He was born in Arras, the youngest of five children of the lawyer Maximilien-Barthelemy-François de Robespierre and Jacqueline-Marguerite Carraut, the daughter of a brewer. His mother died when he was one year old, and his grief-stricken father abandoned the family to go to Bavaria, where he died in 1777. He was brought up by an aunt and trained as a lawyer. Like his brother, he was a radical during the Revolution.
At the outset of the Revolution, he was prosecutor-syndic of Arras. In 1791, he was appointed Administrator of the département of Pas-de-Calais. In September 1792, he was elected to the National Convention, where he joined his brother in The Mountain and the Jacobin Club.
With the fall of Maximilien Robespierre in the coup d'état of 9 Thermidor (27 July 1794), those associated with him were subjected to a witch-hunt-like series of attacks from the Thermidorians. (Napoleon's relationship with Augustin led to Napoleon's imprisonment in Fort Carré on 6 August 1794 until he was cleared two weeks later.)
Augustin was one of the five most famous victims of 9 Thermidor. He demanded to be arrested with his brother in the National Convention, saying, "I am as guilty as him; I share his virtues, I want to share his fate. I ask also to be charged". After taking refuge in the Hôtel de Ville, he tried to escape capture by leaping out of a window. He failed, however, breaking both his legs, and was guillotined on the same day as his brother.
- Alexandre Cousin, Philippe Lebas et Augustin Robespierre, deux météores dans la Révolution française (2010). (French)
- Marisa Linton, Choosing Terror: Virtue, Friendship and Authenticity in the French Revolution (Oxford University Press, 2013).
- Sergio Luzzatto, Bonbon Robespierre: la terreur à visage humain (2010). (French)
- Martial Sicard, Robespierre jeune dans les Basses-Alpes, Forcalquier, A. Crest (1900). (French)
- Mary Young, Augustin, the Younger Robespierre (2011).
- "L'enfance de Maximilien", in L’association Maximilien Robespierre pour l’Idéal Démocratique bulletin n° 45. (French)