Barbara of Cilli
|Barbara of Cilli|
|Holy Roman Empress|
|Queen consort of the Romans|
|Queen consort of Hungary|
|Queen consort of Bohemia|
|Died||11 July 1451|
|Spouse||Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor|
|Issue||Elisabeth of Luxembourg|
|House||House of Cilli|
|Father||Herman II, Count of Celje|
|Mother||Countess Anna of Schaunberg|
Barbara of Cilli (1392 – 11 July 1451) was the spouse of Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund and as such Holy Roman Empress. She was by marriage also Queen of Hungary and Bohemia. She was actively involved in politics and economy of her times, independently administering large feudal fiefdoms and taxes, and was instrumental in creating famous royal Order of the Dragon. She served as the regent of Hungarian kingdom in the absence of her husband.
Barbara was engaged in 1401 and married in 1405 or 1408 to Sigismund of Luxemburg, King of Hungary, a younger son of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor who later succeeded to the rule in Germany (1410), Bohemia (1419) and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor himself in 1433. The marriage likely took place in 1405, but there is no clear confirmation until 1408, when she was crowned queen of Hungary.
Barbara spent most of her time on her Hungarian fiefdoms, while her spouse devoted his time elsewhere. She served as the regent of Hungary during his absences in 1412, 1414, 1416 and 1418. In 1429, she participated at the congress of Łuck. She was crowned queen of Hungary in 1408, queen of Germany in 1414, Holy Roman Empress in 1433 and queen of Bohemia in 1433. She is remembered by many contemporaries as emperor's young, vital and beautiful consort at the Council of Constance.
Day before the death of her gravely ill husband on 9 December 1437 at Znojmo, as a pretext to confiscate her large fiefdoms in the Hungarian kingdom (where she rivaled the king himself in number of fiefdoms and castles), she was quickly accused by her son-in-law Albert II of Germany of the Habsburg dynasty and his chancellor Kaspar Schlick of plotting against Sigismund, for which she was swiftly transported to prison in Bratislava castle and later forced to relinquish most of her possessions, including her dowry. Conflict with the new king was inevitable, and Barbara soon decided to find shelter in the Polish royal court, where she was in exile from 1438 to 1441. The Polish king decided to give her financial support by granting her Sandomierz as a fief, according to the chronicle of Jan Długosz.
In 1441, two years after the death of her arch-rival King Albert II of Germany, she moved to Mělník in Bohemia - a fiefdom given to her by her deceased husband. All her Hungarian fiefdoms were already lost; some of them belonged to her daughter, Queen Elisabeth. Later she reconciled with her daughter and renounced her rights to Hungarian possessions (1441). She spent the rest of her life as dowager queen in Bohemia. She seems to have retreated from political life, although the Habsburg court saw her as dangerous and tried to accuse her of heresy, alchemy, and immoral and agnostic behavior, for which she received the sobriquet "Messalina of Germany". She died of the plague epidemic in Mělník and was buried in St. Andrew's chapel of St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague.
References to Barbara of Cilli in Literature
Barbara is featured as the main character in the wraparound narrative of the story collection Waggish Tales of the Czechs. Referred to as "Queen Barbota," Barbara is portrayed as a somewhat ribald character who, bedridden and bored during her pregnancy, engages her women-in-waiting in telling her moral tales. According to the book's foreword, these are "lusty, uproarious, sometimes cruelly brutal yarns, recited with the coarse gusto and abounding virility of a healthy outdoor people." Queen Barbota takes great delight in them.
- Jan Długosz (1415–1480) - ANNALS OR CHRONICLES http://staropolska.pl/ang/middleages/Sec_prose/Dlugosz.php3
- Duggan, Anne J. (2002). Queens and Queenship in Medieval Europe: Proceedings of a Conference Held at King's College London, April 1995. Boydell Press. ISBN 0-85115-881-1.
- Lockridge, Norman (1947). Waggish Tales of the Czechs The Candide Press, New York.
- BAUM, Wilhelm. Císař Zikmund. Kostnice, Hus a války proti Turkům. Praha : Mladá fronta, 1996. 405 s. ISBN 80-204-0543-7.
- ČECHURA, Jaroslav. České země v letech 1378-1437. Lucemburkové na českém trůně II. Praha : Libri, 2000. 438 s. ISBN 80-85983-98-2.
- ČORNEJ, Petr. Velké dějiny zemí Koruny české V. 1402-1437. Praha : Paseka, 2000. 790 s. ISBN 80-7185-296-1.
- DLUHOSZ, Jan. The Annals of Jan Dlugosz: A History of Eastern Europe from A.D. 965 to A.D. 1480. Chichester, IM Publications LLP. 1997. ISBN 1901019004
- DVORAKOVA, Daniela. Barbora Celjska. Cierna kralovna. Zivotny pribeh uhorskej, rimsko-nemeckej a ceskej kralovnej. 1392-1451. Budmerice-Bratislava, 2013. ISBN 978-80-85501-60-5
- ENGEL, Pál – C. Tóth Norbert: Borbála királyné itineráriuma (1405–1438), Itineraria Regum et Reginarum (1382–1438), MTA Támogatott Kutatóhelyek Irodája, Budapest, 169-187, 2005
- HOENSCH, Jörg Konrad. Lucemburkové. Pozdně středověká dynastie celoevropského významu 1308–1437. Praha : Argo, 2003. 304 s. ISBN 80-7203-518-5.
- HOENSCH, Jörg K.: Kaiser Sigismund. Herrscher an der Schwelle zur Neuzeit 1368-1437, Verlag C.H. Beck, München, 1996 URL: Lásd Külső hivatkozások
- KAVKA, František. Poslední Lucemburk na českém trůně. Králem uprostřed revoluce. Praha : Mladá fronta, 1998. 290 s. ISBN 80-204-0680-8.
- Mályusz, Elemér: Zsigmond király uralma Magyarországon 1387–1437, Gondolat, Budapest, 1984.
- Pálosfalvi, Tamás: Borbála és a Cilleiek, História, 2006 URL: Lásd Külső hivatkozások
- Sandi Sitar: Sto slovenskih znanstvenikov, zdravnikov in tehnikov (Hundert slowenische Wissenschaftler, Ärzte und Techniker), Ljubljana 1987, Beitrag 8. Barbara Celjska – Cesarica z retortami – astrologinja in alkimistka (ok. 1387–1451) (Barbara von Cilli – Kaiserin mit Retorten – Astrologin und Alchimistin (um 1387–1451))
- Schönherr, Gyula: Az Anjou-ház örökösei, in: Szilágyi Sándor szerk.: A magyar nemzet története III., Budapest, Athenaeum, 1895. URL: Lásd Külső hivatkozások
- Szathmáry, László: Alkémisták a magyar királyi udvarban, Természettudományi Közlöny, 60. kötet, 1928. február 1. URL: Lásd Külső hivatkozások
- Wertner, Mór: A középkori délszláv uralkodók genealogiai története, Temesvár, 1891.
- Windecke, Eberhard: Eberhard Windecke emlékirata Zsigmond királyról és koráról (ford.: Skorka Renáta) = História Könyvtár – Elbeszélő források 1. (sorozatszerkesztő: Glatz Ferenc), MTA Történettudományi Intézete, História Alapítvány, 2008.
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