Avengers (comics)

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The Avengers
The Avengers Vol. 3 #38 (March 2001).
Cover art by Alan Davis.
Group publication information
Publisher Marvel Comics
First appearance The Avengers #1 (September 1963)
Created by Stan Lee
Jack Kirby
In-story information
Type of organization Team
Base(s) Avengers Tower
Avengers Mansion
Agent(s) Captain America (Sam Wilson) (leader)
Iron Man
Ms. Marvel (Kamala Khan)
Nova (Sam Alexander)
Spider-Man (Miles Morales)
Thor (Jane Foster)
See: List of Avengers members
The Avengers #1
(September 1963).
Cover art by Jack Kirby and Dick Ayers.
Series publication information
Schedule Monthly (Vols. 1-4),
Semi-monthly (Vol. 5)
Format Ongoing series
Publication date (Vol. 1)
September 1963 – September 1996
(Vol. 2)
November 1996 – November 1997
(Vol. 3)
February 1998 – August 2004
(Vol. 1 resumption)
September – December 2004
(Vol. 4)
July 2010 – January 2013
(Vol. 5)
February 2013 – June 2015
Number of issues (Vol. 1): 402 and 23 Annuals

(Vol. 2): 13
(Vol. 3): 88 and 4 Annuals
(Vol. 4): 36 (#1-34 plus #12.1 and #24.1) and 1 Annual

(Vol. 5): 46 (#1-44 plus #34.1 and #34.2) and 1 Annual
Creative team
Creator(s) Stan Lee
Jack Kirby

The Avengers are a fictional team of superheroes appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The team made its debut in The Avengers #1 (Sept. 1963), created by writer-editor Stan Lee and artist/co-plotter Jack Kirby, inspired by the success of DC Comics' Justice League of America.

Labeled Earth's Mightiest Heroes, the Avengers originally consisted of Hank Pym, Hulk, Iron Man, Thor, and the Wasp. The original Captain America was discovered, trapped in ice (issue #4), and joined the group after they revived him. A rotating roster became a hallmark, although one theme remained consistent: the Avengers fight "the foes no single superhero can withstand." The team, famous for its battle cry of "Avengers Assemble!", has featured humans, mutants, robots, aliens, supernatural beings, and even former villains.

The team has appeared in a wide variety of media outside of comic books including a number of different animated television series and direct-to-video films. The 2012 live-action feature film The Avengers, directed by Joss Whedon, set numerous records during its box office run, including one of the biggest opening debuts in North America, with a weekend gross of $207.4 million.[1] A second Avengers film titled Avengers: Age of Ultron was released on May 1, 2015.

Publication history

In 1960, DC Comics launched a comic book series featuring a team of superheroes called the Justice League. Impressed by that book's strong sales, Martin Goodman, the owner of Marvel Comics predecessor Timely Comics, asked Stan Lee to create a similar team of superheroes for Marvel.[2] Lee recounts in Origins of Marvel Comics:

Martin mentioned that he had noticed one of the titles published by National Comics seemed to be selling better than most. It was a book called The [sic] Justice League of America and it was composed of a team of superheroes. ... 'If the Justice League is selling,' spoke he, 'why don't we put out a comic book that features a team of superheroes?'[2]

The team debuted in The Avengers #1 (Sept. 1963). Much like the Justice League, the Avengers were an assemblage of pre-existing superhero characters created by Lee and Jack Kirby. Kirby did the artwork for the first eight issues only, in addition to doing the layouts for issue #16.[3] This initial series, published bi-monthly through issue #6 (July 1964) and monthly thereafter ran through issue #402 (Sept. 1996), with spinoffs including several annuals, miniseries and a giant-size quarterly sister series that ran briefly in the mid-1970s.[4] Marvel filed for a trademark for "The Avengers" in 1967 and the United States Patent and Trademark Office issued the registration in 1970.[5]

Other spinoff series include West Coast Avengers, initially published as a four-issue miniseries in 1984, followed by a 102-issue series (Oct. 1985–Jan. 1994), retitled Avengers West Coast with #47;[6][7] and the 40-issue Solo Avengers (Dec.1987–Jan. 1991), retitled Avengers Spotlight with #21.[8][9]

Between 1996 and 2004, Marvel relaunched the primary Avengers title three times. In 1996, the "Heroes Reborn" line, in which Marvel contracted outside companies to produce four titles, included a new volume of The Avengers. It took place in an alternate universe, with a revamped history unrelated to mainstream Marvel continuity. The Avengers vol. 2 was written by Rob Liefeld and penciled by Jim Valentino, and ran for 13 issues (Nov. 1996–Nov. 1997). The final issue, which featured a crossover with the other Heroes Reborn titles, returned the characters to the main Marvel Universe.[10]

The Avengers vol. 3 relaunched and ran for 84 issues from February 1998 to August 2004. To coincide with what would have been the 500th issue of the original series, Marvel changed the numbering, and The Avengers #500-503 (Sept.– Dec. 2004), the one-shot Avengers Finale (Jan. 2005)[11] became the "Avengers Disassembled" storyline and final issues. In January 2005, a new version of the team appeared in the ongoing title The New Avengers,[12] followed by The Mighty Avengers, Avengers: The Initiative, and Dark Avengers. Avengers vol. 4 debuted in July 2010 and ran until January 2013.[13] Vol. 5 was launched in February 2013.[14] After Secret Wars, a new Avengers team debuted, dubbed the All-New, All-Different Avengers, starting with a Free Comic Book Day preview.[15]

Fictional biography


"And there came a day, a day unlike any other, when Earth's mightiest heroes and heroines found themselves united against a common threat. On that day, the Avengers were born—to fight the foes no single super hero could withstand! Through the years, their roster has prospered, changing many times, their glory has never been denied! Heed the call, then—for now, the Avengers Assemble!"

—Prologue from The Avengers used in the 1970s[16]

When the Asgardian god Loki seeks revenge against his brother Thor, his machinations unwittingly lead teenager Rick Jones to collect Ant-Man, the Wasp, and Iron Man to help Thor and the Hulk, whom Loki used as a pawn. After the group vanquished Loki, Ant-Man stated that the five worked well together and suggested they form a team; the Wasp named the group Avengers.[17][18]

The roster changed almost immediately; at the beginning of the second issue, Ant-Man became Giant-Man, and at the end of the issue, the Hulk left once he realized how much the others feared his unstable personality.[19] issue #4 brought the team's first major milestone: the revival and return of Captain America.[20][21] Captain America joined the team,[20] and he was given "founding member" status in the Hulk's place.[22] The Avengers went on to fight foes such as Baron Zemo, who formed the Masters of Evil,[23] Kang the Conqueror,[24][25] Wonder Man,[26][27] and Count Nefaria.[28][29]

The next milestone came when every member but Captain America resigned; they were replaced by three former villains: Hawkeye, the Scarlet Witch, and Quicksilver.[30][31][32] Giant-Man, now calling himself Goliath,[33] and the Wasp rejoined.[33] Hercules became part of the team,[34] while the Black Knight,[35] and the Black Widow,[36] abetted the Avengers but did not become members until years later. Spider-Man was offered membership but did not join the group.[37] The Black Panther joined after rescuing the team from the Grim Reaper.[38][39] The X-Men #45 (June 1968) featured a crossover with The Avengers #53 (June 1968).[40][41] This was followed by the introduction of the android the Vision.[42][43] Pym assumed the new identity of Yellowjacket in issue #59,[44] and married the Wasp the following month.[45]

The Avengers headquarters was in a New York City building called Avengers Mansion, courtesy of Tony Stark (Iron Man's real identity). The mansion was serviced by Edwin Jarvis, the Avengers' faithful butler,[46] and furnished with state of the art technology and defense systems, and included the Avengers' primary mode of transport: the five-engine Quinjet.

The prequel comic Avengers #1 1/2 (Dec. 1999), by writer Roger Stern and artist Bruce Timm, told a retro-style story taking place between issues #1 and #2, detailing Ant-Man's decision to transform himself into Giant-Man.[47]


The creative team of writer Roy Thomas and artist John Buscema introduced new characters such as Arkon in issue #75 (April 1970)[48] and Red Wolf in #80 (Sept. 1970).[49] The team's adventures increased in scope as the team crossed into an alternate dimension and battled the Squadron Supreme,[50][51][52] and fought in the Kree-Skrull War,[53][54][55] an epic battle between the alien Kree and Skrull races and guest-starred the Kree hero, Captain Marvel. The Avengers briefly disband when Skrulls impersonating Captain America, Thor, and Iron Man used their authority as founders of the team and disbanded it.[56] The true founding Avengers, minus the Wasp, reformed the team in response after complaints from Jarvis.[57] Novelist Harlan Ellison plotted two stories for the series. The first ("The Summons of Psyklop") was published in issue #88 (May 1971)[58][59] and the second ("Five Dooms to Save Tomorrow") in #101 (July 1972).[60]

Writer Steve Englehart introduced Mantis, who joined the team along with the reformed Swordsman.[61] During the summer of 1973, Englehart and artists Bob Brown and Sal Buscema produced "The Avengers-Defenders Clash" storyline which crossed over between the two team titles.[62][63][64] "The Celestial Madonna" arc linked Mantis' origins to the very beginnings of the Kree-Skrull conflict in a time-spanning adventure involving Kang the Conqueror,[65] and Immortus, who were past and future versions of each other.[66][67][68] Mantis was revealed to be the Celestial Madonna,[69] who was destined to give birth to a being that would save the universe.[70] It was revealed that the Vision's body had only been appropriated, and not created by Ultron, and that it originally belonged to the 1940s Human Torch. With his origins clear to him, the Vision proposed to the Scarlet Witch. The "Celestial Madonna" saga ended with their wedding, presided over by Immortus.[71][72] The Beast and Moondragon joined the team soon after.[73] George Pérez became the title's artist with issue #141 (Nov. 1975) which saw the start of a seven-part story featuring the Squadron Supreme and the Serpent Crown.[74] In 2010, Comics Bulletin ranked Englehart's run on The Avengers eighth on its list of the "Top 10 1970s Marvels".[75]

After Englehart departed and a seven-issue stint by Gerry Conway, Jim Shooter began as writer, generating several classic adventures, including "The Bride of Ultron",[76][77] the "Nefaria Trilogy",[78][79][80] and "The Korvac Saga", which featured nearly every Avenger who joined the team up to that point.[81][82] Shooter introduced the character of Henry Peter Gyrich, the Avengers' liaison to the United States National Security Council.[79][83] Gyrich was prejudiced against superhumans and acted in a heavy-handed, obstructive manner, and insisted that the Avengers followed government rules and regulations or else lose their priority status with the government. Among Gyrich's demands was that the active roster be trimmed down to only seven members, and that the Falcon, an African American, be admitted to the team to comply with affirmative action laws. This last act was resented by Hawkeye, who because of the seven-member limit lost his membership slot to the Falcon.[84] The Falcon, in turn, was unhappy to be the beneficiary of what he perceived to be tokenism, and decided to resign from the team, after which Wonder Man rejoined.[85] The true origins of Quicksilver and the Scarlet Witch were revealed in a three-part story that ran in issues #185-187 (July-Sept. 1979).[86] After this adventure, the Scarlet Witch took a leave of absence and Ms. Marvel officially joined the team as her replacement.[87]


The Avengers #200 (Oct. 1980). Cover art by George Pérez and Terry Austin.

The first major development was the breakdown of Henry Pym,[88] with his frequent changes of costume and name being symptomatic of an identity problem and an inferiority complex. After he abused his wife, failed to win back the confidence of the Avengers with a ruse and was duped by the villain Egghead, Pym was jailed.[89] Writer Roger Stern resolved this by having Pym outwit Egghead and defeated the latest incarnation of the Masters of Evil single-handedly, and proved his innocence.[90] Pym reconciled with the Wasp, but they decided to remain apart.[91] Pym retired from super-heroics,[91] but returned years later.[92]

Stern developed several major storylines, such as "Ultimate Vision" in which the Vision took over the world's computer systems in a misguided attempt to create world peace;[93][94][95][96] the formation of the West Coast Avengers;[97][98] and "Avengers Under Siege" which involved the second Baron Zemo and the Masters of Evil taking over the mansion and severely injuring Jarvis and Hercules.[99] "Assault on Olympus" featured Hercules' father, Zeus, blaming the Avengers for his son's injuries and brought them to Olympus for trial,[100] and the "Heavy Metal" arc saw the Super Adaptoid organized several robotic villains for an assault on the team.[101] New members during the 1980s included Tigra;[102] the She-Hulk;[103] an African American Captain Marvel named Monica Rambeau;[104] Starfox;[105] Hawkeye's wife, Mockingbird;[97] and Namor,[106] while Henry Pym emerged from retirement to join the West Coast Avengers.[92] Spider-Man was again offered membership,[107] but failed to gain admission due to security concerns by the Avengers' government liaison.[108] Rogue, who would later become a member of the X-Men, was introduced in The Avengers Annual #10 (1981) by writer Chris Claremont and artist Michael Golden.[109][110]

Stern created the villain, Nebula, who falsely claimed to be the granddaughter of Thanos.[111] The team relocated for a period to a floating island off the coast of New York called Hydrobase. The Avengers moved their base of operations to Hydrobase after Avengers Mansion was severely damaged in the "Under Siege".[112] Hydrobase was later sunk during the Acts of Vengeance crossover.[113] Following Stern's departure, Walt Simonson wrote the series briefly but left due to editorial conflicts.[114][115]

John Byrne took over writing both West Coast Avengers and The Avengers and revamped the comics to allow members to be active when available and reserved when not available and merged the two separate Avengers teams into one team with two bases.[116] Byrne's contributions included a revamping of the Vision, and the discovery that the children of the Scarlet Witch and the Vision were actually illusions. The loss of the Scarlet Witch's children and the Vision, who was disassembled by government agents in retaliation for the Ultimate Vision storyline, drove her insane, although she eventually recovered and rejoined the team. This story revealed that the Scarlet Witch's powers included wide-range reality manipulation and she was what the time-traveling Immortus refers to as a "nexus being" setting the stage for 2004's eventual Chaos and Avengers Disassembled storylines.[117] This played out in the Darker than Scarlet storyline which ran in Avengers West Coast from issues #51–62 (Nov. 1989–Sept. 1990). The Avengers titles in late 1989 were involved in the major crossover event "Acts of Vengeance" where Loki assembled many of Marvel's arch-villains, his inner circle consisted of Doctor Doom, Magneto, Kingpin, Mandarin, Wizard, and Red Skull, in a plot to destroy the team. Loki orchestrated a mass breakout of villains from prison facility, the Vault, as part of his "Acts of Vengeance" scheme, but he ultimately failed in his goal to destroy the Avengers.


The Avengers vol. 2, #11 (Sept. 1997), showing the Heroes Reborn Avengers. Cover art by Michael Ryan and Sal Regla.

In 1990, the U.S. government revoked the Avengers' New York State charter in a treaty with the Soviet Union. The Avengers then received a charter from the United Nations and the Avengers split into two teams with a substitute reserve team backing up the main teams.[118]

Bob Harras and Steve Epting took over the title in the summer of 1991 and introduced a stable lineup with ongoing story lines and character development focused on the Black Knight, Sersi, Crystal, Hercules, the Vision, and the Black Widow. Their primary antagonists in this run were the mysterious Proctor and his team of other-dimensional Avengers known as the Gatherers. During this period, the Avengers found themselves facing increasingly murderous enemies and were forced to question their rule against killing.[119]

This culminated in "Operation: Galactic Storm", a 19-part storyline that ran through all Avengers-related titles and showcased a conflict between the Kree and the Shi'ar Empire.[120] The team split when Iron Man and several dissidents executed the Supreme Intelligence against the wishes of Captain America. After a vote disbanded the West Coast Avengers, Iron Man formed a proactive and aggressive team called Force Works.[121] During the team's first mission, Wonder Man was killed again, though his atoms were temporarily scattered. Force Works later disbanded after it was revealed that Iron Man became a murderer via the manipulations of the villain Kang.[122]

During the Heroes Reborn event, many of the Avengers together with the Fantastic Four and others, died trying to stop the psychic entity Onslaught, although it was revealed that Franklin Richards preserved those heroes in a pocket universe. Believing the main team to be gone, the Black Widow disbanded the Avengers, and only butler Edwin Jarvis remained to tend to the Mansion.

Marvel contracted out The Avengers and three related titles — Captain America, Fantastic Four, and Iron Man to former Marvel artists Jim Lee and Rob Liefeld, two of the founding creators of Image Comics.[123] The previous continuity of the Marvel Universe was set aside as the heroes were "reborn" in the pocket universe. While The Avengers was relaunched as a new series, the "Heroes Reborn" line ended after a year as planned and the license reverted to Marvel.[124]

Writer Kurt Busiek and penciler George Pérez launched a new volume of the series with The Avengers vol. 3, #1 (Feb. 1998).[125] Busiek concurrently wrote the limited series Avengers Forever, a Time travel story that explored the history of the Avengers and resolved many outstanding questions. New members during this run included the revived Wonder Man, Justice, Firestar, Silverclaw, and Triathlon. Busiek's run included many of the Avengers' traditional villains such as the Grim Reaper,[126][127] Ultron,[128] Count Nefaria, and Kang the Conqueror.[129]


File:New avengers sketch.jpg
Variant cover art for New Avengers #1 (Feb. 2005), by Joe Quesada and Richard Isanove.

Successor writer Geoff Johns dealt with the aftermath of Busiek's Kang arc, as the Avengers were granted international authority by the United Nations. Members joining during that period included Jack of Hearts and the second Ant-Man. Chuck Austen followed as writer, and added a new Captain Britain to the team. Writer Brian Michael Bendis then rebooted the series with the "Avengers Disassembled" storyline.[130][131] Titled Chaos, the story featured the deaths of some members and a loss of credibility for the team. The culprit is revealed to be the Scarlet Witch, who had gone insane after agonizing over the memory of her lost children and who subsequently lost control of her reality-altering powers.[132] With the team in disarray and Avengers Mansion ruined, the surviving members agreed to disband.

A new Avengers team formed, in the series New Avengers, composed of Iron Man, Captain America, Luke Cage, Wolverine, Ronin, Spider-Man,[133] Spider-Woman, and the Sentry.[134] This was soon followed by the House of M event.

In the company-wide "Civil War" story arc, Marvel superheroes were split over compliance with the U.S. government's new Superhuman Registration Act, which required all superpowered persons to register their true identities with the federal government and become agents of same. The New Avengers disbanded, with a rebel underground starring in a series retaining The New Avengers in its trademarked cover logo and New Avengers in its copyright indicia. Luke Cage led this team, consisting of himself, Echo, Ronin, Spider-Man, Spider-Woman, Wolverine, Iron Fist, and Doctor Strange. During the long-term Secret Invasion by the shape-shifting alien race the Skrulls, Spider-Woman had been abducted and replaced by the Skrull queen Veranke. After the Skrulls' defeat, Spider-Woman was rescued along with other abducted and replaced heroes. During the company-wide story arc "Dark Reign", Echo and Iron Fist left the team and the Avengers gained Ms. Marvel, Bucky Barnes as a fill-in Captain America, and Mockingbird.

Iron Man, in the series The Mighty Avengers, formed a team under the aegis of the government's Fifty State Initiative program, and took up residency in New York City, joined by Ares, the Black Widow, the Sentry, the Wasp, Wonder Man, and leader Carol Danvers as Ms. Marvel.[135][136] After the events of the Secret Invasion story arc, Norman Osborn assumed control of the formerly S.H.I.E.L.D.-sponsored Avengers, now under the auspices of his own agency, H.A.M.M.E.R. All but Ares and the Sentry left this team — the Wasp appeared to have died — and the team migrated to the series Dark Avengers. Osborn recruited Marvel Boy to pose as Captain Marvel and Daken to pose as his father, Wolverine, bringing Moonstone, Bullseye, and Venom from his previous Thunderbolts team to impersonate Ms. Marvel, Hawkeye, and Spider-Man, respectively.

In The Mighty Avengers, Pym, assumed the Wasp identity in tribute to his fallen ex-wife, led a new team of Avengers, and claimed the name for his team as he was the only founding Avenger on any of the three active Avengers rosters. His team operated under a multinational umbrella group, the Global Reaction Agency for Mysterious Paranormal Activity (GRAMPA). This team featured the roster of Hercules, Amadeus Cho, Stature, the Vision, Jocasta, U.S. Agent, Quicksilver, and Pym. Loki in disguise as the Scarlet Witch was a recurring character. Iron Man and the Hulk were briefly with them.


File:Avengers 2010.jpg
The "Heroic Age" roster of the Avengers. Cover art for Avengers vol. 4, #12.1, by Bryan Hitch.

All four Avengers series (The Mighty Avengers, New Avengers, Dark Avengers, and Avengers: The Initiative) were canceled, and a new ongoing series titled Avengers was launched in May 2010, written by Brian Michael Bendis and penciled by John Romita Jr..[137] This iteration of the Avengers roster consisted of Thor, Hawkeye, Spider-Man, Wolverine, Captain America, Spider-Woman, Iron Man, and team leader Maria Hill.[138] Steve Rogers, briefly eschewing his Captain America persona, grants these "New Avengers" recognition as an official team independent of Stark's more traditional Avengers. Bucky Barnes as Captain America joined the main Avengers, as did Iron Fist, Power Woman, and the Thing. Rogers was an occasional presence and Victoria Hand was added with his backing.

A second series, titled Secret Avengers, was released in May 2010, written by Ed Brubaker with Mike Deodato as the regular artist.[139] The second volume of the New Avengers series was relaunched in June 2010, written by Bendis and drawn by Stuart Immonen.[140] A fourth title, Avengers Academy, was launched in June 2010, replacing Avengers: The Initiative. Christos Gage served as writer, with Mike McKone as artist.[141]

Following a meeting between Rogers and MI-13, Captain Britain accepted a position with the Avengers.[142] Noh-Varr later did as well.[143] Bruce Banner made arrangements with Rogers for the Red Hulk to join.[144][145]

The "Shattered Heroes" storyline led to several changes in the main Avengers lineup, with Quake and Storm being recruited, and the Vision rejoining the team. Wolverine and Spider-Man leave the main team and become more involved with the New Avengers.[146] During the events of the Avengers vs. X-Men storyline, Storm quits to side with her fellow mutants as a member of the X-Men. The Avengers dismiss Noh-Varr after he attempted to betray the team, though ultimately he did not. The conflict ends with both teams defeated by an unrepentant Cyclops. A new series, Uncanny Avengers, debuted in the flagship title of the Marvel NOW! initiative. The title is written by Rick Remender with art by John Cassaday, and the team contains members of both the Avengers and the X-Men.[147] As well, a biweekly Avengers title was launched, written by Jonathan Hickman and drawn by different artists for each story arc.[148] Hickman also began writing New Avengers.[149]

During the AXIS storyline, when a now-evil Scarlet Witch invades Latveria, Doctor Doom forms his own team of Avengers consisting of 3D Man, Elsa Bloodstone, Stingray, Valkyrie, and U.S. Agent.[150] Rogers later assembles Magneto, Doctor Doom, the Absorbing Man, Carnage, Deadpool, the Enchantress, the Hobgoblin, the fifth Jack O'Lantern, Loki, Mystique, and Sabretooth.[151] During the Time Runs Out storyline, Sunspot created a team of the Avengers, consisting of himself, Black Widow, Cannonball, Manifold, Pod, Shang-Chi, Smasher, Spider-Woman, Validator, and the Children of the Sun. The "Multiversal Avengers" division of this team consists of Abyss, the Ex Nihili (including Ex Nihilo), Hyperion, Nightmask, Odinson, and Star Brand.[152]

Current roster

Main team Avengers Idea Mechanics Avengers Unity Division
Captain America (Sam Wilson) Hawkeye (Clint Barton) Brother Voodoo (Jericho Drumm)
Iron Man (Tony Stark) Hulkling (Teddy Altman) Cable (Nathan Summers)
Ms. Marvel (Kamala Khan) Pod (Aikku Jokinen) Deadpool (Wade Wilson)
Nova (Sam Alexander) Power Man (Victor Alvarez) Human Torch (Johnny Storm)
Spider-Man (Miles Morales) Songbird (Melissa Gold) Quicksilver (Pietro Maximoff)
Thor (Jane Foster) Squirrel Girl (Doreen Green) Rogue (Anna Marie)
Vision Sunspot (Roberto da Costa) Steve Rogers
White Tiger (Ava Ayala) Synapse (Emily)
Wiccan (Billy Kaplan)

Other versions

1950s Avengers

A short-lived team of superheroes in the 1950s called themselves the Avengers. It consisted of Marvel Boy, Venus, the 3-D Man, Gorilla-Man, M-11, Jimmy Woo, Namora, and Jann of the Jungle,[153] and existed in an alternate timeline that was erased by the time-manipulating Immortus.[154] Agents of Atlas, a version of the group, without 3-D Man and Jann existed in mainstream continuity, and eventually reformed in the present day.[155]

Avengers 1959

The New Avengers vol. 2, #10 revealed another 1950s Avengers team, formed by Nick Fury to hunt the last remnants of the Third Reich and consisted of Fury himself, Dominic Fortune, Dum Dum Dugan, Namora, Silver Sable, Sabretooth, Kraven the Hunter, and Ulysses Bloodstone. A follow-up miniseries penned by Howard Chaykin showed this group assisted by Blonde Phantom, Eric Koenig and a brand new character British wizard and spy, Powell McTeague. That time they fought against a cult based on the Nazi party which employed several agents, including Baron Blood and Brain Drain.

Avengers Next

In the alternate future timeline known as MC2, the Avengers disbanded and Avengers Mansion was a museum. An emergency forced Edwin Jarvis to sound an alert, and a new generation of heroes formed a new team of Avengers. Most of the new Avengers were children of established Marvel superheroes.

Ultimate Marvel

In the Ultimate Marvel Universe, the Avengers are named the Ultimates, and were formed by General Nicholas Fury to protect America against superhuman threats. They first appeared in The Ultimates by Mark Millar and Bryan Hitch.[156][157] After the events of The Ultimates 2, the team left S.H.I.E.L.D. employment to become independent and financed by Tony Stark.[158]

A Black Ops team called the Avengers debuted sometime after the Ultimatum storyline. This version was a project headed up by Nick Fury and Tony Stark's brother Gregory Stark to bring Captain America back. Its known members consisted of War Machine, Hawkeye, the Black Widow II (Monica Chang), Spider (a Spider-Man clone created by Gregory Stark from the DNA of Spider-Man and Professor X), Tyrone Cash (who was the original Hulk before Bruce Banner), the Red Wasp, and Nerd Hulk (an intelligent clone of the Hulk who lacks the Hulk's rage).[159] Additional members included Punisher (who joined the Avengers against a Ghost Rider manhunt)[160] and the half vampire Blade (who joined the group to help against a vampire invasion).[161]

Avengers Forever

One of the timelines seen in Avengers Forever is an alternate future where Martians have ravaged Earth and killed most of its heroes. An older version of Black Panther leads a team of Avengers consisting of Killraven, Living Lightning, Jocasta, a new Crimson Dynamo, and Thundra. [162]


In an alternate future depicted in Runaways, Gertrude Yorkes's future self traveled back in time. In that future, she was the leader of the Avengers under the name Heroine.[163] That lineup of the Avengers featured an Iron Woman, Scorpion, the Fantastic Fourteen, and Captain Americas.[164]

Marvel Zombies

The Avengers existed as a team prior to a zombie contagion's arrival in the original Marvel Zombies universe, and resembled their pre-disassembled roster. When several of their members were infected, they set about eating humanity and sent out a bogus "Avengers Assemble" call to draw super-humans to the Avengers Mansion, infected more heroes and thus spread the virus. The team fell apart and many of its members were killed as time passed.[165]

A second team of zombie Avengers appeared in Marvel Zombies Return. That team was brought together to find food and kill any resistance (zombie or uninfected) and was led by Sentry. Also on the team were the zombies Moon Knight, Namor, Quasar, Quicksilver, Thundra, and Super-Skrull. They were joined by zombie Giant-Man of the original Zombiverse, who was trying to power a dimensional teleporter, but were all killed by Spider-Man's New Avengers. The team was composed of himself with Iron Man, Sandman, and the zombie Hulk and Wolverine.[166]

House of M: Avengers

In the alternate reality created by the Scarlet Witch, Luke Cage formed a team of superpowered humans to fight for human rights.[167]

Age of Apocalypse

A humanized version of the Avengers banded together during the Age of Apocalypse and were known as the Human High Council.[168][169]

Avengers 2099

During the "Secret Wars" storyline in the Battleworld domain of 2099, the Avengers are a team of corporate superheroes sponsored by Alchemax. The group consists of Captain America (a Latina woman named Roberta Mendez), Black Widow (an African-American woman named Tania), Iron Man (a dwarf named Sonny Frisco), Hawkeye (a half-man, half-bird creature named Max), and Hercules.[170]

Collected editions

The Avengers (1963 series)

Title (Trade Paperback/ Hardcover) Material collected Publication date ISBN
The Avengers, Vol. 1 (Marvel Masterworks) Avengers #1–10 May 13, 2009 978-0-7851-3706-1
The Avengers, Vol. 2 (Marvel Masterworks) Avengers #11–20 October 14, 2009 978-0-7851-3708-5
The Avengers, Vol. 3 (Marvel Masterworks) Avengers #21–30 April 6, 2011 978-0-7851-5056-5
The Avengers, Vol. 4 (Marvel Masterworks) Avengers #31–40 April 11, 2012 978-0-7851-1638-7
The Avengers, Vol. 5 (Marvel Masterworks) Avengers #41–50, Annual #1 July 9, 2013 978-0-7851-1848-0
The Avengers, Vol. 6 (Marvel Masterworks) (Hardcover only) Avengers #51–58, Annual #2, X-Men (1963) #45 December 13, 2006 978-0-7851-2079-7
The Avengers, Vol. 7 (Marvel Masterworks) (Hardcover only) Avengers #59–68, Marvel Super–Heroes (1966) #17 October 17, 2007 978-0-7851-2680-5
The Avengers, Vol. 8 (Marvel Masterworks) (Hardcover only) Avengers #69–79 December 17, 2008 978-0-7851-2934-9
The Avengers, Vol. 9 (Marvel Masterworks) (Hardcover only) Avengers #80–88, The Incredible Hulk #140 May 28, 2009 978-0-7851-3501-2
The Avengers: The Kree/Skrull War Avengers #89–97 May 7, 2008 978-0-7851-3230-1
The Avengers, Vol. 10 (Marvel Masterworks) (Hardcover only) Avengers #89–100 May 19, 2010 978-0-7851-3331-5
The Avengers, Vol. 11 (Marvel Masterworks) (Hardcover only) Avengers #101–111, Daredevil (1964) #99 July 13, 2011 978-0-7851-5038-1
The Avengers, Vol. 12 (Marvel Masterworks) (Hardcover only) Avengers #112–119, Defenders (1972) #8–11, and material from FOOM #5–7. March 2012 978-0-7851-5879-0
The Avengers, Vol. 13 (Marvel Masterworks) (Hardcover only) Avengers Avengers #120-128, Giant-Size Avengers #1, Captain Marvel #33 and Fantastic Four #150 June 19, 2013 978-0-7851-6629-0
The Avengers, Vol. 14 (Marvel Masterworks) (Hardcover only) Avengers #Avengers #129-136, Giant-Size Avengers #2-4. July 16, 2014 978-0-7851-8805-6
Avengers/Defenders War Avengers #115–118, Defenders #8–11 March 2002 978-0-7851-0844-3
The Avengers: Celestial Madonna (TPB) Avengers #129–135, Giant Sized Avengers #2–4 May 1, 2002 978-0-7851-0826-9
The Avengers: The Coming of the Beast (Hardcover) Avengers #137–140, 145–146 January 26, 2011 978-0-7851-4468-7
The Avengers: The Serpent Crown (TPB) Avengers #141–144 and #147–149 September 7, 2005 978-0-7851-1700-1
The Avengers: The Private War of Doctor Doom (Hardcover) Avengers #150–156, Avengers Annual #6, and Super Villain Team-Up #9 March 2012 978-0-7851-6235-3
The Avengers: The Bride of Ultron (Hardcover) Avengers #157-166 October 2012 978-0-7851-6251-3
The Avengers Epic Collection: The Final Threat Avengers #150-166, Annual #6-7, Super-Villain Team-Up #9 & Marvel Two-in-One Annual #2 2013 978-0-7851-8790-5
The Avengers: The Korvac Saga (Hardcover) Avengers #167–168 and #170–177 June 2003 978-0-7851-0919-8
The Avengers: The Korvac Saga (TPB) Avengers #167–168, #170–177 and Thor Annual #6 March 2012 978-0-7851-6205-6
The Avengers: Nights of Wundagore (TPB) Avengers #181–187 March 27, 2009 978-0-7851-3721-4
The Avengers: Heart of Stone (TPB) Avengers #188–196, Avengers Annual #9 May 14, 2013 978-0-7851-8431-7
The Avengers: The Trial of Yellowjacket (TPB) Avengers #212-230 August 15, 2012 978-0-7851-6207-0
The Avengers: Absolute Vision Book 1 (TPB) Avengers #231-241, Avengers Annual #11-12, The Amazing Spider-Man Annual #16, Fantastic Four #256, and Doctor Strange vol. 2 #60 December 10, 2013 978-0-7851-8534-5
The Avengers: Absolute Vision Book 2 (TPB) Avengers #242-254, Avengers Annual #13 March 25, 2014 978-0-7851-8535-2
The Avengers: The Legacy of Thanos (TPB) Avengers #255-261, Avengers Annual #14, Fantastic Four Annual #19 June 24, 2014 978-0-7851-8891-9
The Avengers: West Coast Avengers Assemble (Hardcover) West Coast Avengers #1–4, Iron Man Annual #7, and Avengers #250, plus material from Avengers #239, #243–244, and #246, and Avengers West Coast #100. June 9, 2010 978-0-7851-4321-5
Secret Wars II Omnibus (Hardcover) Secret Wars II #1–9, Avengers #260–261, #265–266, plus more. February 18, 2009 978-0-7851-3721-4
Avengers: The Once And Future Kang (TPB) Avengers #262–269, Avengers Annual #15, West Coast Avengers Annual #1 February 19, 2013 978-0-7851-6729-7
The Avengers: Under Siege (Hardcover) Avengers #270–277 December 22, 2010 978-0-7851-4382-6
The Avengers: Assault on Olympus (Hardcover) Avengers #278–285 September 21, 2011 978-0-7851-5533-1
The Avengers: Heavy Metal (TPB) Avengers #286–293 August 6, 2013 978-0-7851-8452-2
X-Men: Inferno Crossovers Omnibus (Hardcover) Avengers #298–300 plus more. September 8, 2010 978-0-7851-4671-1
Acts of Vengeance Omnibus (Hardcover) Avengers #311–313, Annual #19, Avengers Spotlight #26–29, Avengers West Coast #53–55, plus more. March 30, 2011 978-0-7851-6127-1
Avengers: Galactic Storm: Volume 1 (TPB) Collects Avengers #345–346, Avengers West Coast #80–81, Captain America #398–399, Quasar #32–33, Wonder Man #7–8, Iron Man #278 and Thor #445. March 2006 978-0785120440 Check ISBN
Avengers: Galactic Storm: Volume 2 (TPB) Collects Avengers #347, Avengers West Coast #82, Iron Man #279, Thor #446, Captain America #400–401, Quasar #34–35, Wonder Man #9 and What If? #55–56. December 2006 978-0785120459 Check ISBN
The Avengers/ X-Men: Bloodties (Hardcover) Avengers #368–369, Avengers West Coast #101, Uncanny X-Men #307, X-Men #26, Black Knight: Exodus January 18, 2012 978-0-7851-6127-1
Avengers: The Crossing Omnibus (Hardcover) Avengers #390–395, Avengers: The Crossing, Avengers: Timeslide, Iron Man #319–325, Force Works #16–22, War Machine #20–25, and Age of Innocence: The Rebirth of Iron Man. March 2012 978-0-7851-6203-2
Avengers/ Iron Man: First Sign (TPB) Avengers #396-400, Iron Man #326-331, Thor #426, Captain America #449. August 2013 978-0-7851-8496-6
X-Men: The Complete Onslaught Epic, Book 1 (TPB) Avengers #400–401, X-Men #53–54, Uncanny X-Men #334–335, and more. December 20, 2007 978-0-7851-2823-6
X-Men: The Complete Onslaught Epic, Book 3 (TPB) Avengers #402, Iron Man #332, and more. August 27, 2008 978-0-7851-2825-0
Marvel Platinum: the Definitive Avengers (TPB) Avengers #1, 4, 57, 93, Avengers West Coast #51-52, Avengers #10-11, Avengers #503,

Avengers Finale and New Avengers #3.

12 April 2012 978-1-84653-507-9
Title (B&W Trade Paperbacks) Material collected Publication date ISBN
Essential Avengers, Vol. 1 (Marvel Essentials) Avengers #1–24 (B&W) (1963–1966) November 18, 1998 978-0-7851-1862-6
Essential Avengers, Vol. 2 (Marvel Essentials) Avengers #25–46, Annual #1 (B&W) (1966–1967) June 1, 2000 978-0-7851-0741-5
Essential Avengers, Vol. 3 (Marvel Essentials) Avengers #47–68, Annual #2 (B&W) (1967–1969) March 1, 2001 978-0-7851-0787-3
Essential Avengers, Vol. 4 (Marvel Essentials) Avengers #69–97, The Incredible Hulk #140 (B&W) (1969–1972) October 1, 2004 978-0-7851-1485-7
Essential Avengers, Vol. 5 (Marvel Essentials) Avengers #98–119, Daredevil #99, Defenders #8–11 (B&W) (1972–1974) January 25, 2006 978-0-7851-2087-2
Essential Avengers, Vol. 6 (Marvel Essentials) Avengers #120–140, Captain Marvel #33, Fantastic Four #150, Giant–Size Avengers #1–4 (B&W) (1974–1975) February 20, 2008 978-0-7851-3058-1
Essential Avengers, Vol. 7 (Marvel Essentials) Avengers #141–163, Annual #6, and Super-Villain Team-Up #9 (B&W) (1975–1977) January 8, 2010 978-0-7851-4453-3
Essential Avengers, Vol. 8 (Marvel Essentials) Avengers #164–184, Annual #7-8, and Marvel Two-in-One Annual #2 (B&W) (1977–1979) April 25, 2012 978-0-7851-6322-0
Essential Avengers, Vol. 9 (Marvel Essentials) Avengers #185-206, Avengers Annual #9, Tales to Astonish #12 (B&W) (1979–1981) September 24, 2013 0-7851-8411-9 Check ISBN

Avengers Vol. 2 (1996)

Title (Trade Paperback) Material collected Publication date ISBN
Avengers: Heroes Reborn Avengers (1996) #1–12 December 27, 2006 978-0-7851-2337-8

Avengers Vol. 3 (1998)

Title (Trade Paperback) Material collected Publication date ISBN
Avengers Assemble, Vol. 1 Avengers vol. 3 #1–11, Annual 1998; Iron Man vol. 3 #7; Captain America vol. 3 #8; Quicksilver #10 January 12, 2011 978-0-7851-4498-4
Avengers: The Morgan Conquest Avengers (1998) #1–4 January 2000 978-0-7851-0728-6
Avengers: Supreme Justice Avengers vol. 3 #5-8, Avengers/Squadron Supreme Annual '98, Iron Man vol. 3 #7, Captain America vol. 3 #8, and Quicksilver #10 June 1, 2001 978-0-7851-0773-6
Avengers Assemble, Vol. 2 Avengers vol. 3 #12–23 and #0, Annual 1999; Avengers: Rough Cut. March 2012 978-0-7851-6126-4
Avengers: Clear and Present Dangers Avengers vol. 3 #8–15 November 1, 2001 978-0-7851-0798-9
Avengers: Ultron Unlimited Avengers vol. 3 #0 and #19–22 April 1, 2001 978-0-7851-0774-3
Avengers Assemble, Vol. 3 Avengers vol. 3 #23–34, #1½, Thunderbolts #42–44 July 26, 2006 978-0-7851-2130-5
Avengers: Living Legends Avengers (1998) #23–30 July 21, 2004 978-0-7851-1561-8
Avengers/Thunderbolts Volume 1: The Nefaria Protocols Avengers vol. 3 #31–34, Thunderbolts #42–44 March 1, 2004 978-0-7851-1445-1
Avengers Assemble, Vol. 4 Avengers vol. 3 #35–40, Annual 2000–200, Thunderbolts Annual 2000, Avengers: The Ultron Imperative and Avengers Infinity #1–4 January 31, 2007 978-0-7851-2347-7
Avengers: Above and Beyond Avengers vol. 3 #36–40, 56, Avengers: Ultron Imperative, and Annual 2001 February 15, 2006 978-0-7851-1845-9
Avengers: The Kang Dynasty Avengers vol. 3 #41–55 (vol. 1 #456–470),[Note 1] and Annual 2001 November 30, 2002 978-0-7851-0958-7
Avengers Assemble, Vol. 5 Avengers vol. 3 #41–56, Annual 2001 November 7, 2007 978-0-7851-2348-4
Avengers, Vol. 1: World Trust Avengers vol. 3 #57–62 (vol. 1 #472–477), and Marvel Double–Shot #2 March 17, 2003 978-0-7851-1080-4
Avengers: The Complete Collection by Geoff Johns, vol. 1 Avengers vol. 3 #57-63, Vision #1-4, Thor vol. 2 #58, Iron Man vol. 3 #64 2013 978-0-7851-8433-1
Avengers, Vol. 2: Red Zone Avengers vol. 3 #64–70 (vol. 1 #478–485) December 30, 2003 978-0-7851-1099-6
Avengers, Vol. 3: The Search for She-Hulk Avengers vol. 3 #71–76 (vol. 1 #486–491) May 2004 978-0-7851-1202-0
Avengers: The Complete Collection by Geoff Johns, vol. 2 Avengers vol. 3 #64-76 2013 978-0-7851-8439-3
Avengers, Vol. 4: Lionheart of Avalon Avengers vol. 3 #77–81 (vol. 1 #492–496) August 1, 2004 978-0-7851-1338-6
Avengers, Vol. 5: Once An Invader Avengers vol. 3 #82–84 (vol. 1 #497–499), Invaders #0 November 1, 2004 978-0-7851-1481-9
Avengers: Disassembled Avengers #500–503,[Note 2] and Avengers Finale November 22, 2006 978-0-7851-1482-6
Title (Hardcover) Material collected Publication date ISBN
Avengers Assemble, Vol. 1 Avengers vol. 3 #1–11, Annual 1998; Iron Man vol. 3 #7; Captain America vol. 3 #8; Quicksilver #10 August 4, 2004 978-0-7851-1573-1
Avengers Assemble, Vol. 2 Avengers vol. 3 #12–22, #0 and Annual 1999 April 6, 2005 978-0-7851-1773-5
Avengers Assemble, Vol. 3 Avengers vol. 3 #23–34, #1½, Thunderbolts #42–44 July 26, 2006 978-0-7851-2130-5
Avengers Assemble, Vol. 4 Avengers vol. 3 #35–40, Annual 2000–2001, Thunderbolts Annual 2000, Avengers: The Ultron Imperative and Avengers Infinity #1–4 January 31, 2007 978-0-7851-2347-7
Avengers Assemble, Vol. 5 Avengers vol. 3 #41–56, Annual 2001 November 7, 2007 978-0-7851-2348-4
Avengers, Vol. 1: World Trust Avengers vol. 3 #57–61 February 10, 2010 978-0-7851-4473-1
Avengers, Vol. 2: Standoff Avengers vol. 3 #62–64, Thor vol. 2 #58, and Iron Man vol. 3 #64. February 10, 2010 978-0-7851-4467-0
Avengers, Vol. 3: Red Zone Avengers vol. 3 #65–70 May 26, 2010 978-0-7851-4466-3
Avengers, Vol. 4: The Search for She-Hulk Avengers vol. 3 #71–76 August 4, 2010 978-0-7851-4472-4
Avengers: Disassembled Avengers #500–503 (returns to original numbering); Avengers Finale December 20, 2006 978-0-7851-2294-4

Avengers Vol. 4 (2010)

Title (Hardcover) Material collected Publication date ISBN
Avengers Vol. 1 Avengers vol. 4 #1–6 February 9, 2011 978-0-7851-4500-4
Avengers Vol. 2 Avengers vol. 4 #7–12, #12.1 July 27, 2011 978-0-7851-4504-2
Avengers: Fear Itself Avengers vol. 4 #13–17
New Avengers vol. 2 #14–16
January 25, 2012 978-0-7851-6348-0
Avengers Vol. 3 Avengers vol. 4 #18–24, #24.1 July 25, 2012 978-0-7851-5116-6
Avengers Vol. 4 Avengers (2010) #25-30 January 1, 2013 978-0785160795 Check ISBN
Avengers Vol. 5 Avengers vol. 4 #31-34, Annual #1
New Avengers vol. 2 Annual #1
March 5, 2013 978-0785160817 Check ISBN
Title (Trade Paperback) Material collected Publication date ISBN
Avengers, Vol. 1 Avengers (2010) #1–6 August 10, 2011 978-0-7851-4501-1

Avengers Vol. 5 (2013)

Title (Hardcover) Material collected Publication date ISBN
Avengers Vol. 1: Avengers World Avengers vol. 5 #1–6 April 30, 2013 978-0-7851-6823-2
Avengers Vol. 2: The Last White Event Avengers vol. 5 #7-11 July 23, 2013 978-0-7851-6824-9
Avengers Vol. 3: Prelude to Infinity Avengers vol. 5 #12-17 October 29, 2013 978-0-7851-6825-6
Avengers Vol. 4: Infinity Avengers vol. 5 #18-23 January 28, 2014 978-0-7851-8414-0
Avengers Vol. 5: Adapt or Die Avengers vol. 5 #24-28 July 15, 2014 978-0785154778
Avengers Vol. 6: Infinite Avengers Avengers vol. 5 #29-34 November 18, 2014 978-0785154785
Avengers: Time Runs Out, vol. 1 Avengers vol. 5 #35-37; New Avengers vol. 3 #24-25 January 14, 2015 978-0-7851-9341-8
Avengers: Time Runs Out, vol. 2 Avengers vol. 5 #38-39; New Avengers vol. 3 #26-28 March 10, 2015 9780785193722
Avengers: Time Runs Out, vol. 3 Avengers vol. 5 #40-42; New Avengers vol. 3 #29-30 May 26, 2015 9780785192220
Avengers: Time Runs Out, vol. 4 Avengers vol. 5 #43-44; New Avengers vol. 3 #31-33 June 30, 2015 9780785192244

In other media

Three animated series have been based on the team. The Avengers: United They Stand was loosely based on the West Coast Avengers and ran from 1999 to 2000. The Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes was based on the early adventures of the team and ran from 2010 to 2013. Avengers Assemble is based on a new version of the team and premiered on May 26, 2013.

Marvel Animation has made three Avengers films, Ultimate Avengers, Ultimate Avengers 2, and Next Avengers.

Marvel Studios Productions include: The 2012 live-action film The Avengers, featuring Nick Fury recruiting Iron Man, Captain America, Hulk, Thor, Black Widow, and Hawkeye to form the Avengers to fight Loki and the Chitauri invasion of New York City. At the time, it set the record for the biggest opening debut in North America, with a weekend gross of $207.4 million.[1] A second Avengers film titled Avengers: Age of Ultron was released on May 1, 2015. A third Avengers film titled Avengers: Infinity War will be released in two parts, the first on May 4, 2018 and the second on May 3, 2019.

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 Subers, Ray (May 6, 2012). "Weekend Report: Avengers Smashes Records". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on 2013-05-19. Retrieved 2012-05-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 Lee, Stan (1974). Origins of Marvel Comics. Simon & Schuster/Fireside Books. p. 16. ISBN 978-0671218638.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Ryall, Chris (2009). Comic Books 101: The History, Methods and Madness. Impact. ISBN 9781600611872.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. The Avengers at the Grand Comics Database
  5. "The Avengers". Markify. Retrieved May 21, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. West Coast Avengers vol. 2 at the Grand Comics Database
  7. Avengers West Coast at the Grand Comics Database
  8. Solo Avengers at the Grand Comics Database
  9. Avengers Spotlight at the Grand Comics Database
  10. The Avengers vol. 2 at the Grand Comics Database
  11. Avengers Finale at the Grand Comics Database
  12. The New Avengers at the Grand Comics Database
  13. The Avengers vol. 4 at the Grand Comics Database
  14. The Avengers vol. 5 at the Grand Comics Database
  15. Morse, Ben (2015-03-26). "All-New, All-Different Avengers Assemble!". Marvel Comics. Archived from the original on 2015-06-26.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. Roach, David A. (2005). The Superhero Book: The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Comic-Book Icons and Hollywood Heroes. Omnigraphics, Inc. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-7808-0772-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. Lee, Stan (w), Kirby, Jack (p), Ayers, Dick (i). "The Coming of the Avengers" The Avengers 1 (Sep 1963), Marvel Comics
  18. DeFalco, Tom; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2008). "1960s". Marvel Chronicle A Year by Year History. Dorling Kindersley. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-7566-4123-8. Filled with some wonderful visual action, The Avengers #1 has a very simple story: the Norse god Loki tricked the Hulk into going on a rampage ... The heroes eventually learned about Loki's involvement and united with the Hulk to form the Avengers. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. Lee, Stan (w), Kirby, Jack (p), Reinman, Paul (i). "The Space Phantom" The Avengers 2 (Nov 1963), Marvel Comics
  20. 20.0 20.1 Lee, Stan (w), Kirby, Jack (p), Roussos, George (i). "Captain America Joins ... The Avengers!" The Avengers 4 (March 1964), Marvel Comics
  21. DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 99: "'Captain America lives again!' announced the cover of The Avengers #4. A mere [four] months after his imposter had appeared in Strange Tales #114, the real Cap was back."
  22. Busiek, Kurt (w), Pérez, George (p), Vey, Al (i). "Once an Avenger ..." The Avengers v3, 1 (Feb 1998), Marvel Comics
  23. DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 101: "The Masters of Evil, the Avengers' evil counterparts, launched their first attack in The Avengers #6."
  24. Lee, Stan (w), Kirby, Jack (p), Ayers, Dick (i). "Kang, the Conqueror" The Avengers 8 (Sep 1964), Marvel Comics
  25. DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 101: "Time travel had fascinated writers of speculative fiction ever since H. G. Wells published The Time Machine, so Stan Lee and Jack Kirby introduced their own master of time in The Avengers #8."
  26. Lee, Stan (w), Heck, Don (p), Ayers, Dick (i). "The Coming of the Wonder Man!" The Avengers 9 (Oct 1964), Marvel Comics
  27. DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 102: "Created to infiltrate and destroy the Avengers, Wonder Man ultimately sacrificed himself to save them."
  28. Lee, Stan (w), Heck, Don (p), Ayers, Dick (i). "Trapped in the Castle of Count Nefaria!" The Avengers 13 (Feb 1965), Marvel Comics
  29. DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 106: "Europe's wealthiest nobleman, Count Nefaria, had a terrible secret: he was also the most powerful crimelord on Earth. Created by Stan Lee and Don Heck, Nefaria secretly ran the worldwide criminal organization called the Maggia."
  30. Lee, Stan (w), Kirby, Jack (p), Ayers, Dick (i). "The Old Order Changeth!" The Avengers 16 (May 1965), Marvel Comics
  31. Daniels, Les (1991). Marvel: Five Fabulous Decades of the World's Greatest Comics. Harry N. Abrams. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-8109-3821-2. Stan Lee has admitted that by this period the intertwined tales of the Marvel Universe were beginning to confuse even him. Keeping top heroes like Thor active in The Avengers without contradicting the information in Thor's own series was becoming a chore. A changing of the guard was the result for The Avengers.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  32. DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 108: "No super hero team in the history of comic books had ever gone through such a massive overhaul. A new precedent had been set! The Avengers line-up continued to change and evolve over the years."
  33. 33.0 33.1 Lee, Stan (w), Heck, Don (p), Ray, Frankie (i). "Among Us Walks a Goliath!" The Avengers 28 (May 1966), Marvel Comics
  34. Thomas, Roy (w), Heck, Don (p), Colletta, Vince (i). "Blitzkreig in Central Park!" The Avengers 45 (Oct 1967), Marvel Comics
  35. Thomas, Roy (w), Buscema, John (p), Tuska, George (i). "... And Deliver Us From the Masters of Evil!" The Avengers 54 (July 1968), Marvel Comics
  36. Thomas, Roy (w), Heck, Don (p). "The Ultroids Attack!" The Avengers 36 (Jan 1967), Marvel Comics
  37. Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1960s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-7566-9236-0. Spider-Man nearly became an Avenger in this lead story [of The Amazing Spider-Man Annual #3 (1966)] written by [Stan] Lee with layouts by [John Romita Sr.] and pencils by Don Heck. Packaged ... in a 72-paged oversized special, '... To Become an Avenger' saw Spidey actively recruited for Avengers membership. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  38. Thomas, Roy (w), Buscema, John (p), Colletta, Vince (i). "Death Calls for the Arch-Heroes!" The Avengers 52 (May 1968), Marvel Comics
  39. DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 130: "For issue #52, [writer Roy] Thomas introduced [Wonder Man's] brother Eric, who became the Grim Reaper."
  40. Friedrich, Gary (w), Heck, Don; Roth, Werner (p), Tartaglione, John (i). "When Mutants Clash!" The X-Men 45 (June 1968)
  41. Thomas, Roy (w), Buscema, John (p), Tuska, George (i). "In Battle Joined!" The Avengers 53 (June 1968)
  42. Thomas, Roy (w), Buscema, John (p), Klein, George (i). "Behold ... The Vision!" The Avengers 57 (Oct 1968), Marvel Comics
  43. DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 132: "The updated Vision was created by writer Roy Thomas, who continued his trick of taking a name that Marvel already owned and creating a new super hero around it ... The new Vision, drawn by John Buscema, was a synthozoid - an android with synthetic human organs."
  44. DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 133: "Hank had suffered a mental breakdown and created this new identity."
  45. DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 134: "Janet Van Dyne (the Wasp) and Hank Pym ... finally tied the knot in The Avengers #60."
  46. DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 103: "Tales of Suspense #59 also presented Edwin Jarvis for the first time, the longtime butler of the Avengers."
  47. Beard, Jim (May 18, 2012). "Avengers Classics: Avengers 1 1/2". Marvel Comics. Archived from the original on February 20, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  48. Sanderson, Peter "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 145
  49. Sanderson "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 146: "Red Wolf was Marvel's first Native American super hero."
  50. Thomas, Roy (w), Buscema, John (p), Giacoia, Frank (i). "The World Is Not for Burning" The Avengers 85 (February 1971)
  51. Thomas, Roy (w), Buscema, Sal (p), Mooney, Jim (i). "Brain-Child to the Dark Tower Came" The Avengers 86 (March 1971)
  52. Sanderson "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 148
  53. Thomas, Roy; Buscema, Sal; Adams, Neal; Buscema, John (2000). Avengers: The Kree-Skrull War. Marvel Comics. p. 208. ISBN 978-0-7851-0745-3. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  54. Daniels p. 150: "This wild tale ... attempted to tie together more than thirty years of the company's stories ... More than any previous work, 'The Kree-Skrull War' solidified the idea that every comic book Marvel had ever published was part of an endless, ongoing saga."
  55. Sanderson "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 150: "Unprecedented in Marvel history, this epic spanned nine issues of The Avengers. The saga began in The Avengers #89."
  56. Thomas, Roy (w), Buscema, Sal (p), Roussos, George (i). "All Things Must End!" The Avengers 92 (September 1971)
  57. Thomas, Roy (w), Adams, Neal (p), Palmer, Tom (i). "This Beachhead Earth" The Avengers 93 (November 1971)
  58. Comtois, Pierre (2011). Marvel Comics In The 1970s: An Issue-By-Issue Field Guide To A Pop Culture Phenomenon. TwoMorrows Publishing. p. 65. ISBN 978-1-60549-034-2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  59. Sanderson "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 149: "Ellison devised a plot for a two-part story, scripted by Roy Thomas, that began in The Avengers #88 and led into The Incredible Hulk #140."
  60. Cook, Jon B. (2005). "Rich Buckler Breaks Out! The artist on Deathlok, T'Challa and other Marvel Tales". Comic Book Artist Collection, Vol. 3. TwoMorrows Publishing. p. 72. ISBN 978-1-893905-42-9.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  61. Englehart, Steve (w), Brown, Bob (p), Esposito, Mike (i). "Night of the Swordsman" The Avengers 114 (August 1973)
  62. Englehart, Steve (n.d.). "The Avengers-Defenders Clash". SteveEnglehart.com. Archived from the original on May 19, 2013. Retrieved May 19, 2013. From the moment it was born, this sequence was called the Avengers-Defenders Clash.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  63. Englehart, Steve; Brown, Bob; Buscema, Sal (2007). Avengers/Defenders War. Marvel Comics. p. 136. ISBN 978-0-7851-2759-8.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  64. Sanderson "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 160: "Loki and Dormammu manipulated two super-teams into the Avengers-Defenders war, starting in The Avengers #116 and The Defenders #9 in October [1973]."
  65. Sanderson "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 166: "Writer Steve Englehart started an epic story line in which Kang the Conqueror tried to locate the Celestial Madonna."
  66. Englehart, Steve (w), Buscema, Sal (p), Staton, Joe (i). "Yesterday and Beyond ..." The Avengers 133 (March 1975)
  67. Englehart, Steve (w), Buscema, Sal (p), Staton, Joe (i). "The Times That Bind!" The Avengers 134 (April 1975)
  68. Englehart, Steve (w), Tuska, George (p), Chiaramonte, Frank (i). "The Torch is Passed!" The Avengers 135 (May 1975)
  69. Cooke, Jon B. (2000). Comic Book Artist Collection, Volume One. TwoMorrows Publishing. p. 166. ISBN 978-1-893905-03-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  70. Englehart, Steve (w), Cockrum, Dave (p), Cockrum, Dave (i). "A Blast from the Past!" Giant-Size Avengers 2 (November 1974)
  71. Englehart, Steve (w), Heck, Don (p), Tartaglione, John (i). "... Let All Men Bring Together" Giant-Size Avengers 4 (June 1975)
  72. Sanderson "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 169: "Writer Steve Englehart and veteran Avengers artist Don Heck presented the grand finale of the long-running 'Celestial Madonna' saga ... Immortus presided over the double wedding of Mantis to the resurrected Swordsman, and the android Vision to the Scarlet Witch."
  73. Englehart,, Steve (w), Tuska, George (p), Colletta, Vince (i). "We Do Seek Out New Avengers!!" The Avengers 137 (July 1975)
  74. Englehart, Steve; Pérez, George (2007). Avengers: The Serpent Crown. Marvel Comics. p. 136. ISBN 978-0-7851-5751-9.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  75. Sacks, Jason (September 6, 2010). "Top 10 1970s Marvels". Comics Bulletin. Archived from the original on August 3, 2013. Retrieved August 3, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  76. Shooter, Jim (w), Pérez, George (p), Marcos, Pablo (i). "Beware the Ant-Man!" The Avengers 161 (July 1977)
  77. Shooter, Jim (w), Pérez, George (p), Marcos, Pablo (i). "The Bride of Ultron!" The Avengers 162 (August 1977)
  78. Shooter Jim (w), Byrne, John (p), Marcos Pablo (i). "To Fall by Treachery!" The Avengers 164 (October 1977)
  79. 79.0 79.1 Shooter Jim (w), Byrne, John (p), Marcos Pablo (i). "Hammer of Vengeance!" The Avengers 165 (November 1977)
  80. Shooter Jim (w), Byrne, John (p), Marcos Pablo (i). "Day of the Godslayer!" The Avengers 166 (December 1977)
  81. Shooter, Jim; Pérez, George; Buscema, Sal; Wenzel, David (2010). Avengers: The Korvac Saga. Marvel Comics. p. 240. ISBN 978-0-7851-4470-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  82. Sanderson "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 184: "Writer Jim Shooter and artist George Pérez began their saga pitting their seemingly omnipotent villain, Michael Korvac against Earth's Mightiest Heroes in The Avengers #167."
  83. Shooter, Jim (w), Pérez, George (p), Marcos, Pablo (i). "First Blood" The Avengers 168 (February 1978)
  84. Michelinie, David (w), Byrne, John (p), Day, Gene (i). "On The Matter Of Heroes!" The Avengers 181 (March 1979)
  85. Michelinie, David (w), Pérez, George (p), Rubinstein, Joe (i). "Interlude" The Avengers 194 (April 1980)
  86. Sanderson "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 190: "Readers learned how a mysterious woman, Magda, gave birth to the mutant twins at Wundagore Mountain before disappearing into the wilderness."
  87. Michelinie, David (w), Byrne, John (p), Janson, Klaus (i). "The Redoubtable Return of Crusher Creel!" The Avengers 183 (May 1979)
  88. Shooter, Jim (w), Hall, Bob (p), Green, Dan (i). "Court-Martial" The Avengers 213 (November 1981)
  89. Shooter, Jim (w), Hall, Bob (p), Green, Dan (i). "Double-Cross!" The Avengers 217 (March 1982)
  90. Stern, Roger (w), Milgrom, Al (p), Sinnott, Joe (i). "Final Curtain!" The Avengers 229 (March 1983)
  91. 91.0 91.1 Stern, Roger (w), Milgrom, Al (p), Sinnott, Joe (i). "The Last Farewell!" The Avengers 230 (April 1983)
  92. 92.0 92.1 Englehart, Steve (w), Milgrom, Al (p), Sinnott, Joe (i). "Lost in Space-Time Part 5: A Time for Every Purpose Under Heaven!" West Coast Avengers v2, 21 (June 1987)
  93. Stern, Roger (w), Hall, Bob (p), Sinnott, Joe (i). "Deceptions!" The Avengers 251 (January 1985)
  94. Stern, Roger (w), Hall, Bob (p), Sinnott, Joe (i). "Deciding Factor!" The Avengers 252 (February 1985)
  95. Stern, Roger (w), Hall, Bob (p), Akin, Ian; Garvey, Brian (i). "Conquering Vision" The Avengers 253 (March 1985)
  96. Stern, Roger (w), Hall, Bob (p), Rubinstein, Joe; DelBeato, Joe (i). "Absolute Vision" The Avengers 254 (April 1985)
  97. 97.0 97.1 Stern, Roger (w), Hall, Bob (p), Breeding, Brett (i). "Avengers Assemble!" West Coast Avengers 1 (September 1984)
  98. DeFalco "1980s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 219: "Hawkeye and his new wife, Mockingbird, were given the job of running the West Coast branch ... The initial four-issue limited series proved so popular that it became a regular monthly book that ran for 102 issues."
  99. Stern, Roger; Buscema, John (2010). Avengers: Under Siege. Marvel Comics. p. 160. ISBN 978-0-7851-4382-6.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  100. Stern, Roger; Buscema, John (2011). Avengers: Assault on Olympus. Marvel Comics. p. 192. ISBN 978-0-7851-5533-1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  101. Stern, Roger; Macchio, Ralph; Buscema, John (2013). Avengers: Heavy Metal. Marvel Comics. p. 200. ISBN 978-0-7851-8452-2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  102. Shooter, Jim (w), Colan, Gene (p), Green, Dan (i). "... By Force of Mind!" The Avengers 211 (September 1981)
  103. Shooter, Jim; Michelinie, David (w), Hall, Bob (p), Breeding, Brett (i). "... New Blood!" The Avengers 221 (July 1982)
  104. Stern, Roger (w), Buscema, Sal (p), Breeding, Brett (i). "Testing ... 1 ... 2 ... 3!" The Avengers 227 (January 1983)
  105. Stern, Roger (w), Milgrom, Al (p), Sinnott, Joe (i). "And Now ... Starfox!" The Avengers 232 (June 1983)
  106. Stern, Roger (w), Buscema, John (p), Palmer, Tom (i). "Many Brave Hearts ..." The Avengers 262 (December 1985)
  107. Manning "1980s" in Gilbert (2012), p. 129: "The Avengers were looking for some new blood, and once again Spider-Man's name had come up in discussion."
  108. Manning "1980s" in Gilbert (2012), p. 136: "Spidey still wouldn't make the team, receiving a veto from the National Security Council based on his rather spotty record"
  109. Nolen-Weathington, Eric (2007). Modern Masters Volume 12: Michael Golden. TwoMorrows Publishing. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-893905-74-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  110. DeFalco "1980s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 203: "When she first appeared, Rogue was a member of Mystique's Brotherhood of Evil Mutants."
  111. Stern, Roger (w), Buscema, John (p), Palmer, Tom (i). "Holocaust In A Hidden Land!" The Avengers 257 (July 1985)
  112. Stern, Roger (w), Buscema, John (p), Palmer, Tom (i). "Pressure" The Avengers 278 (April 1987)
  113. Byrne, John (w), Ryan, Paul (p), Palmer, Tom (i). "The Weakest Point" The Avengers 311 (December 1989)
  114. Nolen-Weathington, Eric; Ash, Roger (2006). Modern Masters, Volume 8: Walter Simonson. TwoMorrows Publishing. p. 65. ISBN 978-1-893905-64-1. I was pretty annoyed. I'd been working up storylines with permission for months, and watched it be eviscerated.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  115. Suiter, David (December 2013). "Avengers #300 The Mighty Avengers Celebrate Their Tricentennial Anniversary With a New Lineup". Back Issue!. TwoMorrows Publishing (69): 80–82.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  116. Byrne, John (w), Ryan, Paul (p), Palmer, Tom (i). "Avengers Assemble!" The Avengers 305 (July 1989)
  117. Housel, Rebecca; Wisnewski, J. Jeremy; Irwin, William (2009). X-Men and Philosophy: Astonishing Insight and Uncanny Argument in the Mutant X-Verse. Wiley. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-470-41340-1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  118. Hama, Larry (w), Ryan, Paul (p), Palmer, Tom (i). "Wind From the East" The Avengers 326 (November 1990)
  119. Harras, Bob (w), Epting, Steve (p), Palmer, Tom (i). "Empire's End" The Avengers 347 (May 1992)
  120. Manning, Matthew K. "1990s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 258
  121. Abnett, Dan; Lanning, Andy (w), Tenney, Tom (p), Garcia, Rey (i). "Daybreak" Force Works 1 (July 1994)
  122. Abnett, Dan; Lanning, Andy (w), Wildman, Andrew (p), Garcia, Rey (i). "Pain Threshold" Force Works 22 (April 1996)
  123. Manning "1990s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 280: "Another Heroes Reborn title, The Avengers was plotted and drawn by Rob Liefeld with a script by Jim Valentino. and additional pencils by Chap Yaep."
  124. Manning "1990s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 282: "Although the flashy excitement of the Heroes Reborn event had given fans a nostalgic visit to the early part of the decade, by the end of the year, Marvel had set the stage for the return to its time-honored classic lineup."
  125. Manning "1990s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 289: "At the top of [Marvel's] short list of dream artists for the Heroes Return project was George Pérez ... But when asked to both write and draw the title, Pérez declined the invitation, stating he would rather just pencil the book ... He did, however, suggest a writer that he wanted to work with - Kurt Busiek."
  126. Busiek, Kurt (w), Pérez, George (p), Vey, Al (i). "Pomp & Pageantry" The Avengers v3, 10 (November 1998)
  127. Busiek, Kurt (w), Pérez, George (p), Vey, Al (i). "... Always an Avenger!" The Avengers v3, 11 (December 1998)
  128. Busiek, Kurt; Pérez, George (2001). The Avengers: Ultron Unlimited. Marvel Comics. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-7851-0774-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  129. Busiek, Kurt; Davis, Alan; Dwyer, Kieron (2004). The Avengers: The Kang Dynasty. Marvel Comics. p. 384. ISBN 978-0-7851-0958-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  130. Bendis, Brian Michael; Finch, David (2006). Avengers Disassembled. Marvel Comics. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-7851-2294-4.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  131. Manning "2000s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 323: "Writer Brian Michael Bendis would turn the Avengers' world on its end with this shocking new crossover event drawn by artist David Finch. "
  132. Bendis, Brain Michael; Coipel, Olivier (2006). House of M. Marvel Comics. p. 224. ISBN 978-0-7851-1721-6.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  133. Cowsill, Alan "2000s" in Gilbert (2012), p. 289: "Spider-Man had always been thought of as a solo hero and one who wouldn't work well in a team. Writer Brian Michael Bendis shattered that myth in the mid-2000s when he made Spidey a member of the New Avengers."
  134. Manning "2000s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 324: "Superstar writer Brian Michael Bendis and artist David Finch relaunched the title under the name The New Avengers. The comic focused more on Marvel's arguably most popular super heroes."
  135. Bendis, Brian Michael (w), Cho, Frank (p), Cho, Frank (i). "The Mighty Avengers" The Mighty Avengers 1 (May 2007)
  136. Manning "2000s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 335: "With the help of artist Frank Cho, [Brian Michael] Bendis created the Mighty Avengers, a government-sponsored team that would serve as the antithesis to the still-underground New Avengers."
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  143. Bendis, Brian Michael (w), Romita Jr., John (p), Janson, Klaus; Palmer, Tom (i). "A favor? What sort of favor would you ask of Ultron, Tony Stark?"" The Avengers v4, 6 (December 2010)
  144. Loeb, Jeph (w), McGuinness, Ed (p), Farmer, Mark (i). "The Strongest There Is" The Hulk v2, 24 (October 2010)
  145. Parker, Jeff (w), Hardman, Gabriel (a). "Scorched Earth Part 1: Singularity" The Hulk v2, 25 (November 2010)
  146. Bendis, Brian Michael (w), Acuña, Daniel (p), Acuña, Daniel (i). "I don't know" The Avengers v4, 19 (January 2012)
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  1. From issue #41, all issues share legacy numbering for both volumes 1 and 3 on covers
  2. Series returns to original numbering

External links