  20. "Train Robbery Nets $2.8 Million", Miami News, August 8, 1963, p1
  21. Brenda Haugen, The Great Train Robbery: History-Making Heist (Capstone Press, 2010)
  22. Andrew Norman, Robert Mugabe and the Betrayal of Zimbabwe (McFarland, 2004) p57
  23. John Newman, Oswald and the CIA: The Documented Truth Anout the Unknown Relationship Between the U.S. Government and the Alleged Killer of JFK (Skyhorse Publishing, 2008) pp328-329
  24. 24.0 24.1 The Warren Commission Report: Report of the President's Commission on the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy (Associated Press, 1964, reprinted by Filiquarian Publishing, 2007) pp407-408
  25. Ian Inglis, Popular Music And Television In Britain (Ashgate Publishing, 2010) pp71-72
  26. Horace Newcomb, Encyclopedia of Television (Routledge, 2014) p1895
  27. "Children's Mass for JFK's Son", Miami News, August 9, 1963, p1
  28. Philip J. Lowry, Baseball's Longest Games: A Comprehensive Worldwide Record Book (McFarland, 2010) p274
  29. Nelson Mandela, Conversations with Myself (Random House Digital, 2010)
  30. Gideon Shimoni, Community and Conscience: The Jews in Apartheid South Africa (University Press of New England, 2003) p67
  31. "2 Teams of MDs Separate Day-Old Siamese Twins", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, August 12, 1963, p1
  32. "150 Stricken After Church Dinner", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, August 13, 1963, p1
  33. "Gen. Song Is Arrested In Korea", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, August 12, 1963, p2
  34. "Kenyatta, Jomo", in Encyclopedia of the Developing World, Thomas M. Leonard, ed. (Taylor & Francis, 2006) p806
  35. "Airliner Hits Barn, 16 Die", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, August 13, 1963, p1
  36. "Pilot, 5 Passengers Escape Island Crash". Toronto Globe and Mail. August 13, 1963. p. 3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  37. Bazenguissa-Ganga, Rémy. Les voies du politique au Congo: essai de sociologie historique. Paris: Karthala, 1997. pp. 65, 71
  38. "Brazzaville Rioters Free All Prison Inmates", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, August 12, 1963, p2
  39. John Miller, Australia's Writers and Poets (Exisle Publishing, 2010) p11
  40. "Yard Nabs 5; $280,000", Miami News, August 15, 1963, p1
  41. "Scientists Find Anti-Xi-Zero As A Matter Of Fact", Miami News, August 15, 1963, p2
  42. "Congo Head Youlou Resigns", Miami News, August 15, 1963, p1
  43. "Mountsaka, David (Colonel)", in Historical Dictionary of Republic of the Congo, John F. Clark and Samuel Decalo, eds. (Scarecrow Press, 2012) p297
  44. "Moderate Heads Congo", Miami News, August 16, 1963, p1
  45. Jacob Neufeld, The Development of Ballistic Missiles in the United States Air Force 1945–1960 (Government Printing Office, 1998) pp232-233
  46. "Car Kills Ex-Pitcher Karl Drews", Miami News, August 15, 1963, p2
  47. R. Dale Reed and Darlene Lister, Wingless Flight: The Lifting Body Story (University Press of Kentucky, 2002) pp50-53
  48. Patrick Lennox, At Home and Abroad: The Canada-US Relationship and Canada's Place in the World (University of British Columbia Press, 2009) p65; Warhead Okay— Cabinet Approves", Windsor Star, August 16, 1963, p1
  49. "P.J. Cools Heels In Air-Conditioned Venezuealan Cell" Miami News, August 17, 1963, p1
  50. "5 Charged In Train Robbery; Net Grows", Miami News, August 16, 1963, p1
  51. "Ferry Boat Sinks, 55 Believed Dead", Miami News, August 18, 1963, p1
  52. McDowell, Jonathan. "Satellite Catalog". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 2009-05-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  53. George A. Sewell and Margaret L. Dwight, Mississippi Black History Makers (University Press of Mississippi, 1984) p142
  54. Frank Lambert, The Battle of Ole Miss: Civil Rights v. States' Rights (Oxford University Press, 2009)
  55. Herbert Druks, John F. Kennedy And Israel (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2005) p125
  56. "Butts Wins $3 Million Suit", Miami News, August 20, 1963, p1
  57. The House of Lords: Reform (Crown Copyright, 2007) p12
  58. "Diem Seizes Pagodas; U.S. Denounces S. Viet", Miami News, August 21, 1963, p1
  59. "Xa Loi Pagoda Raids", in The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History, Spencer C. Tucker, ed. (ABC-CLIO, 2011) p1351
  60. Bradley O'Leary, Triangle of Death: The Shocking Truth About the Role of South Vietnam and the French Mafia in the Assassination of JFK (Thomas Nelson Inc, 2003)
  61. "Prepare to Ditch", in Flight International magazine, 13 August 1964, p241
  62. K. C. Khurana, Aviation Management: Global Perspectives (Global India Publications, 2009) p141
  63. Myriam Dunn Cavelty, Cyber-Security and Threat Politics: US Efforts to Secure the Information Age (Routledge, 2007) pp41-42
  64. Andrej Kreutz, Russia in the Middle East: Friend Or Foe? (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007) p40
  65. Roger D. Launius and Andrew K. Johnston, Smithsonian Atlas of Space Exploration (HarperCollins, 2009) p56; "X-15 Pilot Rockets 66.5 Miles Into Space", Bridgeport (CT) Telegram, August 23, 1963
  66. "Combined White Knight/ SpaceShipOne Flight Tests". Retrieved 2013-10-03.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  67. Steve Pace, X-Planes at Edwards (Zenith Imprint, 1995) p11
  68. Michel Van Pelt, Rocketing Into the Future: The History and Technology of Rocket Planes (Springer, 2012) p230
  69. "Norway Regime Falls by 76 to 74", Stars and Stripes (European Edition), August 24, 1963, p24
  70. "Kings Bay Affair", in The A to Z of Norway, Jan Sjåvik, ed. (Scarecrow Press, 2010) p143
  71. Pearce, Kenn. Australian Railway Disasters. IPL Books. ISBN 0-908876-09-2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  72. "Der 1.Spieltag der Bundesliga 1963/1964",
  73. James A. Bill, George Ball: Scenes in U.S. Foreign Policy (Yale University Press, 1998) pp154-155
  74. the telegram, NSA Archive,
  75. "Our John Pennel Goes Over 17 Feet!", Miami News, August 25, 1963, p1
  76. Bhuwan Lal Joshi and Leo E. Rose, Democratic Innovations in Nepal: A Case Study of Political Acculturation (University of California Press, 1966) p412
  77. "Ship Missing, 26 Aboard", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, September 25, 1963; "USS Cabell (AK-166)", NavSource Online
  78. "Beatles Bible". Beatles Bible. 1963-08-25. Retrieved 2013-10-03.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  79. James G. Blight and David A. Welch, Intelligence and the Cuban Missile Crisis (Frank Cass Publishers, 1998) pp42-43
  80. "Miracle In Utah Mine Cave-In: Survivors From 2,700 Feet", August 28, 1963, p1; "5 More Rescued From Utah Mine; Death Toll At 18", August 30, 1963, p1
  81. "Trains Roll As Strike Is Blocked", Miami News, August 28, 1963, p1
  82. James W. Dearing, Growing a Japanese Science City: Communication in Scientific Research (Routledge, 2012)
  83. "200,000 March On Washington", Miami News, August 28, 1963, p1
  84. "Sadist Sought In Killing Of Two N.Y. Career Girls", Miami News, August 30, 1963, p4A
  85. "The Career Girls Murders", by Mark Gado,
  86. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA (Random House Digital, 2008) pp699-700
  87. NSA Archive, George Washington University
  88. Germán Ferrari, Simbolos y Fantasmas (SudAmericana, 2012)
  89. "'Hot Line' Rady For Use In East-West Crisis", Miami News, August 31, 1963, p4
  90. Paul Joseph and Simon Rosenblum, Search for Sanity: The Politics of Nuclear Weapons and Disarmament (South End Press, 1984) p169
  91. Stephen McCarthy, The Political Theory of Tyranny in Singapore and Burma: Aristotle and the Rhetoric of Benevolent Despotism (Taylor & Francis, 2006) pp68-69