Battle of Çamurlu

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Battle of Çamurlu
Part of the Ottoman Interregnum
Date 5 July 1413
Location Çamurlu, near modern day Samokov, Bulgaria[1]
Result Victory for Mehmed I
Reunification of the Ottoman Empire
Forces of Musa Çelebi Forces of Mehmed I (Mehmed Çelebi)
Commanders and leaders
Musa Çelebi  Executed Mehmed I (Mehmed Çelebi)
Stefan Lazarević
Unknown 10,000

The Battle of Çamurlu was fought on July 5, 1413, between Musa Çelebi and Mehmed Çelebi, both sons of Bayezid I, as the last conflict of the Ottoman civil war known as the Ottoman Interregnum. The battle decided which son of Bayezid I would finally reunite the Ottoman Empire, with Mehmed Çelebi becoming Mehmed I of the Ottoman Empire.

Mehmed's invasion and final battle

After suppressing Cüneyt Bey's revolt, Mehmed Çelebi gathered his troops at Ankara. With his Dulkadirid father-in-law, he began planning an invasion of Rumelia (the European part of the empire and Musa's stronghold) to defeat his brother, Musa. On his march to Bursa, Mehmed gained contingents of troops from western Anatolia. Upon reaching the straits, Mehmed's army was given passage by ships loaned from Manuel II Palaiologos, who also supplied Mehmed with some troops.

Mehmed marched his army from Constantinople to Edirne. He then marched onto Kosovo to join forces with his ally (and also half-uncle) Serbian ruler Stefan Lazarević, along with receiving information from Ewrenos concerning possible defections during the battle.[2]

Both armies met at Çamurlu, near modern day Samokov, to the south east of Sofia, Bulgaria. Initially, Musa appeared to be winning the battle despite the defection of Pasha Yigit and Sinan Bey of Trikkala.[2] However, the tide of the battle turned in favor of Mehmed, with the help of Serb and Byzantine troops, and Musa Çelebi fled.[3]


Following the battle, Musa Çelebi was captured and strangled.[4] This battle re-established the unity of the Ottoman state, under the control of Mehmed I.[5]


  1. International encyclopaedia of Islamic dynasties, Ed. Nagendra Kr Singh, (Anmol Publications Pvt.Ltd., 2005), 77.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Encyclopedia of Islam, Vol. 7, Ed. C. E. Bosworth, E. Van Donzel, W. P. Heinrichs and Ch. Pellat, (E.J.Brill, 1993), 699.
  3. Bertold Spuler, Frank Ronald Charles Bagley, Hans Joachim Kissling, The Last Great Muslim Empires: History of the Muslim World, (Markus Weiner Publishers, 1996), 14.
  4. Nicol, Donald MacGillivray, The last centuries of Byzantium, 1261–1453, (Cambridge University Press, 1972), 327.
  5. First Encyclopaedia of Islam 1913–1936, Ed. M. Th Houtsma, (BRILL, 1993), 658.