|Nickname(s): The Granary of Rome|
|Coordinates: Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.|
|• President of special delegation||Ahlem Arfaoui|
|• Total||13.05 km2 (5.04 sq mi)|
|Elevation||222 m (728 ft)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
Beja (Tunisian Arabic: باجة Bāja, French: Béja) is a city in Tunisia, Africa. It is the capital of the Béja Governorate. It is located 105 kilometers (65 mi) from Tunis, between the Medjerdah River and the Mediterranean, against the foothills of the Khroumire, the town of Beja is situated on the sides of Djebel Acheb, facing the greening meadows, its white terraces and red roofs dominated by the imposing ruins of the old Roman fortress.
The city endured brutal assaults by the Carthaginians, the Numidians, the Romans, and, later on, by the Vandals. The Numidian king Jugurtha made the town his governing headquarters. Originally the town was named Waga, which became Vacca and then Vaga under the Romans and eventually Baja under the Arabs and Béja under the French.
The Romans destroyed the old Carthaginian citadel and replaced it with a new one; they built fortifications that are still standing today. Under the Roman domination, Béja became prosperous and was the center of a diocese. According to Sallust, who relates the details of the Jugurthine War between Jugurtha and Quintus Caecilius Metellus Numidicus to possess Béja, Béja was the wealthiest warehouse of the kingdom and the center of intense commerce.
The city was taken and destroyed by the Vandals. The citadel and ramparts were demolished. The abandoned town remained in that state for a century until the arrival of the Byzantines. They renovated the fortress and took real pleasure in beautifying Béja.
After the Umayyad conquest of North Africa, the city became part of the Umayyad Caliphate.
In 1880 France occupied Tunisia. On April 24, 1881 Béja in its turn was occupied by the column led by Logerot who had arrived from Algeria through the Kef.
Béja remains a picturesque city with wide horizons, a healthy climate and rich and fertile soil. Another distinctive feature is its family life, its traditional friendliness and hospitality towards foreigners.
World War II
On November 16, 1942 a German military delegation came to Béja to give Mayor Jean Hugon a 24 hours ultimatum to surrender the city. As a reaction to the ultimatum the latter informed civil governor Mr Clement who in turn sent the message to Algiers. The next day, November 17, the first parachuted British battalion landed on the hills north of the city. Thursday November 19 German planes bombed the town for the first time, as a warning. This broke the long period of peace Béja had known for many centuries. The next day, Friday November 20, Béja was furiously bombed by German airplanes for many hours, because of its key position leading to the roads of Tabarka, Mateur, Bizerte and Algeria. The town became the stage for ferocious battles between the Germans and the Allies who fiercely defended it, at the expense of severe military and civil losses. The final German assault Operation Ochsenkopf – was launched from Mateur and was halted 15 km from Béja, on the night of February 28, 1943 by British troops.
Located in Northwestern Tunisia on the White Hill and crossed by the Medjerda River, the features made the city famous for its fertile soil, Béja drew all the masters of the Mediterranean. The Phoenicians set up important trading posts. Their presence is felt through numerous Punic necropolis which have been unearthed in 1887. The Carthaginians, recognizing the importance of maintaining their authority in this area, built a garrison and fortified the town. Béja was extremely desirable, not only because of its fertile soil but because of its geographic location. It was at the doorway of the mountains and it was the crossroad for Carthage and Tunis going toward Cirta and Hippone.
|Climate data for Béja|
|Average high °C (°F)||13.
|Daily mean °C (°F)||9.3
|Average low °C (°F)||5.1
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||104
|Average precipitation days||13||12||10||11||7||3||1||2||9||9||11||15||103|
|Source #1: Levoyageur.net|
|Source #2: WeatherOnline|
The Béja is the chef-lieu of the Béja Governorate. The city is since July 13, 1887 a municipality, from that day to today there were built 3 town halls, the last one was built in 1933, the building is now a classified monument.
Like the rest of Tunisians, most of the Béjeans are Muslims with a small minority of irreligious. In the past there was a small community of Jews and a bigger one of Christians (most of them were European colons), but after the independence of Tunisia from France, all them quit the city to Europe, North America and Israel.
The city shelters many religion buildings like mosques, churches and synagogues. The oldest mosque of the town is Great Mosque of Béja which was build in 944 by the Fatimidis on an old Christian basilica, near it there is an other mosque, The Bey's Mosque, which was built in 1675 by Murad II Bey for Hanafi Muslims of the city and in 1685 Mohamed Bey El Mouradi added a Madrasa to the mosque.
After the settlement of the French protectorate in Tunisia, many Europeans come to the city to exploit the rich agricultural land, so to satisfy their religious demands the colonial authorities decided a church which was completed in 1883. After the increasing in number of colons in Béja, the church become too small for them, so the authorities decided to demolish it and build instead of it a bigger one, The Notre-Dame-du-Rosaire Church. After the independence of Tunisia and the migration of Christians from the country, the church become a cultural centre in Béja.
There are 15 elementary schools, 7 preparatory schools, 6 secondary schools and 3 educational institutes in Béja.
- Victor Hugo Elementary School
- Farhat Hached Elementary School
- Habib Bourguiba Avenue Elementary School
- El-Moustakbel Elementary School
- Sidi Fredj Elementary School
- El-Mahla Elementary School
- Ali El-Kalsadi Elementary School
- Ksar Bardo Elementary School
- Hay Essoker 1 Elementary School
- Hay Essoker 2 Elementary School
- El-Mzara Elementary School
- Al-Iadhi Al-Béji Elementary School
- Ali Al-Qalsadi Preparatory School
- Ibn Al-Jazar Preparatory School
- Habib Bourguiba Avenue Preparatory School
- Rached Preparatory School
- Béja Al*Moustakbel Preparatory School
- Al-Houria Preparatory School
- Ibn-Arafa Preparatory School
- Ibn Al-Haytham Secondary School
- Ibn Al-Jazzar Secondary School
- March 2, 1934 Secondary School
- Al-Biaa Secondary School
- Ali Belhouane Secondary School
- Omar Kalchani Secondary School
- Higher Institute of Technological Studies of Béja
- Higher Institute of Biotechnology of Béja
- Higher Institute of Applied Languages and Computer of Béja
- Mohamed Arbi Zarrouk Khaznadar – 4th Grand Vizir of Tunisia from 1815 to 1822 (born in Le Bardo but his family is from Béja)
- Ismaïl Fathali – Tunisian Army Chief of Staff
- Wassila Ben Ammar – 2sd Tunisian First Lady from 1962 to 1986
- Ammar Farhat – Famous Tunisian painter
- Slaheddine Ben Mbarek – Former Tunisian minister of National Economy, Commerce, Industry and Agriculture
- Pierre Durin – Former Footballer
- Guy Bono – Former French MEP from The Socialist Party
- Neji Jouini – Former football referee
- Mohamed Ali Yousfi – Writer and translator
- Maurice Audin – Mathematician, member of the Algerian Communist Party and an activist in the anticolonialist cause
- Adnene Chaouachi – Famous Tunisian singer
- Rafiq Belhaj Kacem – Former minister of the Interior
- Afouène Gharbi – Footballer
- Sofiane Labidi – Sprinter
- Moïne Chaâbani – Footballer
- Zouheïra Salem – Famous Tunisian singer
- Mohamed Sayari – Famous Tunisian actor and theatre director
- Chaker Zouagi – Footballer
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Béja.|
- (French) Site officiel de la municipalité de Béja
- (French) 250 cartes postales anciennes de Béja (1900–1950)
- ↑ Exploring and Explaining Diversity in Agricultural Technology by Annelou van Gijn, John Whittaker, Patricia . page 147
- ↑ (French) Données climatiques annuelles (Levoyageur.net)
- ↑ (French) Statistiques climatiques de Béja (WeatherOnline)
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- Populated places in Tunisia
- Communes of Tunisia
- Populated places in Béja Governorate
- Cities in Tunisia